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Agriculture Horticulture, Mechanic Arts and Science, Domestic and Rural Economy, Literature, Education, General Intelligence, j 

The Markets, etc, etc. 

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Agrlcriltur*, conrirentlona od. . . .lis, 141, 157 
152,21", 349.37* 

— Buglisb lad do' loro of 14 

— In California 302 

— In Kngland 938 

— Inllliuols 

— In ton 46, 222, 286, 309 

— In L*™1* Co 948 

— In Minnesota > 

— la Nebraska **' 

— Id Now Jers-r 251 

— Id Sandwich labindj 370 

— Ir. Virginia 27° 

— lu Wisconsin 302 

— Scientific 62, 841 

-teste In ™< 

.. . .201, 81 '.'. 'i 









..... .c, 23,898 

0,14. M 




.... 70 











— Weetern .Vow York.... 
Agricultural Circulars. • • • 

— Bailor, death of an. . . . 

— l'rees 

— Society, Connecticut. . . 


Journal of lbs 0. 8.. 

1-Cwi.S CO 

Michigan Slate 

MnDroe co 

Now York State. . . . 

Transactions . . 

Pennsylvania 9lel* . . 

Kepmt of Oblo Suta. . . 

United blatsa 

V irglniaSate 

Vermont Slnto 

Ammonia In rain and snow. . . 

Animals a word for 

Architecture, Rural 

Barley, cultivation of 

— Hindoo. . ■ 

— Nrpaul 

— M horse food 

— tor ipiiai pasture. . 
Barn. atihnker 

— ii F«o«ylvnnla. . . . 

Barnyards, covered 83 

Beans, culture of 86, 133, ISO 

— harvesting of 310 

lleeC, salting 14 

Bee*, about 230 

— do King birds kill 230 

-wearing '• 

— •wallow, kill 1X8, IBS 

lle*t,eugar 04 

lionet, save the old 29 

Buckwheat, a.« manure 110, 222 

— raloo of 1"3 

Bugs, squash 11° 

tor for 1W 

Buclies, destruction of 206 

Batter, land for 374 

-"** .v.v.:::::-::.:::.:S 



— sods to preserve 
Butlsr-maklng. . . 

Id Winter 

Calf with three legs. . 
Calves, good 

— rearing of 

Carrtita, a crop of . . . . 

— for cowl 

— eeluo of 


Caahmsre goals 


Cattle, Ayrshire 

— breed* nf 

— ground food for. 



.157, 205,262,331 










— sbnuid liioy bo fed three Umea a day. .29, 40 
-Jersey IM 

— thow. National 118,238,350 


— tolling »f. pasturing 325 


Charcoal an an attiorbant 940 

Cheese, aa a digester 222 

-making 263.20] 

Chemistry of Common Life, 

Chornlnir in Winter 29 

Cider mills 

Cutn-na 29, 202, 858,874, 332, 395, 400 

rnahor 21 

Clonr, Al>yko 

— amor.,: corn 840 

— manuro lor 230 

— plowlug in 

-Vied... 30.54,70 

_K«d 213 170, 

lowing 7S, 11 

.i-ns.ld- ••• JJ 

Corn, » ciou of 0, I , II I 

— aualviis of 70 

— oebc* lor ' 

-Broom 14,3u,S4."i I ■ 

seed forshoep 202 

— CObs, fftlDw Of *^9 

— compost lor 

— ol rajgfog -'-• 8a 


Fair JIOD-ne Co 

— New York «l*lo. . . 

— Niagara Co.. . . 

— Old • Sinus 

. . 34, 834,350 



— PavLloa Towu 

— Steuben Co.. . 


at the W.-t 

— food, dlsuao of 

— for fodder 

— for export • 

— for soiling 

— Guano for 

— hilling r». Oil culture. . . 

— In Iudlaua. 

, 214 

102, 182,338 




— Upper Canada - 

P.iia.Uido County 230 

— do J 

— X. Y . Stale and County £22, 2c 2, - 

Fellows, maimer -I 

Farm accounts 102 

— Diaries 

— how top ty for a 

— In .Niagara Co - 

— of I>. P. T. More ! 

-r. rr on lit" 45, 63 

— and records 413 

■ iihioco ralue of Ibe 1 1 

Farm, re, aoN ico to 64 

— American In Palestine 

-Club 841, 

— going West I) 

— should road morn 

— the encoeaa of 

— rrrlU lor yonr Journals 

1 ig as an occupation 

—In China 

— Id North Carolina 30 

— thrifty and unlbiifly 317 

— want of cipilul In 

Feeding In sainmor '« 

1 of nlirosau la ' 

Feed liberally 

, a bjard 390 

— a cheap 

— door-yard 

— durable 

— posts for. ■■■■ ■■..■■ 78 

Held of tho Slothful, the 

Flu, culluro of 1 

Pol '., look to your 138 

Fowls, frstherleee 64 

— lai. I. for breeding I 

— preparing for markut 350 

— to fatten 310 

Foul In tuo font 390 

Fuel, unseasoned 37 

Gapes in cbickeni 193 

Gale. 23 

Grains and grasses 118, 134, 149, 165, 205 

Grass, couch orquack. ■ 110, 300 

Buckwbteal to kill 197 

undordraluing to kUI 163, 174, 182, 213,158 

— headlands 134, 107 

— teed sowing In Tall 209, 802, 310 

— Willi. .r,i Brotnai 264 

barroatlng 293 

— Old Colony awoet 70 

— pr. paring teed 110 

— tmulln 294 

— tlalka, ralue of ....134 

— Slow II 

— . uckerlng of 106 

— NUperpbotpbate for 381 

— topping .1/ ■ •••-■-' 

Coli-K" - . liural 109 

— 8wl« -U 

— tymuif'trlcal. 

Coa'ncil III11H. 174 

Comandcalrai. 109 

— care of 93 

— aiperimcnU on 63 

-fbl ! tOl ; ■■-!' 

— prollUblo 40, 3i7 




317, 3vJ 



, 150 







llama, curing of 357, 400 

Uarrow, Anderaon't liUngular 280 

— for graju teed 374 

H»y, a ci op of 210 

— from a recblmed meadow 278 

— half-rolled 390 

— In Ma'-arhuioltx 80 

— rulei for me.nuremcnt of. ..0, 46, 54, 04, 110 

— tuhiiiluteslur 30 

— .tacking '205 

— time for catling 190 

— c». guhl 70 

llnylng and horrettlng 

Graaiea for pasture. 

Gravity, cuiier of 

Guano for corn 

— for potatoes. . . 

— for sugar cano. 

— fur turnips. .. . 

— for wheat. . • . 

— from Qah. ... 

— Ilmo Willi 

— Mexican 

— Perurian .... 

— plowing to. . . 
use of 

lleares, cure for 
Uons, InduKlrinul. . • , 

— prolliHof keplug. .. 1 

— to make la) . . . 





Hint. Ibr tho teason. ..85, 278, 291, 868, 

Hoj', apple- for ; - 

■ food for 6, 400 


HomropailiT, velerlnarj -'o2 

Hi i ' '» lu 

— manure for US 


Honrs, Arabian 

— luliiiiiiUleilugroedlcloo for. 

— It, o.log of 

— botuin 

— 1 Iruilineii and comfort of. 

— oblblllon of. 

— galls on. 

. . .102 
. .398 
. . 18 
... 'I 
. .342 
169, 230 

— .tabliu,: . . 1 



— wintering of milch .305 

Crow lo Canada 202 

— in Great Britain 13 

— In Maine *« 

— in OnondafaCu 3*4 

— In Seneca Co -J70 

— lo Stcnbcn Co 2M 

— in tho wirt :;' 

— Yale. Co *^? 

— premium ' 

Cu.iur.-. clean i*J 

— de»p •> 

Col Food • ■ 

Borons, as milkers 

— in am irw 

BOrl Hums 

Ilralii>. kl .ben 

Drill, KuglUh reed 

llrouth. tirvs from " 

DnckMrwlninr of wild S,4 

Eggs, prascrration of 109 

ie- and employed 53, 61 

Kngland, letter from .38 

Etrea, Is barter gool for 1'.". 181 Caaeboiia Town .»0 

— i:ii 1 . i ' °7° 

— Kngllsli Agricultural Socle'.J 254 

— Erie Co 336 

— Frnnrr Town 330 

— !-• Boy Town -J34 

— Madison Co JSO 

— Michigan SUte 3lB 


. Jl 


— misjnanae uient of. . . ... KB 

— taleol MO 

— to know tho agn ol 

— S*4 

— vlottl riunngriiienl of 5 

Uone Doctor, Uodorn •<- 

Hoi ... Raeo In Sindwich bdaoda :i 

Hon.. BhOtr. Penn. and Ohio 

Kbn.lo l.Und 

I - 1 • 2..:>. ;;■.'< 

In. ol.j».. n 115 

Irrigation 39S 

Johnny-cake pbllo«ophr '•■ .1 

land, poor made proUlable 382 

Lice ou chickens 

-lokdl IB, [83 

Uxne, and iu chemical changes 873 

— ua fertllisrr 37 

— Oy.Ur-aholl :l " 

M.. • ra'Jnn of il y 

— artificial hambugs 8S9 

— barn-yard ISO 

— bono. as. ■ • • • 181, 208 

— aa 110,222 

— cloror for 16JB 

— flab, manulacturo of 405 

— frost as a SO 

.. . ,230 

— for clover 

— leave* aa 

— loaebed nsbes at ... . 

— 11 urii. notdi 1 1 Of. • • 

— saw-dust u 1 

— n»w crags. • 

— special tboory of. . • 

— woolo > rags as 






157,105, 173 


Mares, breeding from diseased 244, 209 

Marl 86. 166 

Marshes, improrementof 21,69,277.373 

Meadows, clearing and Improving 

Meteorological Observations 230 

.Miil-t 6,22 

Model Farm, do we want a 21 

Mowing --I 


N'.,i. • from my Correspondence 85,245 


Oab. 149,408 

Oll-cake 70 

Oidins, ciilUfstlon of 150, 158, 173 

!'....• ii. lags. 206 

Per-nips 6,22,93 

IV., Hie Jspin 22 

I' ..-1 u: 293 

Pcsa,cultiraliu3 o! Ill 

— Oregon -H, 946, UO, 301, 838 

Phenomenon, r» strange -9 

Plot C'Ufornls 289 

-tiding of 286,286,293,30, 

1 1, r.rtlllser 53, 198 

-rorpeas 87.109 

— for potaloes - • '"' *6.2«6 

flow. 1h« gang , « 

— Maps.' subsoil "' 

Plowing, deep 70, 190, 302 

— (ill 14,29, 102,302,399,310 

— oi.j.-cl ol 61 

— rabwU 183, 

pork, curing of, 

I'o.l., viiarrmgof 94. 150 

1 toss 69, 3IS 

— asbe. 00 296 

— Ghsvrcoea'dustfor "' 

— culture of SO, Hi. UO 

— disease 5, 134, 158, 223, 3 ' 

1 ->ey Impoverish the sou 3'>. 

— fall manuring 

— Ouanofor 367,389 

— In drills 54 

— peat for 302 

— planting small VJt 

— leolob tiu;k il" 

— slarcb In 8, 

— storing of. ... 

— sweet 88,24 

Poultry, nunsgemeut ol 14, 194, N. Y.Siato 22.09 

NulioLil 22,02,70 

— .0.-1 ...:, . Stale 

— One fowl. 409 

- .1 appearance of 

Products, cluing* of, .v. 1 : 405 

Pumpkin, the 

-I..rg« 198 

BsyJish, fir stock 6 

Rata, how lo gel rid of ■ I I 

Reiprr, Forbatb't 180 

— Palmornnd Williams- 157 

Roadi 174 

Rice, culluro of -54 

Holler, liielielJ 4"6 

Roots, crop of "7 

— rullu.eor 218 

-derlb Ol 46 

Rural toils readers •'• 

: k-rnphy 09,93 

— wlllftpAy to take tli 14 

Itje. and lb> cultlratioa .961 

— multioilo 293 

Salt in reeding cattlo 397 

— Liverpool cs. Onondaga. 131 

Scales, platform 

Seed, canary 246 

— clover 213 

— saving grass 214 

— sowing clotor 77 

— squash 54 

— steeping of 166 

— snn-llower 270 

— turulp 77 

— unripe 191 

Secd-liino end iU labors 117. I -'6 

Shade trees 

— injurious >'-' 

Sbecp, coarse and flne-wooled 2i.', i.1'1 

i.wold HA'. 978 

— diseases In England 1 10 

— dipping apparatus 213 

— rarm« Improrcd by keeping 285 

— French plarfnOl 2*4 

— husbandry 374 

— proBU or keeping 118 

-reck 0.374 

— shelter for 30, 393 

— Bouth Down.. 238, 270, J ". I 

— stretches In 78, 102 

— lick., tobacco for llu 

— washing 198 

Shelter, economy or 6 

Short-horns, Chapman's 200 

Snow drill* '. 22 

Soils, analy.:. of 39 

— depth and melluwneas 300, Hie 397 

Boiling, croptfor 149 

Spring time riaU 77 

Squash, sweet polato Bfl 

'cm daily M6 

non of 806 

Block, caro of Id spring I4S 

— earsiof in wmtei 33,358 

— for the Wc»l 23* 

— Importing Co , Li.lngslon Co I 19, 1 1 

UuBoogl 91 

. ;; " 

— on high wait 309 

— mloor iioiorled 270 

-salt for 70,1-1, II" 

— waim water for 102 

Straw and stalk cutters '- 1 

Stray notes 14 

Stump machine 40,91,211 

Soger, best root, 46, 102 

man 01 

8 ilphato ■■! lime '■ 

S opt rpli-pbatoof HlDO.. 13,99 10, 1 110, I I 
Ill, K.o, IDT, 198 199,1 ■". '- II 

— for corn 381 

6wlo«,fsIteolng of 

ran 01 rotobea 09, 110 

. lo dcalroy 190 

Tcoicr'a Writings, sntruu from 

Tillsgr, tho Heaaton tytlem iT J 

Timber, when to cut 189 

America 229 

1 . charcoal to fatten 280 

— for breeders 233 

Tuinipa,acrop of 2o0 

-enlinroof 107,938 

—hoeing 27a 

— In France 398 

— rs. Mange! VTuneli 253 

— prmrrallon of -'X 1 

— - 1 Trench 101 

Undr .draining - 0.40, 149.189 

Urine I' 

.-bloody 14 

Yegetabletnattar in tolls 31", 

VezeUblra, carl on in 22 

Vco-nuarj, llooieopaUir ■ -90S 

Vinegar, maoureclure of 317 

Weeds, double plating to kill. 141 

Weevil, a deetructlre 278 

— good tllUge, a remedy for 

Wells, Artesian 1"2 

— Impure air in 390 

Wheal, after corn _--2*6 

— a good crop 6, 37, 101 

— a purifier of tho atmosphere 222 

-culture of 229. 237, 246 

in United States 310 

— deterioration o( 350 

— F.gyptlao «g 

— fallowing fur t 181 

— good lillrge for 350 

— hoeing 1W 

— harrowiDgio spring 350 

— .Improving 

— In England 190, 978, J I 

— in Massachusetts 340 

— lime andashss fur 27] 

— Medlteranean 889, 400 

— ni'ueral maourcs for 190 

— pliaior on lu till 9*6 

— price or 46 

— pioepecta or ■ '••■s** 

— smut In IW 

— Spring "8,1" 

" culture of 101, IM 

— tho we pl«« ultra 362 

-weerllf 211 170. 277 

WIUow, Osier or basket .. . 

Wine, recipe for making 261 

Wloter lo Kent Co Mich 117 

Wood for foel 3*' 

— bouse... ro 

WOOl, American 118 

— growing In Tonnesseo 39" 

Worues, «ir 70, 102,117.143 

Tellow-water 04,102 


Afl*:-CuHure of Transplanted Trees. . . . 19] 

Anonalv Cultlriiion o( 8J 

Apple-, Bitter-i"t in 803 

— examine your 7 

— luu-k^t 4,7 

— Ssretl 

— three new Se-dbng I 

— to keep 

— Western. . 7 

Apple. Uldley 39 

— tlubbardstoo Nonsuch 119 

— backer IB 

— '■ UrUHrO Spy "9 

— Red Astraran 375 

— Swlteh Willow 1 

— seeding 191 

■., cn.t of in Oregon -'-I 

— ; ... ipklm County ■ ' ' 

— in r new Bnwmy of tho 81 1 

— trrea fnjm ^eeds 

Pruning., 119 

Arbor Vitae 1 I 

Alb, llorvering I I 

Aspkragua, castora of 95, 135 

— U QrosrUi, &c 3*1 

Atmospheric pressure on Plants 383 

Harti up a lfr», e-. jerimeut In 359 

Bedding out phiuta IBS 

Black w,rU I 

Blackberry, New Kochelle or Lawiou. . . .2ii 

Budding or Inoculation 817, 263 

-time for - - ..2-7 

Buds, triug down 295 

Burnt cUy 383 

Oabbagea 79 

— prejserTln. In Winter 351, 3n7 

Calandrlna Spedosa 161 

California Sugar plants 22.1 

Camphor e» pea bugs 279 

.-•uft and SalplglOtslt Ill 

Ca'i-rpitlar'segga 7 

CaterplUar, the Ai-erlcan lent Ill 

Cedars grown foom Cuttings 255 

Cherry, grafting the 95 

— nr l'ear Slug 231 

— ttont, germinatjnn or 271 

ITonvolvafua, dwarf 1^5 

Coontry and suburban Resldoncel 215 

Cranberries, cultivsllon of 1, 110 

— upland 37, '227 

Cucumber, excellent way to grow 151 

— Neglei. ■ JeedUng 327 

— vine, great yield of a 271 

pluciilug 255 

Curcullo, ashes for the 79 

— about the 158,981 

— Mathew's rorasdy for 367 

Currants and Currant bnthet 175 

— London 231 

Cypress, large Deeiduoua 23 

DsiillA,abouithe IK3 

— worm, rvmedy wanted 151 

Depth w. Drouth 167 

Dlelytra SpeclaMlls 391 

Diffusion of sred. . . • • • 279 

Double Sweet William . , 407 

Druuiinnna'l l'bloK 159 

, the New 878 

Evergreens, pruniDg • 217 

— telling oat 231 

Farmer-. Gardcna. Soleet list of Frulli.287, 279 

Fig trees California 391 

Fio.cering shrnbis. 71 

Flower seeds, sowtug 167 

airing 246 

Flowers and perfumery 223 

Floral Eshlbltlon, French 231 

Frost, ellect of on vegetables .437 

Fruit, culture of 71 

We.Uim 303 

— crop of tho South 1 I 

— drying ' 

— ilard-Miinoog Ferment 271 

— lo cellars 883 

— In the North Weal 

— improving, he -i I 

— notice of early 143 

— preservation of 310 

— to keep Birds bom 169 

-tree..: 167 


cuttings of 351 

fooidlu 79 

manure for. 375 

. i,. l r sheila for 869 

Potash wrier for 373 

protection for 103, 191 

larrlng 18 

Iran-planting 89 

Fruits, ell, .-ts of Climate on 848 

— for gsoeral cultlratioa. . . • '- 1 

. efjtjdj : ' ,,:t 

-, Pearl ol l.uglaod 978 

— tbo Sorralifolla 

—the msgniflesmt 

■ 'i and llrchard, the 7 

-aeiar «« 

— oODMfarthe 107 

— erpenroent (or the 

— Permit's, th.. 96 

— Liquid Uaourr for tho 399 

— lloatl fruit and doner 

— profitable, a 

— .eeds, raising 65,231 

— Spring hints for the 127 

— value ola 9JB 

— Tcgelablo tho 95 

— walks. Grass on 247, 399 

Gardening for the Young 2uo 

I '..irdena, killing ants In 

— Hi.,; aevoi (all UB 

— ffondrnorKew 16,31,55 

German ten week Stock 98 

Girdled trees 191 

Golden Bartonia '67 

Gooseberry, Houchion's aeedllng 176, an 


its, mulching 176,207,133 

Good thoughts Iron) a Letter 39 

Grafting, aoout HO 

— good fruit without 147.203 

Grapery, the «23 

Grape. Aliens' Hybrid 1 1 

— culture under glass -113 

— Concord 111.370 

— Delaware 4 ; 

— mildew on *7 

— Prince Albert 16 

— seedling, a 313 

Shaker 303 

— rlnca, narren 270, 348 

""■: ":'■' 

pruning ov 

Autumn 981 

Summer 2*7 

Winter 15 

rraorating old 95 

thorough Dralasgs for 387 

Grapes as House plants '-'17 

— early ripening of 991 

— on trees 127 

_nr.wrrlngfn.-h 303,351 

— Pomologlual Gossip on BB 

— special manure for 71 

Guam tho 180 

Hedges, planting 1— 

-Hemlock. . . 330 

Hints Intlcglnoer 199, 2U7 

Ho* early 175 

Hollyhock, propagation oT 2*9'. 

Horticultural F-.Utdul— lent, a model I S3 

— Review, nolle* or 69 

— Show, Gex. eeee Vallev 207 

— Society, Buffalo 63 

Genesee Valley 39,47 

I'loral Society, efasxichutatt-.. . I 

Hot neda, their use*, construction, Ac,. . . . 

Hyarlnlht in pot- aod glass 

Insect peats - • -. .143 

and Grass plots 143 

Lima Beans Ac, sbonenlng iu 

I.i.iiin, dw.irf .....' 

VI dope -od Nemoplla 

M mure f.r fruit trees :;7.'. 

Ui Ijn ling, turuip Of, &c 175 

• Iron 16 

rustles, of 335 

Mildew, to deslory 

Nemnpbila. Ho- I" . 

.Vol in eg tree, liie 

I'i.ia 138 

uriinn", culll.nUoD of .143 

r.* Farm, a tale for Hard Times . . . .339 

' inlxr 

llrchard., cultivating 

— puutiinr 83,407 

— pr.| u-.'ion or sells for 3M 

— renovnUon or old 161 

— sawduatfor young 119,101 

Orchard di-e&se, an 

— premium 359 

Parka and Pleasure Grounds 307 

Pea, Flack's Imperial 319 

P-'urrvClargean :i1 ' 

— German, a 183 

— growing in England, profits of 391 

— Hampton . Cluater ' 

— Kirtlntol (Prof) on the 71 

— or f'b'rrt slug 247 

— Pbll.del,. 1,11,11... 

— St. HhUlaln 7,167 

— tress, cultivation or 23 

dt| land for 161 

lu California 359 

leaf bli»h tin 811 

— — manure for...... .255 

near Smith .bops 79 

remarkable 79 

— ve.'. tiilile. something row 71 

— I i.-ar or Wlnkfleld "9 

Pears, Dwarf 271 

failure of ' 

Injunr to 191 

mulching 263 

on Quince ttoclu 56,247 

pruning 05 

— for Quince stock" 811 

— grafting on the Mountain Ash. ..... .127 

— ri| inlng 263 

— Winter Nellis, largo 399 

Peach blo-Joms 175,223 

— cultivation of tho 28, 169, 167 

-Grubs, to destory Ill, 127, 143,255 

— Hampton's Rareripe 207 

— Now seedling 303 

— successful grafting of tho 39 

— trade of Monroe county - 327 

— trees for foel 16 

Shortening in 47,87, 161 

— worm • • • -163 

Peache., dried 15 

— in a cold cUmalo 23 

— ripening oriarly 303 

-seedling 834 

Petunia punctata 19] 

Ple-plnnl, cultivation or 127 

Plums and the Curcullo 231 

— Barsy Ill 

— In Iowa '7 

— tree*. History of 327 

aaltfor..' 39 

Plant*. Hie principles of Growth In 247 

Plant-sticks preservation or 327 

Pomegrsmaies .215 

PomfiVrgicsl Gossip 271. 287, 279, 206 

— Soclolr, American 127 

I'm oliifc: evergreens 941 

— principles or ■ • • 31 

— Tomato and olhor vines 231,319 

Quinces love Ball 39 

Quince, Fear shaped '" 

— trees, worms ou • . ■ ' 

Radishes inrtc.vl of weeds 

Raspberry, culture or the - . . .3*3 

■ I Larkspur 1*3 

Roots 1 319 

— ofpUnle 143 

■•., . ure f.r lite i 

Rosiw, propagation of lino 

— lake good care of '-'17 

Rust on AnilcOtS 

Scaly Aphis, remed, for 1*3 

'..-,-■• We ii 

Scions culling and hoeplng 

.-'••raping and washing Ue« I 

' log 

— si" i ' 159 

Seedling Irilts 119 

, new— Ibe Sweet Gum 31 

•pby ol 

, early sown 271 

...ablet 317 

Blraw l 7 

_ and tin ir culluro 127, 2i I, 271 

— plantlngout 230 

— potting 109 

Strawberry cult ire, Pardee on the 3 7 

— Question, a 299 

the 17. "• 

Sunflower, th- 

Toioaioe-, bush yarns 187 

— Cucumbers and Melons 135 

— early : " 

Toma'o viue, a rigorous I"i 

— Wiue IS 

Tin." planting, Fall and Spring 

— in autumn 321 


i . | marvellous 63 

Trees, distance apart to plant 95 

— froxrn 103 

— wash for Ii 1 ' 

Vegetable*, bow to enlarge IM 

— late aown 231 

Venus Flay-trep 939 

Victoria Regis, the 63 

Vinery cold ...i:. 

Ion, the Orange 295 

Weeds In door-i arils 17:. 

-In walk. I I 

Welgells, r .".-colored .2'Ij 

Wi.piog Willow, American 313 

, planus 375 

Yew tree, the 279 


Ants, to gel rid of 

Coal ird 

— damplings, baked 

— hi.".. ■ 

— or • -e terry aoullle 

Bacon, to hoop '.."U.« .. . . 

.lor, to make 

Bean* and Pew, lo presarvo. - . . 
Bedbugs, to destroy 

Beef La 

- ■ 

Ii— u, cooking 

i Ing, to make 

Black color, to n-new 

Blacking for dreas shoes 

— balls 

Blroliiig at the nose 

Bolls, to core 

Boot*, how to restore turned. . . 

— grease for coarse 

— U» render water proof 

Bread, Buckeye 

— corn - 









■■- 6,270,281 








'- ■ 

161, 22.11 


3 9 

, . . .351, 3o0 


'. r.i.peptte 

— icunoml.Til abeslen 


— making 



— Yankn? loaf 

: ' 


Blacull, Indian light 

1 i 

— i ."ii i 

— lo t,M.p In warm weather 

I (or 

1 . csjoklng 

Cake, Boston 

— Buckwheat 

— breakfast 

1 i I or 

— i out 

8i ntuclry 

— Cream 

— Co i 

— LI. Blloi 

— Ginger, a rich , 


— Indian 

— -Breakfast 

— Johony 

— Kculucky 

— Loaf, cheap 

— New Yoik 

— Sponge • - 


Cake. Scotch 

— Waablngton 

— Warm 

— Wilson's 

— Wedding, white 

black , 

— Winter 

Candles, make your own 

— cheap and excellent 

Catsup, tomato 

' nr| .ling, cheap 

Cauliflower nnd Broccoli 

Celery, essence of 

— lo keep 

Cement, Urn pmof , 

Chapped bsnds 

Cuorries or Plums, to dry 191, 

illblaln IXnlrni nt.alr A. Coopers. . .. 

China, lo in-tid broken 

Coffee, lo get the real Bar or or 

— acorn 

Cold tlaw 

Com turrcb, to make 

Corns, cure for 

Cough and pain In the breast 

— cure for a dry 

Cream, clotted 

— ogj 

— aubstiluto for 


Cucumbers, Iriid 

Custard Chocolate. 

— to mike 

Curry, a good plain 

Doughnuts, Indian meal 

Dysentory, cure for 

Lgg plants 

— dropped 

Eggs baked 

— Bacon and 

— Content fashion 

— keeping 

— ml see 

— poached 

— faauaage* and. 

F.IOO, to CUre 

in without arsenic 

1 ig-, f undo 

Fire Kindlert 

i ,. ii b braiM it colli 

Frill, is 

Fi nit creams 

Furniture, lo polish mahogany 

... ad, hard 

— Soaps 

Olui i. iuid 

ry fool 

Gispes, preeerring fresh 

rumnvu superfluous 

i, , 10 preaerre 

— to cure 

Hem, bit.-! 

11 U'» IO II "IT. H, 

i • ■ • • ■ 

Houte dies, to drstroy 

I i 'i, now recipe 

India ruh'-er, to cut 



aod rir 

— grape 

I I i rojl:-. , ■ 

Bid glorto, to clean 

i. in a di , » 

l-eaino*, fresh 

II ail dI 

M'at*. baked 

■i , to clean 

Mock cream for BOfatt 

— terrapin 

Moths, bo got rid of 

00 l .mils 


Onions, good way to coot 

p.-ini, treto. to ramore from doth. . . 

Paste, good light 

P . pickled 

Peppers, do 

I , to clean 

lomato ripe 



— Ho 

— lemon 

— nun— 


... 95 



.. 95 
. .161 

— tomato 

IMeaor Hemorrhoid*, to f ure. ..... 

Pillow case trimuiing 

i mealy • „, 

Potatoes, baked 

, preparing fur market ...... 

Poultice, mustard 

Pudding, barter" without eggs 

D bread 

— chsKree 

— eocoanut 

— coro meal 

— green corn 

— plum .... . . 


— lir-, glOUOd _ 


Farmers' . . . 

— stewed apple 

— aweet do 


— wbiat meal 

Qslnce 1 , keeping ■ 

ry cream 

Rata, killing 

Hie* mdk 

Boat, lo prevenland remoio 

Mallf Lund 

Sauce Hslset 

— mint 

— lunula. 

Sick head ach 






.. ..178 








. . . . 7 
,215, 336 


.23, -ij7 
, ... 87 






... 47 
, . . .335 






. . .291 
. . 101 




231, 255 







.... 87 
.... 30 













. . .17 












, . . ,1.9 


, . . .110 

143, 199 




. ...| I 


. 99,918 


. I 

... .1 


. . . .263 




.. ..i-94 

. . . .- ■ 




. . . 161 

... 15 

.... 21 
.. . ,878 
. . ..303 
,., ii 


. . . .231 



.HI, 208 


. . .143 








.970, -7i 




.. ..343 


. .23,2m 
.... 879 










. . . . 79 

. 19] 

.."i. 9*9 



Sep. farollr 110 

— hanl 127 

Soda, drinking 

Bora ui'.'uUi, w»*ii for 

Sprain* oil lor 54 

Suln. r,-|'N w 

Imp R 

Slav, »ar»r.lp IS 

Bfiwr, to bleach I 

Ifopt, to cHrifj (or pr.itrrw 239, SW 

Sunburn, wa*l» for 1." 

Tr«,ouUt/of '.in 

— toiroprore 31*9 

Tomatc-w Ilka en cu raters it 

Tiannjr p»p*r, to mike 

V. If, to clean wltlla 119 

Vinegar miking fl9 

— prima 

W«ll upsr, to clean -17 

WafllM 335 

Waalilng redpe 


9 -.ndlM 270 

II i. iiv auh, oct door U 

Wlue, bjnt-mot I 

— blatkbrrry 383 

— currant 231 

— el'lcrliarrj 

— ton el 

QfOrml In dried fi till II 

Wound! from nalla, fcc 

Vrul raid 

— ML Binge ST. 

— paaeli loataa for o".'7 


Antimony cannon belli 303 

Biga, leoonj fur Wtavlng 407 

Barometer,* cheap SO 

— outdone • HI 

Belli, eonnri of 383 

Blaokimlihlnp;, rtitnee of 178 

Blind nl»! 'aitanrr 335 

Boola and Shore, new kind of 23 

Boot lea' her, former for 31 

Brick, half 87 

— making machine 79.407 

— near Mod of 334 

— •ubeUlate for 95 

Brldgre, chain and wire 247 

Builder*, facta for 3I9 

Bottone, new kind of 67 

Calcium I Ubt : 407 

Cannon, braech lead in r 279 

Candler, lmprorlng tallow I99 

— patent for makicff 143 

Canalatflck.nnaw 293 

Car-ital, Improved 15 

Cart, a near I33 

Carriage cramp 3S3 

Carrlng machine 39 1 

Caaka, metallic 7 

Oa-!tt Ing S7 


lasa tubea $07 

— M 143 

i . . 

Cule pump, hov to mood 

i j', mortar ft r ft 

l-rui OOantfDUStl I lr-& 

inew 113,207 

— Graftal Palace prbo 171 


— hrlek lt.1 

i lOtlt, .'.Lew 30 

— an icjf-'nlou* 367 

\ American 399 

Coal haaini, American 135 

— Delia, the grrat «3 

— bow 1 I r 3:15 

— on ntOroadj 

— *oi 375 

I i . . 

oreni ISO 

1 ■ '. | • - ifoi lUring 

. I' i r ' o ' of J99 

I r i tl i '■'■-■ i Sideuham 

il Near York 147 

U dc !'■"• bine, 01 ib'i r.-.f.r. 199 

il|> 39 

I iu- ili 1 1 r-r ruet&lf 39 

i i io Ulw <i ; 

Dyeing with light 247 


- lam pi : 

— trltgraphe, new un for 143 

• umt Ir7 

Faiui tnaflhiLerr, imprnrement in 207 

Fencing, nrw mode of 143 

Pi Jog an, uijchlnefor 101 

Fire alarm*, iinprorrxl 191 

Fountain broehea 239 

Frame! light, ibe 55, 40S 

Fruit iltluning and cutting machine. ..365, 303 
Foel parent :r,(, 

— OM of 359 

Furniture, home made .391 

Gaa chacdelirra, Improred • 1 

— for rnunlr.l n«v ISO 

— purilTirr. 295 

— la- 119 

for cementing floor! 2-17 

lilr-en Melts in 

— globca unial table for Cab 231 

— frosting 55 

— ornamenting 191 

Creole for carriage wheeli 63 

Urlndlng mill* 39i 

Gon, I>r- Newton - ! now Jjg 

— ibo nevr Acstrian. 

— agreit \oi 

flona, "piking. 407 

Gunpoadcr, thing endrr water 127 

Quit* Percbn and »'! nacj 79 

lobf titnte for "3, 2S7 

• lion 

ilerd*»m bDatnaasaf Uotton 

Ilarnera i.iicMe , 1r-jpr.>tr.l 

Harrow teeth, n lling and M 

Ilaia, tur and 

r . . cad car« 

Of !'e»m englnri 

patent 1 laalic 


Hubs connecting with ailei 

— machine f.,f boring 

Indian 1 


— iLuttr-r* 

Jarannlni leather 

l,e*d tnbee, and om. ot plpea 

— wini- 

Ugktijing, eaair of rhun 

» "1 nek bt 

— -1 I 1 

lite for high gradre 

— Din 

k ul or 

atirolea, telling at Waahlnglon. . .. 

Meal barrcli. Den 

Metallic alloj, new 

HID b ■-. lire 


Uortialog machine 

Vli.Trmg machine, a new 

no nel, canojj 

Native prlntlag 

NfTtgaUODi new era In 

till, boiling In a laccanm 

— for machinery 

Paddle box, life boat 

Taint, cheap 

Paper, baaawocd 

1 ■•') 

— In Groat Britain 

— mache Tillage 

— making In ine United Bute! 

— p-at 

— alraw writing 

— weeda for ^. 

Parte indu-iri.i BxblUtloa... . ft. 

PorraClne or hoe lallow 

Pabiit iifflce at Wfhlngl'n 

I'i jl for furl 

Piaoo, an Imprt'vi 6 

Plain *hr and because 

Plow, Improved 

— prairie 

— to polish a 

Polraon, 00 r favorite 

e Deli oii« 

Qnlltlng irame, a uctt 

ttafl, allfo 

link-, nonr ho ran .. 

liailnny colllilonr, to fiovant 143 







. . . .103 
. .47, 5i 


. . . .ITS 



... .i07 












.... . 




. . . .179 






. IBO, 1 1 











. . . . J6S 









Kallmala, Improvement! in 

— the Inventor of 

llailmad,&n underground 

— brake, nncw 

— »p'*^, poalblKUuaf 

— iiml«r, uncorruptible 

— track, new 

— wheela, argle 

Rot', a nen 

Rlfla, U10 American 

— the ill mi,. 


Screw |Tu|.».ll-n n 

Self-atrtpplngtop card! 

Bovlng mi bJoai 

Inlrg and Jointing... 


' king 

Ship. anuvj:.< monater ^ 

— uml-ei, larding 

■ I . roll:-., i 

BmOKO c^liden. • r. 

— cen>iiin[.tion of 


— 'I ..n.l oil... ,...„., , 

Soda wntcr, cooling 


Biraat brako, UIUeT , o"..I."..!".". 

— lite cn^iDr ........ 

— efclp, lmmenae 

— vhlltlM, t«lls and fog*.... .... 

Steamer. .-,e,;,.., ,,, ,,,,, n „ rM 

— eyliud.-r f,,r tl t mMnmotU 

^•ninri Kilnclor. Improved 

Submanot Intenllon 

— machine .....,...." 

Pugar from pumpkina.!!..'...'... 

Sn*pen.-ion bridge 

Teooer., imponant to.*.".'. '..'. .'.'. 
Tanning— cotton and linen 

— new procau of 

— precariug iklni for ...'.'.*. 

Threshing machine..... 
Tuting machine. Sh'eeVm'itai!!!." 
Tunneling machine, dc* 
Tunnel, the Penaiylraoii. ..".".'.". 

I nJerground Like in dhio 

Walking on rt-d hot plalea 

Washer hingea... ....... 

Water altera .. 

— «" .."..'.'.'..'!' 

— plpoa, tut and wrooght Iron., 

— protT composition 

Wnghij of mrlona ititetanccc.." 
Windmill, Improrad 

— eelf-re»olftiin»... 

' s bl'ewaah .'..'.'.'.!'."' 

Wood gai. 

— taoomboatlblo.' ........ . *"" 

1 machine ...." 

Woolen nod cotton rnUcd'gooUj]! 
























































, 247 








Addreaa to Sihoel-t-.r- 68, 08, |C4 

Age to t*g>n .... 

Agricultural ( o!'. g., Iu ni.lo 

A lolling rtcne gather* no reota "HI 

Aiaoclatlnn, « . 1.11. 1 al late Teacher'*. . 176 

Aavlum, Slate Idiot 72 

Be Patient 233 

Book. set 

Uoaton Ul'rary 2B6 

Lhildn-n net iau< lit to think enough 

I lai'i letter te Children... 576 

Collfga CommenMment* .V56 

IHon.a woid cm fflo 

- it'.i n 200 

DlgnltV Of Ibl t-a lier • work 243 

IhrrciU'li ol Hie < oi.ihful loirjl.. . I 

■• ur l!.i lemj ar}.... Ill 

riullChildxeu oa 

Education, deractlie S0J 

I- 1IC~ Of 32S 

— in KogUnd 380 

Ui.hlgm IW 

Turk.y D, IM 

the United .-tale- :CJ 

Virginia N4 

— moral In «rh. I II 60 

.ndtcclal 400 

— ielf 240 

— fUUttintof 

Edocmtiiiial .', | I Ill 

— Bequ».l I04 

— DtwtftaUi n in Qtorjrif 384 

— F.ahlMtion. I92 

— Frr-ei .- U of Oregon 184 

Firmeii, 'olf-:mprotemanl of 1 44 

• nine IIS 

He never i;ra«iet«d 128 

Home of Noah tVchaior'a childhood 272 

I < eri'l Spare Him \H 

lo> and tiuir 158 

Iu i ruction in Sirdinia 878 

ItDletl 112 

LaarnlPgand Ubor 880, 8i4 

— n Ili-cJpline 102 

l>-ti*ra and Letter writing 18 

Make your pnpila lovo you 376 

Man likened In a bock »S 

Uapl ind Globe* 860 

— outline 312 

Mental Improvement 368 

Method 352 

Krrar \r, iau io ir«rn sat 

N '"" 400 

Puniion for 1-ltenrr pnraulti 34S 

Plira»i", familiar B 

Pnterty or Author* 248 

l'reaiUe».\nd Conrlu*lon* JI6 

-i,« rontbiol C92 

PruarLi and her I'nlvaralty 368 

Kapld Reckoning JJfl 

Heading dillera Irom telklng .....8, 128 

— ind thlnklnr 

Schoolboy PromlM "sM 

I iook», cbanctni , . 

-in-trkillbrariaa:.. iaJ 

— emplormentln " „ ., 

-fund. Michigan " Jj 

— booaealtei '""ami 

IbeUg .......... "..« 

— teont J2 

— UwlnConnecUcul ." ...'".**) 

— Maater, raloe of lbs iV ) 

— mone,., apirortlonment of the. 

— lUtliUca of MvuihuaatU ' ixi 

— t.ackera of tho clly " .in 

-IhoDtotrtcl ..., *"" 

— rUltetljo.. "! 

— )oungfolkj»l ,/J 

' '• ' nmon ""•jiri'iin 

of Bon-ale.... '?&? 

--why not botur V^!Sm"'""'"jS 
-Country Jg 

-dimtmlUe«In.... . *g 

— D i rtelt 0*1 ■■■•»«, 2W8, 8M 

f r *" il -' L 408 

— Iirportanoa or Common . , 

— K01 ma' . , . ■ 

-'ftbeBlate "J, 

-Pub. ," 

Quuei ,.,j 

i ■•• l • • '"i-K 

-BnfMlnj... ;.. 

— laiuilca of I', u teili ante «un 

5e inlucedMrn... IS 

— made A4-n .'"!s08 

(•Ingular Oontraal 

Bketchof Lift .. \fc 

*!fV, l "^ fr ? 1D »Taachrr-!'jonrn»i.. '.'.".'.'.' 288 

Sturl|r.a,malhemiUeal «« 

Bucota- .....!. .. 16 

Suggeilleni upin reading ag 

^W* 360 

-Die J, per 178 

Ttecber. t..e »8 'JS4 

Ill naiuicd \m 

— who wonM Io a : a 

Teacbera, error! of ............'..'.". 312 

— how ihty ,touId iraal anc ano'thar". '.'.!'. .273 

— Inililutr» 208.910 

Teaehlug.erroraln.... ^ m 

— icbooi ;;;; rj, 

Tbe iMinnwii .!!!".!. " . . " 102 

— Slate and MBtrntlon.,.."" iu 

Thoaghu for the Scholar jg 

Tone! In reading 851 

Training, Phyilcal ard monlii! j« 

Tv *<■*"■ ::;..'::::.'4m 

Vecatlooa, ichool JJi 

— aummer ,~ 


— of 6cliool-ro.,m 

War*!.* .Jj 

Yoocg Sibool klUlr.ii. . .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'..'.'. \m 


Aoglioff for a Husband 300 

An 1 1 A Scrrntil 394 

A BrofeaaionBl Bcnr 212 

Argilint; UuBb&Dtl, Lhc (ill 

Aunt Janet 1 [i4scturs i"."> 

AutoViogrnplty of u Kaiy Did. . . . 

qi bodj 100 

DirdiB l.tiwrcncu in;, I 'I 

Mli.r.l it -Ill 

( ,'iiin .1 1 :• I of Ooloi , the 3' H 

Oelobration in 17. :) 76 

Cholera Patient, the 892 

■ II rv.uMtis, tho 38 

DarliiiK Loll}/ 109 

I ii and in- !■ .inn r 419 

Do go id i" '"I" - 316 

1 1 ml in "|"' ■■ "■ lb i il i '■ : - ' 

Dtive "f tlio Slorm, Un> 356 

Kllou Junes '-''"' 

]■ i. i ito 140 

Fearful W.-itniii/,'. «he 108 

Fighting Pn achi r, tbo 156 

Fiutllng Monov 

Firtl Morriagoin the Famih 404 

Pond Wife, tin' ' ii 

Fountain rery far Down, th.- 188 

Hop* i ,i Qai 384 

n E v. iv Pay Life i r, 

liiMii.. [nflnoi eoa . ! 

Joe 339 

Joo Vining'a Theft 

Mov Qui i'h ||| 

Millie Lee 396 

Mis* Todd, M. D I'"' 

Mother's Qifl I7 

My Duel w-ilhOapl EUIioU 

11 Iter and tiia Apprentice) thr.. 1 '"' 

ol l in Men, the .•-,',''' 

Sophorjinre'a CoufeMion, Lhi *-"0 

fllndenl's Careen tho 364, ;it-j, :IS " 

Sugaj Party, the I "' ! 

True Senovolenoo 

TrueOourago 220 

Turning oTei n now leaf ' ,J 2 

Trro Fanner Roye. the 244 

i tro Neigh bo '. Ujo G8 

Two Stuiletiis, the 308 

Dntx iininiy of Life, tbt) 156 

Unforj iven, Iho 236 

1 • i ihhI Itia Vii itn, Lhi -" N 

Wi.IhaV, lb. mt, the -■ I 

Young Philosophor, the 3.1'i 

Young VoluiiUiT, tho la, 20 

POET R V., it Now Vear'e 

Adam and tho Flower 288 

fl-drict to Lndie 1 17 

Aged Pastor, the 1 

Aged • loupl< . tho 121 

An Angel in Clouds 24 

An Addn fo il . r.-or 

Approach .'f Ohristrnaa .. 112 

Autumn :t:t7, 348 

Autumn's Oravo 11 

■ ."'"I the lltvcr 352 

Bird Music 1:17 

llli inga 

Bridi '- No« II v. tho 19 

Burial ol Love— W. 0. Bryant 9 

in the Morntog -Mr-. 

ii.:.' ea 

Built upon tbo Sand—] 1 1 O ok, [0] 
Cnmadcvn — Bayard Taj lor .. . 

helical CourtHhip 

rinlil 1 mbracing 1 Jotter. 49 

I'lioida an.i Sunbi^bt — B. Webster, 23C 
|ucmr'a Qrave— Bryant. ... 6 

ilaiiona— Mrs. W. W. Hoduutt 96 

Qounlrj Home 359, . 1 


Daily Dories ". 2.S7 

Death 36 1 

D I. and Heaven — f. P .; rri 399 

Death of the i 376 

of the Beautiful— D Ellen 

I ■niiii S40 

Don't you Hunk 80? 

Dreaniinga n 

Each Mother's Lovo llio Kttt 113 

Early to Bed nod Early to Rise. . .313 

Eel 9 344 

Bditnr'j Song. . ... .17 

1 ■ ' — \v. !•:. c. rTnowIeal! :>7 
1 ing r — Montgomery. ...159 

■ mi' Meditation ..., "... . 180 

1 ubiior — Etmna O. Carter 976 

Pall nf Palmyra 3011 

Fume — Sihiller 41; 

Fame, 11 Oontraat — VVm. H. Oluu 

Parmer's Girls 

Farm Life — Mrs. Sigouro 
1 hi .'- RoUarn — E. Lintel] . . .2 1 
Flight of Tim. — H B.McOaU... |6U 
1 '• n il ■ a Teioph — H. 8, B,unisoy,336 
I'nr the Sake of your Uoflu — 

Marinnnn It- 1 . . I . - . - 401 

Friendabi| 'a Offi . . . ii. 1 

Friendship — '. O. Miller.. I 

Di 1 ihe Fragmeuta 

' I" E mill 171 

< .. olloni - '.Tl 

Heart Music — Mi JTo'nny A.Btoni 

1 rivi. In-r :i Kiml Word, Lizzie ...377 

' W.iii-I.lnl i':ir. -I'uiiiiiiii'liuin.rjll 

i Qiveth to all Aright 296 

i.. "I Night :i.n 

Qo Plant a Vino ....'mi 

i . rHomc — Alioo Carey i in 

Growing Old Together 

Homo — Montgomory ;,; 

Home an. I Krii nds 396 

Home Io side I ho Hills |J5 

llnnie hung 81 

Honor to whom Honor — Alice 

Oaroy 348 

VA ratio r ho Sad '.'7 J 

I'm n Happy Thoughtleea Guild, 73 
[avocation io Summor— W, E. t'. 

lea 93 

In a SiBtor'a 1 able— Mrs. M. W. 

Ilutllllllt Ill 

In. ban Suromer 361 

In the Mrndnwn — Bnj;ir.i Taj lor, 3115 

,'i nil in Bringing Dp 398 

thai 1 was Jen nil — Mra, 
Llojd 273 

John Anderaon my Jo-John 233 

John Andorsonto rua Jean 233 

Lamentations 289 

Laurel Wreath— Jenny A.Stono..e399 

Let the Heart be Beautiful 129 

I iberty Tree— Rob*. Treat Paine. .124 

Life— Ml* .1. nny A. Stone 177 

Life and Death 145 

Life Clock, tbo K i 

Ljfe'a Su.nheama 265 

l ignis and Shadows, ., I- 

il -Bliaabeth Cnppon 257 

,. Ho o 

1 ii i ■ i Btar n,'i 

I Ittlo Bi : i v. . wood'..... ... 91 

i Ittle u lli> — Rov B. W. Jin,... .201 

i ' ■ .\ i dding I'n —lira. M. 

W. Qudntill , " 191 

.f|.-.l. c MHler 

■ , r i.— \v_ s fjafl ■ 123 

i , ■ - | , ig..,.l48 

Maidenhoo<l — Longfellow 65 

Make your 1 u ,., '.'.'. ,....3(14 

Mai-- I • .1. ETamea 161 

M mory 388 

Midnighi — [I, Mareia Alien ".'.'. . 28 
Midnight Muainga ,113 

Moth, i V Lnnn ill, Iho i ' i 

Morning 334 

Moi oing and Evening 1:1:1 

Morning of Life ....!!! !i32 

ilighi Burial— M. Hi , idee 280 

-— U. N. Powers 145 

My Lambs— Mrs. M.a Denison".'." 41 
My Mother— Ii. bi D Knowli ■. 
:.. Sister— J. 0. Miller. 238 

My Thoughts "oos 

My WifioM Back Again .".'.'.".*. 15 
Near tho Banks of that Lone Rivi 1 !09 

Ntbra.^l.-ti JOg 

Novot Pear— Mrs Jennv A Sto"n^3l3 
October Ramble— Mrs B .1 I. imi 

"f II irao— Alice Oarej 2-Ji 

"1.1 1 'Imini. -v Piaoo, the 111; 

1)11 iho 8elll0g Sun. .. 

Over the Hill .""l36 

Owl*,' Concert— H. S. Rnmtcy 284 

Passing An.-,;, " 3fjfl 

Peaculul Bluoibcriug on the Ocean 

Pliantoma 90 

Pilgrim Fathers— J Pierpoot i" 

Pcotua Brojri — I. 0. Milli 1 1,1 

poetry of Nature 2fil) 

' Mi ion —J 1 ' Miller o.<»3 

Protty Tl.. u ' ■ .7211 

ReeoUvction — tl r iUH WaUon . . . .210 

on 204 

I 1 1 i\o Sohg— W. E. t". 

Eriowlca ■ 76 

ROSO |;,. v — I. i-, Mill, r 109 

, 1 164 

Sabbath Evening 184 

Sabbath in tho Forei 1 —I I J, ( lai I 1 

' h Morning m Summer. . . 31 j 

School Buy 'a apnea] | ;,•_> 

mber— •Mrs, E. J. Earnea. ...3iih 

'■< Pream — Longfellon- 

3hi is Tbino 

BheiaLa'td in Lho Grave 1:1, 

-Bryant 104 

Sung for the Siaaon 81 

..i the Knj-ii n Driver -n 

Song ol Home— Robl D Knowles,3l6 
thoH 11 ter — 8. D. tlarri 

Soul ■ 1 ■ 380 

Speak Gi mly 

Speak il Bold.' 976 

I isper— Kate W. odli 

- 1 Mi", bas ■ nmi a ■ un 101 

— Il S Rom • v 205 

Stiff Cold Water Man— J. G. Saxe. 17 

St, II. h-ii.i— Helen J. C'ro-ruan 304 

Student's Greeting 

Succor lho Needy 52 

Summer Toil and W n in - r.., 119 

Summer, A Pasi'iral 241 

Sunsol Musings al Mi. Hope mi 

The llonutiful— Ida Fairfield IR8 

The Blacksmith— H. Roberta 353 

nuntry— G J. Olarko m;i 

The Oup [fie 

Tl "- Dcud 196,916 

The Dying Wife 33 

ii... Greek Slave— Aug. I»upmnir..3(.9 
Tho Harvest— Anna M.Langclsnd 276 
The Plaj Honse— Ann Proslon. .. 

The Three Angels— U.S. RumSoy, 119 

Tho22dof December- JJrjranl .lun 

Tho Two Worltli 297 

Tho Village Pastor — Wnrdawortbi 
i , ,. \ .. ci "i Autumnn— Bryani 

Hi. Watcher— J. C. Miller 1G 

Theodora i | 

■• i-u Namolcaa Spell 100 

II. .'. T.::: a Time— -J. 0. Miller. . . i 

This LiUIe Tu-. ol Hair 73 

Thoughts for my Dear Ones IS3 

Chougl '■ 1 oubn — I. A. Btono, 1 

Tl I'liii- — [da Fatrfn !.' 3 '8 

liln Fairlield .BO 

Time is Money— Willie WalBon..l50 
'I'.. 11 it. loved 1 ii ' -Gould Mnrrray,161 

To a ■ '. .. inn ." 

To .'i v. ,, 1 Brool 60 

I'o I., r I I five 217 

i'" l ittlo Delia 345 

'I'., my Wife 

To my Husband for) 

To il..- roach cj . 

1 '■ ■ ' 1 ovi in -Cbas Swain... 9 1 

Trual in God— Ids Pairfield 208 

Tnl. mi. of Affection— Mi • 11. di . 

Pwilight— Fita Green Qalleek 385 

Twilight Muaings— II. 8. Kumsey, 249 

Two ii.itH Daguerreotyped ..211 

Wasted, :. 19 

Wnu-r I'lj.nlf— M, : , I-;. .1. l-Iann ...31^1 

Wi. Mi.. 'vi„„ Pl | !„„,,. 33 

W« HI i Thee 265 

Wo Sail upon a Summer Sea :,lil 

Hhni ih iVol.i, — 0has.8waii 165 

W liil, 'tig Day Timo I . ',..160 

Where i 1 ouj Homo ins 

Wilt Tin .ii i...w Hei Still ,, ,32] 

Withen I Wreath— Ida Fairfield!. 148 
u "ii n ■ ■ i ' i, ^ in i 

« rong— .8. W. Lloyd 
1 outli is the Tuna ' |28 

1 o in Mine^Mor. 

IHHEet ft IttltTwUTI' 


liaansns, plas', no. 

■ i V,, -„ N. Y 5 

— plan ol 'i 

principal floor 5 

— .1 397 

— — ground plan :i!'7 

Co , : :•- atyle, clu n|i — 45 

i_ -i..i. i ii I Qoor Q 

I il.". i IS 

— iu Rural Pointed style 109 

Kr.'uu.l plan 109 

— arinmeirical. II i 

— — ground QboT 

— — I door 

nil < Hy Hall, i;.'. b. 96 

i ntOflicob Uding, H n bii gton, i Ii 
Waatuni Uouao ol RolhgaV 


Arab 13 

Ayr: in.. ■ i. .ii. - Dundee II" C n 

D .-ii Bull, •■ Duke of Dovon"... .116 

— Oow, ■• Uucbesa" II:. 

Ucr. > . -Wood bine' '....221 

'.-ii corUie 373 

olJioii," Othello" 301 

Morgan Horae, "Green Aluiiniaiii 


■ i.i.i i : i. ... i , 

■ ' i 261 

South Down Sheep 381 

Bwe, premium 309 

Sheep, i n ncli Buck Old Piger. 

— South Down 309,381 

NATI T.*L UlfiTOllT. 

Bobolink o3ll 

Rice bird 

Centipi do, i lie 

. . eL al 

I I . I ..ion 

- Piali, ih.- 

Qold-nm h, A mericao 

liniiii Pcrclia, branch of 

M..--, bi oa I do.... 

— pi u> baped dub 

ii .■ 

iparro . . 

^ the Chipping 


. ..S08 

.... ii i 


.. 89 

... 80 





Apple. Hubbardeon'a Nooeueh... 

— Switch Willow 

. . . ■: 

Budditrg, (two illustrationa) '. 

■ U ii. .i 8 pi eioaa 

i . iii ,-iiifi, purple 

t tint ..'•. nlii- dwarf 


— Magnifici at... 

— Beruifolia 

1 "i mini tl ii v. , i I. •loci; 

Golden Bartonia 

aberry, Souj htoi 

i, tho. ...... 

I lot- bed, 

i i in j 
Lupin, 1 1* :,ii 

I ■ i Irandiflura 

NemaphOa Macculaia 

I 'ear, Bourre Olairgeau 

— I ; rroaB 

— Hampton'a cluatt r. . . 

— St GhislaiQ .''. 

. 71 



. II 



. ■' 

ii 3 
i ■■ 


tree. .I-„rl" 55 

— Vit-ar of H in flit Id 7i 

i . inyasti r, Poriulaeoa, Ac BC 

Peach | u» I,. , ., 

Phlox, Him '« ; 

•juiiiei.. Pear-shaped r. 

, . . . 143 

si adi ■ ■ ■ Gum, 31 

Vfnn« i ly-trap 239 

. i .215 

Weeping Willow, American 343 

iMn.riirfrT«, rro. 
Churn nmi battel ivorlti rcombined,10] 

— Orj I 271 

1 •.. 9j 


1 iw, paieui oi| i 

Hanow, : I,,,, .... i.'.. rl, ' , . 


Mob ing • bim . Ki lihum'e im- 
prorad i . 

— and Reapuig, ForbushV i-i 

Reaper, Palmer and H illinms.. and Mowing machine, 

Forboah's 18D 

Saw mill. Hallock's circular and" 

i : 

— r; "'"' Ii.h7-I 

Slump in .' kini a, two I 

Tumbler Oarl i r.i 


hi 21 

. sfi . tt irnan, n .248 

1 on f Gravity, dn-eive'cuui. 

t, the |f,; 

Eolipai ..I ih.- ■- of |fj2 

i.i. .- 1 no Lamp 7 

i rn proved • ni [ •_■ 

John Anderson my Jo-John 

1 ivt , ibo ] ||) 

JJl Ho| 1 1 ( ;.. ,,, n ,,, 

I a di M . ck Mm- i , , 

' i lumbering ,.„ u 10 Oeoan.S 13 
1 "■ ....168 


It iiir.,iui curvature 

1 SWp. Bi i / ,„.„. .... |0 

"Gulden Ag*" 80 

8tono-war« makioj,', grinding... ' 

Pug nulla 

■ -k are making, Pol ■ i '■• a hi 
Kiln 376 

— — — ii M'l. 376 

... i, ..I umu 389 

Downin . '.. i tlio Into 

I'm- inn, i'.. ojamin 

— Su Jol . 

I •'■ ,n i -ii s 

.Mii-oii. Hon Cbarhvi 

Pierpont, John ;,v 

r Ipt6r i 

Siilnnan, Tioi. H. nj imin |]9 

Taylor, Bayard 

i'"i LTBT. 

B ..-I .... fovi i re 

t lanuin and < 'oohln Ohina I ' 

h irking (■■^\ ,. . 

i ■ 

Poland fowl ... 

Turkey. I'i iual BjJ<1 

VOLUME V. NO. 1 j 


; whole \<>. m. 

Moore's l\\\n\ ,.Arhi-florktr: 

A qi.wiio wi.i.kit 
Agricultural, Literary, and Family Nowcpaper. 


, u 

J" EPH IIARIil-. in i; .. D« fiUi l« luU : 

| i ;', ,,■■,, 

J, II IfiiDT.— H. a Wnrrr.-T. K. WjOTTOM. 

Till [lUBAX SrUr-Vo'UiEK I- -!- - 1--N . -I lot- ii„,,,<i,i lUiil 

, .-•■•! In \"ului . I'iimi . 

IVi i-arnutl/ lubor 

R itile i , ■-..Hi Practical 

■ of Ihav. who*" ln- 
,,t.- [timbi ' . icullund. Ilnrtf* 

(olOnfD) r-A *itli m.'.n 

. j || , OOOipl t- A.J.1MI.7I IU1, J. Ill:: . 

! '.an i (fmrai 
EST ' 


plural |]cli)-^orIitr. 

Progress and Improvement 

"Am! hero is lliu lirsl iiiiiiiImt of the \l< u\i 
for 1654, with a grand figuro-hoad, cleat print, 
and ilII the el cetera* to match! vVi II, it it a 
beauty, truly — w much improved in appear- 
ance, bo decidedly genteel, as to l"- scarcely 
recognizable. It looks amazingly like sticking 
in the text, 'lii; practical demonstration in the 
line of • Progi - and Improvement" — so far, 

ii least; as externals, and mm r, arc concerned 

Qopo prosperity will not make our visitor 
proud and conceited, but thai ho h ill retain 
his good qualiticf as ■' friend and instructor." 

Ami bo, Reader kind, you doubt the pei sonal , l' ron "^ 
identity of your old and tried friend — one who 
has diligently labored in your behalf for years, 
rendering on account of his stewardship ovary 
week with fidelity nnd punctuality. Ami you 
cull us beautiful, even genteel — think we're 
progressing, but doubt our bearing prosperity 
without becoming aristocratic. Our profound 
Balaam for the compliment, but never you Jear 
aboul the prosperity; for, thanks to you and a 

good nimiy Ihon.-aml of (I re-t or mankind,'' 

not altogether unused to success, and 

shall endeavor to comport ourselves properly — 
continuing as frank, sociable and useful as here- 
tofore. True,' WO have donned a new dre.^ 
which pleuflOtl) US exceedingly, and perhaps 

imparts n proud appearance, — yot in other 

n-jivl.s, you will find us "the sauie old SJX- 

coraplishment of an object 10 desirable Next 
to, and combined with this, we an' resolved to 
furnish the best Literary and Family Newspa- 
per obtainable. 

From the moment our first number was is- 
sued, •■ Excelsior" has been our watchword, and 
we miw n.iil thai expressive and • omprehi n tvi 

Mm to the lie cm. lucid. Thus far we have 

aln i j in 1 1 \ ini n as d our i iq ena a (hi as our 
means in d pro peel would warrant, by adding 
from year to year, lo the edit. .rial, publi hing 
and printing forces of the establishment — for 
:dl which we are receiving n rich reward. — 
Those of our contemporaries disposed to mi t 
or smile at Hie number of edit 11 cogmj d ap- 
on the Kciiu, an 1 requested to note the several 
distinct departments, the variety of subjects 
d, and compare the paper as a whole, 
: with other journals — their own. for instance; 
mid if they doubt whether the investment /my.-, 
the comparison may be extended to our sub- 
scription book*. These remarks an- made in 
no boasting or revengeful spirit, and are only 
intended for application where they will be un- 
derstood. We lone ever endeavored to treat 
our contemporaries w ill, due respect nnd 1 ' our- 
icsy, und would not knowingly impede the pro- 
gress of any sincere laborer in the cause Ol 

Readers All — friends and strangers — a spe- 
cimen of our fifth volume is before yon for ex- 
amination. Though not na perfect in some re- 
Bpects as we hope to make the remaining fifty- 
one ibers, WC trust it will meet your appro- 
val; and if it doe-, may we not receive some 
substantial token of your interest in the pros- 
pcrity of this journal and the. cans" it seeks I" 


Tire Suffolk. Cleveland Bay, or Clydesdolo 
is probably the best breed of horses for plow- 
ing and other heavy farm work, while rOD 
hunters and racers may be equally good lor 
their respective uses. But fur strength, endu- 
rance, activity, and adaptation to all the mani- 
fold wants of fanning life, the common horses 
ol the United Slates in our opinion, arc buj >■• 
rior to all others. In no other country, too, 
up' there BO many horses kept in proportion to 

the population. This is on unmistakable evi- 
di aj t ol gnat ami general prosperity. In Eu- 
rope "poor people" form nine-teuths of the 
community, and never enjoy a sleigh ride after 

their own horset. while in America coinpiu-- 

penoe,' only more so, in all the essential requi- atively few are so poor as to bo unable either 

of our vocation While wo congratulate to keep horsed thejusjolves, or to frequently hire 

ourselves upon our externals — and leader ac- from livery stables The number of lioi 

knowlodgmonts to all who have contributed 

toward fJUJUShing tis an outfit BO elegant and 

i. oming— -wc claim i" have witnessed n Buffi- 
cient number of seasons of sued time and harvest 

to distinguish between cheat und wheal, and 
n„ i i.,re rely upon deed* and merit rather than 
munnert or appearance, 

No, no, good friends, — wo an- in no wise 
puffed up or afraid of soiling our attire, 
fid and recherche as we trust it doth, in your 
cms appear. On the contrary, we shall C0U- 
tinuo our labors OS earnestly and hojiefully as 
ever, to furnish yon weekly a complete and 
varied cargo of literary WOKS — Practical, Si i- 
enliln Mi ■llaneons and N.iwL Though we 

believe in progression, you will find as the same 
plain-spoken, bard-working common sense 
Husbandman you have been wont to consider 
0] — with a rare, fund of information OT) Horti- 
culture, Mechanics. Science and kindred topics 
—a peculiar talent for Story-telling, Biography, 
History, and instructive and amusing Miscel- 
lany and Anecdote — and a tact fur com ui- 

ths most important News of the Daj io 
few words. In each and all departments WO 
intend to expend inon' time and mCOJDSj and to 

talk as plainly and truthfully, OS heretofore— 
leaving stilt-walking and rmn-comnrittnligm to 
rach as spurt kuLs and cambric, and sneer ol 
those from whom their support isderived-- 

Our object is to benefit, not the exclusive few 

,,i apper-tondom, but the upper ten hundred 

thousand. Our primary aim is to make the 
RniAL New-Yorkkb the most practical, [i n- 
tific and reliable exponent of Agriculturnl 
pnu-tiee* in the world. This is in. unmeaning 
Wc have the m. ana al command, and 

A horse requires about 33 lbs. of hay [>er 
day. which, al presenl rat - m this i i'y. would 
make the cost of keeping a horse for six 
months $42. Cannot ahorse be wintered "n 
a farm at a much less COStl There can be no 
donht of it. All that is required I- the in 
amount of nutritious mailer and bulk in some 
palatable food. In good clean straw and corn 
meal we have the very thing. To pet an 
amount of nutritions uiattefw ttraxo equal to 
33 lbs. of hoy, wo require, according to Botrs- 
saaAWt, 165 lbs. Of 'course no horse could 
consume such a quantity. But if we gift him 
30 lbs. of Btraw, and 8 lbs. of corn meal, he 
would receive quite as much nutritious mailer. 
and in ahont the same bulk, while I he cost of 
wintering in this way Would be very mnlcrially 
redueed. Horses, like other animal-, er.ive va- 
riety; and a little oil-cake or pea meal might 
he substituted, occasionally, for the com meal 
with advantage. If the horses are kept con- 
stantly at hard work, a little extra oil-cuke, 
peas or oats may be regularly given, inasmuch 
ns thoy are highly nitrogenous and would bo 
mora likely to supply i he increased destruction 
of muscles caused by violent exercise. " Hut 
my horses will not eat straw — they will starve 
lirsl." Then lei them slarvc. They will COIuC 
to their food in a few days. Let the -traw be 
clean and sweet, cut short, nnd well mixed with 
the meal, so thai they cannot separate them. 
and our word for it, your horses will cat ii and 
do well nnd if they hnve an occasional feed 
of carrots or ratn-bagos, they will do better. 


kepi for hire is beyond all credence lo an Hu- 
mp, an. These horses must be kept on hay, 
bran, shorts and oats, nnd hence the compara- 
tively high price of these cattle foods in our 
large cities. Hay is usually higher here than 
in England, while wheat is 50 per eeut lower. 
And yet, much more labor is required to grow 
the wheat than the hay crop. Why this dif- 

Without stopping to examine this point, it 
may be well to inquire if fanners cannot I"- 
more economical in the use of hay. City bor- 
ees must have hay. They cannot get the pro- 
per bulk and nutriment in a cheaper form. — 
Bran is worth $14 per ton in this city, ami we 
question if it is men' nutritious than good tim- 
othy hay. We can get the Borne amount of 
nutriment in corn at "0 cents a bushel, or at $23 
per lun cheaper .than in buy, or probably in 
any other food. But wc do not get the re- 
quircd bulk, and therefore cannot use corn or 
oats alone. Hay, therefore, which [a certainly 

the most natural food, uppcors to be our only 
resource, OS under ordinary circumstances it 
would be our cheapest But this congregation 
of horses in one point produces mi artificial 
demand for hay, and proportionally high pri- 
ces. Under Buch cireumstancee it appears 
hiehly pr.ili.ilil, that farmers can winter their 
horses and cattle more economically than on 
hay. Some fanners think horses cannot do 
without hay, but this is a mistake. One winter, 
after our hay crop had failed, we kept Beven 
hora l for three mouths on cut oats in the st niw. 
n little barley meal und bran, and rutu-bogos. 
The horses kept iu udmiruble condition, in fact 
never did better, and wo found this much 

the disposition to use them liberally for the ac- 1 cheaper than wintering with bay. 

That the atmosphere contains ammonia wns 
shown by Df. Sausscrh. and mnfirmnd by I n* 
niu; but the proportion was PO inlinitesimnily 
small, that few have ever attempted to arm. 
rat elf/ Tfflthnate it. It is well known, however, 
that water has a strong affinity for ammonia, 
absorbing -nine 670 times it j volume. Ii was, 
therefore, to be supposed that rain wonld con- 
tain ammonia, collected as it ascended in vapor 
and descended in ruin, from the atmosphere. — 
Bounds first showed that this was the CD in 
1825. Since then, many have observed the 
presence of ammonia in nun water, bill none, 
we believe, have ever accurately determined it, 
though many eminent chemists have made the 
attempt HmsMMi aii.t has recently furnished 

a paper on this subject in I he Comptes Jiendus. 
lie appears to have removed one of the main 
difficulties of the subject, by discovering a 
in iu,- ol accurately u.-< crtaining the ainounl of 
ammonia within one ten-thousandth part lie 
finds thnt rain water contains much more am- 
monia than water taken from the Seine, the 
Durcq, nnd other rivers. Thus, In the first 
week in April, he found 4.3-1 milligrams iu one 
litre of rain water, at Palis while Water Ink, n 
ut the same time from the Seine, contained only 
0.16, or the ruin contained ticenly-tcven timet 
as much as the water in the river. This would 
indicate that the power of soil, to retain the 
ammonia of rain water percolating through it, 
has not been overrated. 

Snow water contained 1.78 milligrams in one 
litre, nearly a third less than rain water. The 
old idea, that snow contained a large quantity 
of nmmonia would, therefore, seem to be eom- 
pa rati tely erroneous. Snow, however, after 
it had lain 36 hours on a fertile garden soil, 
contained 10.34 milligrams in a litre. It i- 
supposed that this large quantity of ammonia 
must have passed into il from the soil. 
■ » ■ « 

Potato Dibease. — The Mark Lane Erjrren 
has an able article on this fertilo subject, and 
says of it: — "All precedent, all experience; all 
accumulutiou of knowledge, all things are set 
at naught by one fell swoop." Dr. BolUUScS 
theory of high drying, iu which many bud high 
hopes, has proved, iu numerous instances, un- 
sound and ineffectual The article concludes 
with offering the following ndvice which is 
equally applicable here as in CJreut Britain: — 
Plant ns early as possible, 6o as to gut a large 
portion matured and wild before ihc discus© 
sots in, as it usually docs with great severity, 
late in August, though this yeur il wus about 
the middle of September before it became 



Likb Ucccllerutes decomposition, hence its 
value on all soils abounding in organic matter. 


Boirx time since we gave h out of a model 
New England barn, remarking that while il 
was good, we thought we had many, in Wi I 
cm New Fork, that were much better. The 
accompanying representation of a bam of 
Oeobck IIihuvv, lis}., Phelps, Out Co, N IT. 
will -how that we were not mistaken. "The 

lengili," in the language ol the owner,' "is one 

hundred let. Width It II. 1'i.t.s'Jii ft. A wing 
back, 3li by 21 ft. The "hole rest upon a wall 
HI ft. high and 2 ft thick The [ear i- l.a'il.. d 
up In inar the -ill, from which side ,ve , nlcr 
with hay and grain. Front) \hfUB are line 1 '.' 
ft. piers in centre, and two 6 ft. at each end, 
leaving four 12 ft. openings which ure closed 
by two doors each, hung at the top with rol- 
lers. Tie' doors have a n.lling blind fur un- 

tilaiion and when open stand behind the piers. 
The frame work inside the walls is supported 
by two rows of pOStS, -landing upon StoilO 
e dt tale 2 ft. high. 1 1 inches square at bottom 
and eight inches at top, and are shown by tin- 
dob iu fig. 2. In basement, fig. 2, B is a cis- 

I ..' -'.— llAflMMEAT. 

tern, !> ft deep, 9 by 21, and receives the water 
from all the roofs. C, Faucet under which 

ore logs bored to had the water to the tubs A 

A. E, Moot cellar, 'J ft by 18, BOUj bad. of 
the wall in (In • bank, is arched over with stone 
and covered with earth. I'., ffig, 31 manure 
cellar, 21 ft by 31, is on a level with the base- 
ment mid yard in front, mid Is accessible with 
a team by a large door, 9 by 10 ft 

Kig, a. — PSIIQIFAL KlxiOk. 

Fig. 3 is the principal Boor and its arrange- 
ments. A. bay, 2-1 by 11 ft. B, thrashing 
fiOOI 14 by 4-1 ft C, bay, 24 by 24. I>. grana- 
ry, 8 by 24) with si\ bins, from the bottom of 
which arc spools for loading the grain below. 
There is a door from each bin opening into a 
food room K, which is 12 by 24, with a door 
on each side, making a lommuiiiculiou from 
one floor to the other. F. room over cistern, 
•.' by 21 ; fr. .in this there is n bin 9 ft. square, 
for storing cut feed. In the remaining part 
there Is a pump und vat for welling op I I 
O, thrashing floor, 14 by 44. II, carriage 
room, 24 by 24, entered ut the end by door 10 
ft wide, opposite to which is another door, 
same size, giving entrance to stable. J, alley 
in front of horse stable, 4 by 24, from which 

tin- hoc. s an' fed in bos mongers. I, Horse 
stable, Hi by 24, divided into five itollfl. A 
span of horses con enter il harm id and can 
pass to any and every door without being un- 

harnesBod, K, alley in f t ol eajjo stable, t 

by 3ft This length i. divided in '" 12 bos 

mangers. 1 have pnrtiti idoffthr fthi i 

mangel • for the pui p ■ ■ "i putting in a single 
con or yoke of oxen I., cattle -table, 12 by 
21. 81, opon shed. Over tho hone stablo oro 
two rooms finished off, 12 by 16; one for wool 

ami the other for old h i fie. Over oar- 

rioge, granary and it ,i I ro • an hag lofta — 

The basement will accommodate four or five 

hundred -Inep, fu which purpose I al pre-'iit 
dt rote it The burn is i q ally well adapt d lo 
wool growing, rearing or feeding cattle or grain 
growing, h will hold two hundred I 

hay. If then- i. ,,i,c thing aboul ,t I 

would roc nend more than another, it is the 

manure Cellar! The uialiUie is wni'th tW)O0 as 

much as that exposed (■• sun and rain; besldi 
uol having i" pass through it spring and fidl." 
■ ' • ■ ■ 


BuBx/rmt is a want of the Qrst DCoesBity in 
our climate "f cold und storm, and no fanner 
may neglect with safety oi economy many and 

sundry provisions or this nature, lie needs a 
i/ooil him e tm tin- eoiniiirt of his family and 
himself, a barn to keep bis groin and fodder 

from lh" weather, laid. In protect his ih>- 
mCStic animals In, in ciild and storm, sheds and 

cellars to keep his manure from leaching and 

i'.'. and convenient oiil-liuuses to store his 
various vehicle* and implements when not iu 

use. A portion ol these wants ore everywhere 
conceded, but others are neglo ted iritii much 
loss to thoso who are careless of their impor- 

We t ften .-• • I'm a, upon n Inch no pro- 
vision has been made fur the shelter of | 

don of the stock throuL'h the winter. Di 

the former know that he can ill alliml tho I,.-.; 
which will result from this neglect? Dow he 
I ..ii ider thai to keep an animal while i'\|.i..l 

to the weather io good order, rconin i nearly 

dOUbk the f I (but Will . Ullice when ]„■ y 

comfortably sheltercdf and that the increased 
value of the manure will repay tho trouble at- 
tending the extra care then required? It is 
the truest economy wlm h looks closest to tlio 
comfort und thrift of the stock kept upon tho 

Many a former snUbta a heavy loss by the 
exposure of his manun i lo tho weather. Thu 
chief value of a fertilizi r lies in thai p«rt ol it 
which water will dissolve. I<cl it lie and [caoh 

through the spring or winter, iuh! Bgoodshare 

of its worth is gone. Shelter it in shodsor, 

cellars, and a saving will *oon be made ol 
than their cost, iuut this will prose the tract 
economy where manure to valued and good 
crop* ile-ired. 

Si. in. 'lime., the Wagon*, plows, and Other 

rurming ulcnsfls weather the; h.out- . 

of doors. What mid be aid ofthi 
of such a course .' Nothing for thoso who{{ 
pursue it are too ciunliatj of such con- 1 
tious to hued our remarks, — a 

i docs mil benefit the clover plant whilf 
for wheat timothy and other cereals it i fouo 
most valuable. 



1 wnrrbi tha Hold ..i Die Sloliirnl, ind bj lh« i I 

man i ol andeu Iii|?i And In, n 

will llioni , naltl I - "■■ ' " "" " " 

,.r mid Hi. stone Will tin n "i « ■ liwki a unwn. 
' i ,„ , iud [dcn-d ii >"H I l loakad upon ll, und 

P . .... I ■ ' | UlH ■Ml. II. 

lilili -'■•!. .■ Utile I I r, a lllllc TnlcUDg of [ni 

In -I. .-(. : go « Hi- |....ri. comi M i I 

i ,,,;. in; inn! lay Irani n* an ai i— I KOri avl, 


Sdi ii n tost, thoughtfully pondered, ueed no 
sermon to follow it. Ii is 'i brief and truthful 
picture of tho life and tote of ,l "-' slothful 
husbandman. It is full of instructive sugges- 
tions to those who will look upon aud considei 
it. Ii is ii pointed and earnest warning aguiusl 
igiomnt Idleness, uh-.m Poverty surol) follows, 
aud Want Boon overtakes and conquore. Let 
us inodilnte on the words of the Wi .'■ Mini, 
mill look for the counter] art lo the Field of 
the Slothful, if nny such yet linger in the 
Agricultural world. 

Solomon had a thorough contempt for slot h- 
ful, slack-bunded liirniing, and loses no oppor- 
tunity of giving drowsy Ignorance a view ol its 
own deformity, and its own certain fate. Ho 
tells tho sluggard who "will not plow byren on 
or tho cold," that though he descends to beg- 
gary, ho shall "have nothing in hurvest." tie 
says, "he that slcepoth in harvest is a son that 
causefb shatoe," and the crib of him that 

"koepoth i \en" shall be clean of corn; and 

tlmt nil slackness and carelessness tondeth to 
poverty is again and oguiu reiterated. The 
Wi e Man was a linn believer in thorough 
culture, in promptness and diligence, in neat- 
ness and good order upon the form. Let us 
sec what our text teaches us: 

1. It declares against xcceds. No one but 
"a mini void '>r understanding" would Buffer 
bin field or vineyard to become "all grown 
over with thorns," or would allow "nettles to 
cover the face thereof;' for it is evident to eve- 
ry thinking former "tliat tut one full crop can 
occupy the soil «t one time, and if that is a 
nop uf weed.-, no corn or wheal can grow. If 
ii is a partial crop of thorns or nettles, it will 
also be but a partial crop of grain. Hut the 
l'ii.1.1 of the Slothful is uot the pluce to look 
i.. i i lean* culture. It requires industry— wide- 
awake, diligent -handed industry — to keep 
thorns and nettles from growing and sprcuding 
from furrow to furrow, and from Geld to field. 
Let there be "a little folding of the hands to 
Bleep" and the vineyard is grown over and 
covered, so that years of labor shall- scarce 
clear it again. Leave them undisturbed and 
"thy poverty shull come as one that travelelli." 

2. Poor fences arc a sigu of slothful farming. 
"The stone wall thereof was broken down." — 
The "man void of understanding," and only he 
will suffer his walls ami fences to go to decay. 
Poor crops are bad enough without having 
them destroyed by unruly nnimnlfl, and prob- 
ably the neglect to replace a stone or two, first 
tempted the half-starved cattle of the sleepy 
husbandman to trespass ou his vineyard. — 
Broken walls nud fallen fences, need no word 
of condemnation — they ever characterize the 
Field of the Slothful — and ever show that 
Wont, "as an armed man," has firm Bway and 

■ full possession. 

And now, having seen and looked upon the 
Field of the Slothful, "let us consider it well 
and receive instruction." Do our fields and 
vineyards show marks of negligence— of igno- 
rant and unthoughtful cultivation ? Do weeds 
find n peaceful foot-hold, even in the foiicc- 
corners and along the walls, there to mature 
their seeds and fix their roots for a wider and 
deeper innovation? Are we "without under- 
standing" of their constant tendency to im- 
poverish the soil and injure the crops we would 
cultivate? Are we careless of the need that 
no unceasing warfare be waged against them 7 
If we arc, here is a warning for us. Our farms 
will soon "be all grown over with" Canada 
thistles, or "the face thereof covered with" red 
root, if wc slumber to the fact that these or 
other vile weeds have a foot-hold upon them. 

In there any thing in our walls and fences to 
remind us or the Field of the Slothful I As 
nent, substantial walls, and well-built fences 
are ever an adornment of a farm, so those of a 
fallon and tumble-down character deface what- 
ever other beauty it may possess. Then see 
that ye have them not Cull not for "a little 
sloop, o little slumber," but bestir yourselves 
until no portion of your farm shall in any way 
remind you of "the vineyard of the man void 
of understanding." So shall Poverty never 
15 overtake you, or "Want, us on armed man," 
rule over you. — n. 




Ens. Rural: — In accordai with your re- 
quest^ I nun send you an account of my carrot 
crop nud the method and cost of cultivation. 
The ground, measuring fcwenty«jveu rods, or 
iiliniit one-sixth of an acre, wus plowed late in 
the full of 1852, and four loads of coarse strawy 
manure carefully turned under to the depth of 
four or five im lie only. Aboul the middle ol 
May following, live carl londfl of well rotted 
manure were spread evenly over the surface. — 
Then plow twelve inches deep with a swivel 
pfow; in such a maimer as not lo bury the 
manure, but to leave nio.-t of it about half the 
depth of the furrow, or neur the surface In 
a few days it was harrowed, and again plowed 
mnl harrowed, and one quarter of o pound of 
seed of Long Orange Carrot, drilled in rows 
eighteen inches apart. Soil, a light, yellow, 
gravelly loam — in wheal the preceding year, 
following corn. The hoeing was performed at 
different Limes, os business allowed. Harvi st d 
by running a swivel plow, with a strong horse. 
as close to the row as possible, then seizing as 
many lops as both hands will hold, and pulling 
them out toward the furrow. If laid in bunches 
of about half a bushel in each, with the Loiw 
all one way, they can be secured rapidly, by 
twisting off at the crown. The uccouut with 

the crop is OS follow: 


To wren Ionia uunure tl ;.•. cent! per limit, 8S.23 

. „i.i, .. npnwlliig i. mi plowing a,"" 

it and sowing wllU machine, 60 

Throe day* IiocTor a, " 

linrvatlng '.". dava, 2,60. 

Intermit on land, 440 per acio *» 




By 05 biwlieln Carrol*, .it 30 eenta, 10,00 

II ,lf ralue m num. for succeeding crop, 2,02 

Top* for fodder ■ l,"0 




Amount. . , 


Equal lo $48,00 per acre. 

This i, :\ small crop — only 570 bushels per 
acre. Willi us, it has been a poor season for 
all kinds of vegetables. Carrots grow mostly 
during September und the last of August; 
which period this year was very wet, with great 
variations in temperature Last year the same 
period wus warm and dry, and my crop amount- 
ed to 75 bushels on eighteen rods — about 700 
bushels per acre, on the same kind of soil. — 
Twenty cents per bushel may be too high, but 
iln -. will bring more than that, nud are worth 
it as an occasional food for all kinds of stock. 

What do you think or artificial manures for 
carrots? Would not superphosphate of lime 
be valuable? What is your opinion of the 
plan of mnnufdeturing it, described in tho 
American Agriculturist? B. Works. 

EmI St. Johns). un, VI., 1853. 

Remarks. — f\ r c linve never used superphosphate 
as a manure fur carrots, but judging from its 
effect oil turnips, WO think il may prove valua- 
ble, though we should expect a greater increase 
from (1'»hI Peruvian guano. It is, however, ditri- 
eult lo get good guano, but it is still more difficult 
to get good superphosphate of lime, and Mill 
more difficult to make a good article yourself — 
unices you can get your bones /mo/v ground. If 
you can gel good bone durl, you can readily 
make a [)' "" H 'l crphosphate than you cau pur- 
chase of tho manufacturers. We have had no 
experience in the exact method described by the 
chemical editor of I he Agricultur'ui. It is an 
original plan of his own ; and if bo says it an- 
swers the object, why, of course, we are bound 
lo believe him. We must Bay, however, that did 
he not speuk from actual trial, we should not 
have bad the haft faith iu the method. As il is, 
we caunot agree with the recommendation to 

mix unlenchcd ashes with superphosphate. 

Ens. Rural: — Having raised something of 
:i crop of com the post s '11.-011, and kept an m- 
< omit of all expense in In ■ • ulture and gather- 
ing it, (as I il 1 all my farm piodm Is I I have 

thought pcrhnpsa statement through the Ru- 
ral might be of inter. 1 to iome of yoni 
readei ■. Although the re ull ■ hows no more 
limn an average crop of the be 1 forma of the 

neighbor! 1, and falls for sliorl of what is 

sometimes grown; still, 1 think it will shown 
- 1 return for tho labor bestowed in cultiva- 
tion. It will also show its value as compared 
with other crops. It requires no Blimuhiuts for 
its growth except those found inabunflance on 
all well managed furmp, when- the emu is prin- 
cipally fed out on the farm, ami a well arranged 
method for saving manure is adopted. The 
stalk, if well saved, will be found the besl of 
fodder for stock, particularly for milch cows. — 
Another consideration of importance us con- 
m 1 led with this crop, is its importance in a 
rotation of crops. No other so well prepares 
the soil for a succeeding crop of wheat. And if 
the land was highly manured, and in good con- 
dition, il may be sown With barley or peas, or 
planted with beans, to be followed with wheal 
in the fall. Indeed, 1 have always considered 
it 11 Ii ss to fallow ground after corn, when it is 
in good condition, and free from thistles, &C. 1 
prefer to plant corn on a good gross or clover 
sod, but on farms varying in soil, no delinite 
plan or rotation can be adopted. We must be 
govomod by circumstances, adaptation of the 
soil lo the various crops, &c. But to the point 
The ground planted was eighteen acres— 
wheat stubble. Soil, sandy loam — manured 
with 20 double loads of manure from stables, 
pig-pens, &C15 plowed from ten lo twelve inches 
deep; rolled and dragged; marked out both 
ways, 3 J feet apnrt; planted with largo bight- 
rowed yellow corn, 17th, 23d and 24thofiMay; 
cultivated both ways as soon as large enough, 
aud about twelve days spent with the hoe. — 
Cultivated both ways, the last of June und first 
July, and about I he same time spent in hoeing 
as ut first; cut up and stooked first of Sept. 
Chop, Dr. 

To miui and team, to ploir 10 day «, at 52 820,00 

Rolling and dragging . ■- -- 10,00 

Man and liorw lo mark out two daya $1,50 9,00 

PlttnllngllMiUv«$l, ".fo 

Kivi. buabtll wed corn 75 cent* 3 

Man and home, cultivating 10 da} a, S1.S0. . . . 

Iloolng, -•"•', daya, SI 

Culling op, ■-"-", day*, 81 ■ 

Hulking, W.'i daya, SI 

Wliulo oxpenso 8176,60 


Bj 1 s-.ji.n I, can, com at 37 K centi 8804,50 

Tlilrtv-*lx loan or amlka, «nrlli 44 1+1,00 

r.. mil) -live limit* puiupkiua, ou aiue ground, 60 ctl I'-V" 


P M'SNirs.— In answer to the inquiry of John 
Williams, respecting sowing parsnips in the 
full, I would say:— The Par-nip we all know is 
a biennial; the plant withstands tho winter, and 
in some inslnue - become-' a pest where il 
grows spontaneously, and is then called tho 
Wild Parsnip — we often read of person be- 
ing poisoned with the wild parsnip. I took 
my seed from Wild Parsnips,Ot that which 
was growing in the field without cultivation — 
Not being ublc to detect nny difference either 
in taste or smell betwe n the wild and tame, 
l concluded the root which had been eaten 

for parsnip and operated il- a poi-on must have 
been something else: (Will Borne Medical 
man BOt as right on this subject?) 1 hod sown 
ill,, eocd in spring with poor success, and some 
5 or 6 years ago, a foil and winter very much 

like this, 1 plauled par-ni| I in I IfifieUlbcr 

(10) and onions 5th January — this was the 

first and lost g I crop oftheformerl have over 

raised. In this instance the yield was enor- 
mous, anil the' roots :"i inches diameter and 2 feet 
in length; one, I recollect, Was 3 foot This 
great growth I attributed to the seed lying in 
the ground. I would recommend by all means 
in plunl parsnips in the fall for large roots and 
large crops, or if planted in spring, soak or 
steep tho -eed und plant when the ground is 
wet or quite moist. 

Millet should be sown about the time of 
planting corn, and if growu for seed, 2 i|ts. is 
sufficient to seed an acre, (as it yields more 
than u thousand fold;) for hay or lo cut gain 
lor .-oiling, I should think 10 or 12 quarts a 
plenty. There arc 2 kinds of Millet; one a round, 
compact head— the other open and branching. 
1. W. BiuaoH. 

Went Macedon, N. Y., Dec., 1663. 

ggtimlturnl fjjtiscjltauH. 

m:\v vork AGium/rriuL society. 


Wliolo vnluu 8851,011 

Deduct cost '7-'.-" 

Pronuof crop S075,<.n 

Prollln or arrc 37,62 

Cost lo mL-o bunko) earl OM ccnlfl. 

In this estimate, I value the com in the car 
at one-half the valuo of shelled com. By some 
this may I"- thought high, but my com will pay 
for shelling, and return one bushel of shelled to 
two of eurs. c. k. w. 

URoy, N. V., Dec, 1853. 

• i o • 



Perhaps in no one thing is the " arithmetic" 
of formers put to a severer tesl than in ascer- 
taining the value — perhaps with cold fingers — 
of a given number of pounds of hay at a given 
price. To these I would recommend the fol- 
lowing rule of Adams, as easy, practicable aud 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds of 
hay, or con], by one half the price per ton, 
pointing off three figures from the right hand. 
The remaining figures will be the price or the 
hay or coal (or any other articles by the ton) 
in cents and mills, which can be easily reduced 
to dollars. 

Example. — Whut will be the cost of 058 
pounds ol' hay, at ^7,50 per toil. 

Solution. — £7,50 divided by two,cquals$3,7f> 

— by which multiply the number of pounds — 

thus: 658 



The Annual Winter Meeting of UlC New 
York Male Ag. Society, will lake plnee in Al- 
bany, on the 7th and Bth of February i 
illg. There will bo the usual exhibition of fat 
animals, dressed meat, poultry, ,ve„ and al i of 
grains, seeds, butter, cheese, fruit, &■. We 
will tive tie- premium li-t next week, 
The annual election of officers for the ensu- 
r will take place al this meeting, and ii 
is hoped that there will be a full delegation 
from ull the County Sociotic , c pecially, let 
Western New York be (what ii ha never yet 
been) folly represented. The interest, ol the 
Soi i>i y demands attention in this particular. — 
Another very important consideration, to be 
brought before this meeting is the permanent 
location of the State Pair at one or two places, 
I,ct all who feel an interest in the welfare of i In- 
New York Slate Agricultural Society, be at 
Albany on the seventh of uoxt Fcbuary. 

» i o *- — 

Sulphate op LrstK is found by Cm v.w.iek 
I'i.avssi.s to be iiilniirubly adapted for arc .-i- 
ing decomposition in vegetable substances He 
made this discovery accidentally. He then 
procured some potatoes, nil of which wen- dis- 
eased. These he divided into three portions; 
one lot he placed in a weak solution of .-nl- 
phuric acid, and then in lime water. Thi 
ond lot was placed in the lime water first, and 
afterwards in the acid. The third lot was lefl 
untouched. On examining them ten days af- 
terwards, he found that the fir.-t lot \ 

sound us when taken in hand. The sec I lot 

was slightly diseased, while those untouched 
were rapidly decaying. The flavor of the po- 
tato was not injured by the sulphate. How 
far this process may prove of practical value, 
future experiments must determine. The fa t, 
if ii is a fact, however, is a matter ol ! 
interest It has long been known that a- ids 
and acid salts would arrest decomposition, but 
we believe this property has not previously 
been claimed for sulphate of lime. 




Starch in Potatoes.— It has often been ob- 
served by fanners in the habit of feeding po- 
tatoes largely to their stock, that the potatoes 
were more nutritious in the fidl than in the 
spring. This opinion is confirmed by analysis. 
Db Uaxdolle (Pbys. Vcgct. Tome, page IC1) 
round that tho amount of starch in potatoes 
decreases in about the same ratio as it increases 
while they approach maturity. Thus, in August, 
100 lbs. of potatoes gave 10 lbs. of starch. In 
September, 14 1-2 lbs.; in October, 14 3-4 lbs.; 
in November, 17 lbs. This proportion is con- 
ulunt during January and Feliruary, but dimin- 
ishes In March so as to come down to 13 3-1 
lbs. in April; and in May to lOJbe. 

Tub above engraving represents a sheep 
ruck that I use, and which is made as follows: 
Take, for your posts, 3 by 3 scantling, cut 3 
feel long. Pour inches from the top, and thir- 
1. 1 n incjicfl from the boltom, frame in mils 2 
by three, bored to receive rounds two inches 
in diameter. The rounds should have a shoul- 
der, and tennon to follow one nnd a quarter 
inch auger, and sholud go in loose so as to turn 
readily. Space oil* and bore your rails by sot- 
ting a round six inches from the post; skip two 
inches and set another round, making four 
rounds occupy ax inches, and then another 
space of six inches, and so on to any length de- 
sired. Fit a board eleven inches wide under 
the bottom rail, and even with tho front edge 
of the rail; then cut three blocks like L L, 'J") 
feel long, nud uail across the ends and middle. 
Nail in the bottom and the rack is finished. — 
This arrangement gives one foot space to each 
sheep. The rounds turning at the slightest 
touch, leaves no possible chance for sheep to 
wear or rub the wool off while feeding. This 
rack answers all the purposes for feeding hay, 
grain or roots. Geobok Bkowh. 

Ph.lp*, Ontario Co., N. Y. Jan., 1B61. 

Through the influence of annual fairs, and 
the wider dissemination of agricultural jour- 
nals, public interest in rural improvement in 
Western New York has received a now im- 
pulse. Though much has been done, there is 
still room for improvement. After having 
reared good animals, it is important to know- 
how we may effect the most advantageous sale 
of them. Many farmers avail themselves of 
the opportunity which is afforded for the sale 
ol siock at the annual county nnd State Pair.-. 
The object of this article is to i a'l the atten- 
tion of those who nre interested, to the advon- 
i. which would be derived from frequent 
sale fairs at the principal villages, for the trans- 
fer of domestic animals. Buyws and sellers 
would be mutually benefited. 

Such fairs should occur on successive days, 
that each individual might attend as many as 
he should desire, at the different places. The 
advantage to the teller would urisc from the 
certainty of sale, und the uniform rate of prices, 
according to quality. The buyer would be 
benefited, by being able to gather, with greater 
facility, the dc.-ircd number of animals. Such 
an arrangement wovdd render the sale of ani- 
mals as systematic as that or grain mid other 
products. -A- Blake. 
» ■ ♦ ■ * 

A Goon Cnor-. — I huvc a lot containing 
nino and three fourth acres, which I ma- 
nured, slightly with coarse manure, nnd 
broke up deep, the last or June. After har- 
vest, dragged it once, and ganged it twice with 
a gong plow. I sowed on tho field about 
twelve bushels or wheat and ganged it in. — 
This season I hnrvested four hundred and 
eight bushels, (being nearly forty-two bushels 
per acre) which I hnvo sold at twolvo shillings 
per bushel, amounting to six hundred and 
twelve dollars. Those who can beat this with- 
out extra manuring must hnvo good land. 

Geobok W. Jackmax. 

UTorda, N. Y, J»n, ISM. 


The principle of this operation is the same 
as in interest — dividing the price by two, gives 
us the price of hulf n ton or 1000 lbs-; mid 
pointing off the three figures to the right is di- 
viding by 1000 — the same as in interest. The 
result above wc have found to be $2,46, which 
is correct. And now, brother farmer, get your 
pencil aud see if you can find the above rule 
iu fault If you do, report o. 

» ■ • ■ > 

The winter radish is a more sure crop than 
turnips; may be sown two weeks later if ne- 
cessary, and will yield as many tons to the acre. 
I have had roots that weighed 11 pounds each. 
Cattle will cut them as well as any other roots; 
.il least i hey never refuse them. Their relative 
value compared with other roots I have not 
tested: I read on article, however, which set 
me to growing them for food. 

A fanner, I think iu one of the New Eng- 
land States fed them to his cows that were in 
milk, and the milk was improved both in quan- 
tity mnl qiudity. It appeared he was in the 
habit or raising a quantity of roots of different 
kinds for feeding; on this occasion his favorite 
roots hud run out, and having a good heap of 
winter radishes, he commenced feeding his 
cows on them, but kept dark, almost rearing 
the result when it should be round out in the 
house. After about a week his wire said to 
him, " What have yon been fooding the cows 
of late?" He replied foorfully, "Why! what 
is the matter?" "Oh, don't be alarmed; I sup- 
pose this is one or your experiments, as the 
milk has increased very perceptibly for a few 
days past I concluded you had changed their 
food." Since that time he has raised them in 
large quantities for his cows, mid thinks them 
preferable to beets or carrots. If nny or your 
readers have had experience in this direction, 
an account or it will be interesting. 

I. W. Baioos. 

Wort Macedon, Dot, 1843. 

« ■ • ■ ■ 

Tdaeb examined chemically the air collected 
from the surface of dung heap, and found little 
or no escape cither of ammonia, or carbon. 

The show this year wo are informed was ( 
"less splendid" than usual, though fur utility J 
(symmetry and lirmiie.-s of liesh being I he tests ■ 
of excellence rather than over fatness) it was | 
superior to all others. -The Ucrcfords were i 
generally considered by good judges as extra- ( 
ordinary Bpci miens." Tho most attractive aui- < 
ruul in the show was a short-horn ox, 5 years , 
inula months old, "fed ,on gmss, hoy, turnips, J 
beaus nnd oatmeal, and Unseed cake." He is ( 
18 hands high, 6$ foot from tip to shoulder, :'. 
feet across the hip.-, 10 fi et m girth behind tho 

shoulder, 12 feet in length from nose to r p, 

and 4 feet 5 in. from chine to brisket and 
weighs about 4,200 lbs. PnUiCB Auik.ut out- 
strip) all his competitors iu the pig classes, and 
the Dike of Richmond and Mr. Dui R, of Eyn- 
ham, near Oxford, were very successful iu the 
sheep department We will give further par- 
ticulars when our Agricultural exchanges come 

to hand. 

. ♦ ■ * 

Results op — Will under- 
dcrdmining pay? has been most conclo ivcly 
answered in the affirmative, by several inde- 
pendent practical experimenters, .ions John- 

STOK, near QflnevO, has perhaps und.-idiiiined 
more than any other mun in America. But 
I his is not all he does to fertilize bis form. — 
He has Tor many years been in the habit of 
fottoning largo numbors of entile on oil-cakej 
corn, &tj and thus making a large quantity of 
most valuable manure. In a communication 
to tho Country Gentleman, he says that he 
raised $l,t)30 worth of wheat from 46 acres 
lost year. "So, upon the whole, 1 had a pay- 
ing crop." This was ou drained hind. On a 
fow spots that he thought would not pay to 
drain, the midge destroyed all the wheat; and 
on a ridge which, though a little wet, he tho"t 
would bring a good crop without draining, at 
least one-half icas destroyed by the midge, 

Cookixo food FOB lions, — At the Llillsbor- 
oiuh Agricultural Society, it was stated that 
Mr. How, Methuen, Mass., took im equal num- 
ber of pigS of the same liller, and kept ouc lot 
on meal uncooked, or merely mixed with water. 
To the other lot he gave an equid weight of 
meal scalded, or cooked. Those on the un- 
cooked uieiil increased much more than thoao 
on the cooked. The experiment was then re- 
versed, and again resulted iu favor of raw 


» ■ ♦ ■ « 

Pobeiox Bitter in England. — Of tho im- 
portations of batter into England, for the past 
three years, Holland has supplied more thou 
two-thinls, or about ten thousand tons aimu- 
ally. The Hansoatic towns stand next od the 
list, and supply about two thousand tons an- 
nuolly; about one thousand tons; Belgium and 
Other countries. In 1850, the United States 
sent about 360 tons ot butter to England; in 
1851, ubout 140 tons; in 1852, 14 tons. 
• » ■ ■ 

Monroe Co. Ao. Society. — The annual 
meeting or this Society, for the election or offi- 
cers, &c, will be held at the Court House, in 
Rochester, on Wednesday, the 10th inst 


(Drchart anb (Sartra. 

>.*-..•*.•*./-.."».'*. *••.-*..■..—."./-».-». *-..-•- 


i'Gou Ai.mmiTY Hi«l |)UuiI(mI > girdon: ami, Inil 

nn »n Tilo I'm-; il i. Iho u'hmI'-i n-fn^h- 

ii,. 1,1 i„ Hi.- iplrlli of man, iritliool wh\n\ ImlMinjn anil 
I , • .- ..ii- I hi |{rnM litt&dfwarka." — Lard i:ttr<m. 

A iinjii. iii'Vit seems complete without n 
Gardei — i ithoul tlie protection and cmbellish- 
mciil r»rirci s mid flowers. Tin' Guuet buildings 
oiid the in., i costly palaces are bal "grow 
handiworks," until taste has given them this 
appropriate adornment. This "purcsl "I hu- 
man pleasures" — this "greatest rofrcahmcnl 
lo he Bpirits of a man," among (he enlighten- 
ed mill rcGncd i- required to fill out the 
of blessings with which they would surround 
I heir lives. 

1 1 is well that this is so. The influences 
with which il liriii'rs the lieurt in eonluel, uio 
as needed as they arc pare and genial. A 
writer well • <\ . — "A blessed moral influence 
emanates from whatever adds to the attrac- 
tions of home, A farmer who has early taught 
hi- children to interest themselves in the culti- 
vation of fruits and (lowers bos done much '" 
shield them nguiusl the allurements of vice; foi 
ill" difference between n dwelling situated 
amidst bleakness and dcsolnli and one em- 
bowered among trees and (lowers', and snr- 
rounded by all the charms of beautiful scenery, 
is sufficient to make an indelible impression 
upon the character of the young; — and long 
afterward, in the stormy warfare of life, or in 
sickness and sorrow, these hallowed images 
shall eome back to sustain, to solace, and to 
cheer the riper years of manhood, and the de- 
clining strength of old age," And Wherever 
one may dwell, whatever may be his employ- 
ment, if he has ever known the pleasure of 
planting and tending until it came to perfec- 
tion, n fruit or flower of his own, it will he n 
green -pot iii the memory of the pasl to which 
he will often recur, nnd an experiment which 
he will long to repeat, as long as his hehrl i- 
not utterly depraved by ambition, or nvaric >, 
or still more degrading passions aud pursuits. 

It is cheering to kuow that there is u 
growing taste for horticultural pursuits, an 
increased demand for information, and en 
■ nlurgcd dc-ire to study into and practice this 
pleasant and healthful art We are fair to 
believe that the Rural New-Yorker going, 
as it does, into thousands of Rural Domes, 
has been instrumental iii no small degree in fur- 
wording this noble work. Every week, for the 
four years past, it has had its ge*d word to say of 
the Orchard and Garden; commending them to 
il- readers, instructing and ud vising 09 to their 
management, and encouraging by the story of 
thok results. It is not too much lo claim for 
it, when we say, that it has thus made thous- 
iuid- happier and better in the increased ut- 
traction which its influence has given to their 
homes. And thus geniul shall its influence 
oyer be. We shall seek to make this depart- 
ment worthy of the success which has uttcuded 
it — mi utile ally in the cause of Horticultural 
Progress — a faithful epitome of the new, the 
seasonable, and the useful — hastening, as tar us 
lies in our power, the "Good time coining," 
when " the desert place shall be made glad, 
and the wilderness blossom as the rose." — is. 

'Gko. Jaqokh, Esq., of Worcwder, Maw. 


Pwjraittt %x\%, fa. 

j9 t 



I have just been examining some very large, 
fine, ripe Hovcys, and Early Scarlet Strawber- 
ries grown in the open air by C. P. Peaiiooy, 
Esq., of Columbus, Georgia; nnd transplanted 
vines and fruit in full bearing, given and ripe, 
into pots from his garden on the 20th l)cc The 
pot was placed in a basket and forwarded by 
Uarniikn'b Express to Miss Thornmirn, New 
York, where they have just arrived this day, the 
24th December. 

In a note Mr. PKAiionvsays: — 'These plants 
have borne for 10 months in succession, in the 
0|>en ground, for he has never cultivated u 
strawberry in a pot, or in the green-house." 

The plants look very healthy, but the leaves 
are very small — not usually larger than a shil- 
ling piece, on the genuine Hovcys — for there 
can be no mistake — they are the genuine 


The plants exhibit not the least disposition 
to put out runners, on the contrary, I hey nre 
now pushing up new fruit stalks, although some 
of the single small plants have from six to ten 
lino berries ripe aud green on them. 

Mr. P. has often given his mode of culture 
to the world It is simply new, fresh soil re- 
duced by hand, intermixed and trenched deep 
and uudcrdruinud, — moderate quantity of veg- 
etable manures alone, water frcoly when need- 
ed, but not more water than wo have often nj*- 
plied under other culture in Western New 
York. Tho plants ore cultivated 18 inches, or 
2 feet apart, and most thoroughly mulched. 

lie thinks ufter tho plants arc thoroughly 
acclimated and trained, they will bear as well 
here during all June, July, August, and part 
of September, us in the Houth. I hope some 
one will give it a thorough triui Tho fruit, in- 
stead of tho vines, mast be fed. 

R- G. Parpbk. 

New York, Dk. M, 181S. 

The St. Gmsr.AiN is a most excellent Bel- 
gian pear, introduced into this country by S. 
<;. I'i kkinr, of Boston. The tree- is remarka- 
ble for its uprightness, and the great beauty 
and vigor of ita growth. Shoots light brown. 
Fruit of medium size; pyriform, neck narrow, 
acute, tapering to (he stalk, to which it joins 
by fleshy rings. Skin, a pale yellow, with 
sometimes a faint blush, or a few gray specks. 
Stalk, an inch and a half long, curved. Calyx 
rather .-mull, open, set in a very shallow basin! 
Core small. Flesh, white, buttery and juicy 
with a fine sprightly flavor; first rale when in 
perfection, but occasionally varying to second 
rate. Ripens in September, and is better when 
gathered early and ripened in the house. It is 
hardy aud productive, and flourishes well on 
its own stock or as a dwarf on the quince. 

A uy of our readers who have had experience 
with this pear, would do us a favor by inform- 
ing us of its merits in their respective districts. 
Now that tho Rural has attained not only a 
very large, but extended circulation, wo hope to 
collect and disseminate much information 
respecting the adaptation of the various varie- 
ties of fruit to different localities, — and, as 
much as possible, to acertain the came of the 
observed fact, that some varieties arc valuable 
in one district uud worthless in another. — 
Please, therefore, furnish us with your experi- 
ence on this aud other practical and important 
horticultural subjects. 

With this number, we commence giving a 
scrii of excellent engravings of some of the 
lUOSl valuable and popular varieties of fruits, &c. 
■ ■ ♦ — ■ 


Ix the Rural of Dec. 10th is found nn in- 
quiry as to the manner of propagating cran- 
berries, the best kind for Cultivation, and where 
they can be most conveniently procured. It 
should be u matter of rejoicing that the culture 
of this delicious fruit is beginning to attract 
deserved ntteutiou. Iu the vicinity of Bo3tou 
they are grown to a great extent, and it is be- 
lieved with good profit to the cultivators. — 
They are grown successfully upon light, dry- 
soils, requiring only to be kept free from weeds 
aud grass, as a good farmer would free his field of 
beans. They may he grown by taking roots 
from the marshes where they grow wild, and 
putting them out in rows at least thrcc feet 
apart each way. They arc said to flourish well 
and bear fruit without watering artificially, or 
(he application of manure. Unquestionably 
their growth and fruiting would bt! aided by 
the judicious use of fertilizers. They thrive 
and produce good fruit in very poor laud and 
have done equally well in yellow loam. 

Cranberries may also be grown from the 
seed, cither by sowing the berries brood cast 
on prepared soil, or by planting them in hills as 
far apart as it would be desirable to have them 
when growing. When planted, unless much 
decayed, the fruit should be broken between 
tho thumb aud finger, and the seeds covered 
with moist earth It takes much longer to ob- 
tuin bearing vines from seed than from roots. 
Crnuberrics may also be grown upon low wet 
huid, and their productiveness will he increased 
by having the lund under water from October 
to lost of May, or until it is warm enough to 
atari vegetation. Water in the mnnncr here 
named, cannot bo very essential, as the growth 
of a good crop from the same kind of vines, 
planted on dry soil, fully proves. These may 
bo many varieties of the cranberry, though 
mention Li seldom, if ever, made of more than 
two. There arc the low, or creeping, aud the 
bush cranberry. Tho first are most favorably 
known, as from them are obtained idl the fruit 
with which the market is supplied. The high 

cranberry is a native of Western New York 
though seldom found except in isolated trees 
or bushes. Tliey have probably never been 
cultivated to any extent It would be desira- 
ble if a few (rees could be obtained for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining their value for cultivation. 

1 1 is to be presumed that vines may be 
obtained in many swampy places in Wc tern 
New York, as they certainly can iu Michigan 
nnd other western Slates. They may be cut 
up with a bog hoe, and easily transported 
where desired, and will with culture loon in- 
crease to a good plantation. 

Some of the western readers of the Rural, 
will be able to say how much the plants will 
be worth ready for transportation. The usual 
time of planting is in the fall, though it is pos- 
sible the curly spring might answer as good a 
purpose. This information has been obtained 
by reading and not by experience, upon which 
point it. remains for some more competent per- 
son to write. n. c. w. 

Erie Co., ISM. 

« ■ o . » 


We give below, nn engraving of an electric 
lump, which wo had the pleasure of 9 ting 
several limes while in London. We have no 
faith iu electricity as a motive power, either fur 
decomposing water, propelling machinery, or 
furnishing light; for the obvious reason, that 
no force a eliminated without a corresponding 
destruction of matter. And it is well known 
that six pounds of carbon (cool,) are equal to 
thirty-two pounds of zinc for producing hcut, 
or other force, while in the one case wc burn 
with air, wliich costs nothing, and in tho other, 
wiih sulphuric acid, which is, and ever will be, 
expensive. And in all probability coal will 
ever be much cheaper than zinc While such 
are our views, we cannot but say that this elci - 
trie light astonished every one, by its brilliancy 
mid power; it was exhibited one dark night on 
tho Duke of York's monument, one of the high- 
est places in London, from whence, it is said, it 
could be distinctly perceived at a distance of 
nine miles. The light was thrown on to n 
building on which we wore standing, and tho' 
it was a quarter of a mile distant, we could - i 
clearly to read. Such was the effect, thai it 
was gravely proposed to have an electric light 
anil a vast reflector suspended over the city, 
and which it was confidently expected would 
furnish un artificial sun, lo turn night into 
duy aud render street lumps unnecessary. The 
following description will enable the reader to 
from u correct idea of the nature of the lamp: 


Tin-, new and ingenious pnnciplo of mol iug 
casks from iietel. patented by Mr. Glare, of 
this town, is now in o]>cralion at lus works in 
N.i li Grove, The casks arc make liy mo- 
■biie iv. i pn i adapted to this new branch 
of manufacture by BkiUful engineers, whoso 
Bervici were - mred hn- the purpose, 'i he 
staves, specimens of which have olread) b n 
exhibited in public, nre of peculiar construc- 
tion, and the grcal difficulty lo be overed 

wan lo pi inline C IU I, hm- complete by I 

1 ' ■ is ( ITei led by means" of a 
screw press, to which n large mi chanicnl |>owi r 
is applied. The iron is cut into the required 
lengths, and after being subjected to a power- 
ful bent in a furnace is transferred to the p 

vi "" " ; " 'JVC ii excel form ai .Id — 

The machine Ihrowi out tho stave al the rule 
"i one per minute. It is neces ury to cul tho 
iron in opposition to the grain, iii order that 
whon tho flange is formed it may bo mad,, 
without cracking. The staves, ou'lieing corn- 
pi 1 led, nregroupedi and formed into casks when 
required tor use. Each tavo is uulculatod to 
beam |Me~uro of Hill pounds on the en 
inch. I'he heads ol tire i asks arc formed by a 
machine adapted to cat circles of a vory lai gi 
diameter with tho ntmosl precision By a 
simple plan the heads of the metullic caskscun 

bo removed without di turbing the hoops "hi. -h 
bind the,,, log-thcr-.,, „„„„, r ,,,- r i ... „,,,,„ , 

importance where it i a necessary to transfer 
liquids from one cask t„ another. It is tho'l 
that the metallic casks will ere long come into 
genera] use, and ulmost, if not entirely supor- 
cdo the common wooden casks now omployod 
for all purposes — Engluh Paper. 

The Cultivator hits received 120 varieties 
or fruit made up of selections from'lhose exhib- 
ited at the North Western Fruit Grower's 
Convention, held at Chicago, and says: 

In looking over this collection, we were par- 
ticularly struck with (he great size and beauty 
of some of the specimens, as Compared with 
those grown in the north-eastern state* Speci- 
iniCUS of the Jonathan apple from Illinois wen 1 
as large as good Spitecnuurghs or Baldwin, 
mid possessed a brilliancy and smoothness 
very rarely equaled by any fruit. Such apples 
would unquestionably sell in New-York or 
Philadelphia for five or six dollars a barrel, at 
the least. Some of the Eallowater wore as 
large as well grown Fall Pippins; and Rumbos 
were at least double the size of ours. Other 
sorts, as for instance the Esopus Spitzenburgh, 
Pomme Griso, Pcnnock, Maiden's Blush, mid 
fellow Bellllower, possessed no superiority iu 

» «■ ■ • 


Cateiu'H.krs' Foi.v — " An ounce of preven- 
tion is better tlnin u pound of cure," and if you 
would apply it in the case of these pests of the 
fruil tree, look carefully, ami you will find the 
eggs of the caterpillar in good sized patches 
upon the smaller limbs Scrape them off, mid 
at one blow you destroy hundreds of future 
deprcdatora Ou small trees this can easily be 

Cdttiko Scions. — The present month 'is a 
proper time for cutting scions for grafting, as 
also are December and February. Shoots of 
last year's growth from healthy and vigorous 
trees furnish the only good scions, mid care 
shoidd be taken that they arc of linn, well ri- 
pened wood, us the value of the future tree de- 
pends on the perfection of the scion as well da 
that of the stock. They can be kept until 
needed, in a dry, cool cellar, with tho lower 
ends buried iu the earth; or better, in pits in 
dry, sandy soil, situated on the north ride of a 
wall or tight fence. 

Examine yocb Apples. — Apples stored in 
cellars or fruit rooms, need frequent examina- 
tion in winter, uud the removal of all decaying 
ones, is necessary to the proper preservation 
of those in sound condition. Many thousand 
bushels nre lost every year by want of at on- 
tion to this matter. The fungus or mildew of 
decay is always contagious, and affects not only 
those in actual contact but taints the air of 
the room — a 

At tho last exhibition of the Pa. llort So- 
ciety, there wns exhibited a Duchess de An- 
goulemc pear, five inches long and four and a 
quarter broad, weighing 25J ounces. 

The electromagnet is at a; and its arm n- 
lurc, u, wliich is beneath, is shown iu contact 
so that the brass rod c, passing through the 
centre of the magnet, is in its elevated posi- 
tion. The rod thus — by meuns of the bell- 
cinnl; lever, D, bearing against the loose sliding 
bar, k — holds the main vertical sliding rod, r, 
iu a fixed position. The armature, n, is screw- 
ed on lo the lower end of its link-rod, c, so as to 
admit of easy adjustment; aud it is connected 
by a link on it- lower side, with the shorter 
arm of the double, o, the opposite longer arm 
of which Uaa a spring catch, n, jointed to it, 
mid arranged to work iu the finely-toothed 
sliding rulclict-piccc, J. 

This ratchet terminates, as also does the 
tipper sliding rod, f, in a steel or platinum 
spring clip, k. The loose overhead bar, f, 
works in small guide eyes, l, on the bracket, M, 
and this bracket slide* down with still' friction 
upon the main pillar, n. When, from the con- 
sumption of the electrodes, the distance be- 
tween their points Li increased bo much as to 
stop the current, the spring, o, draws down the 
armature, a, and lifts the ratchet at the same 
time that the upper sliding rod, f, is released. 
The electrodes thus simultaneously approach 
each other, and the requisite distance being 
attained, the consequent instantaneous renewal 
of the current fixes them both by the upward 
jerk of the armature. 

■ ■ ♦ ■ ■ 


Mr. •!. AY. IIarhisox, of TInrnden's Express, 
has constructed a life raft, which consists of a 
series of floats connected by a lattice frame- 
work. A screw Ls attached to oue side of 
this frame-work, nnd by turning this screw the 
frnmo and floats arc extended — something In 
the manner of an extension tabic — till thoy 
form a raft of sufficient length to hold some 
hundreds of persons at one time; having also the 
buoyant power to sustain the weight of that 
number of pcrsous. The whole roll, when un- 
extended, is in a compact form, not occupying 
more than one-fourth the space of an ordinary 
life -boat on the deck of a vessel In the event 
of danger, this contrivance may be thrown over- 
board, and one person, by getting upon it and 
turning the screw, may convert it iu a few sec- 
onds, into a large raft, of more capacity than n 
dozen life-boats, and not so liable to capsiae or 
founder. It may also bo converted into a 
bridge for the safe huiding of passengers on 
shore from slenmboats, in cases of accidents 
from fire. The invention appeurs to be au in- 
genious application of a known principle to n 
new, useful and humane purpose. — Philadel- 
phia Ledger. 

What the Mason Has Done.— Oonturies 

before (he dawn of civilization in the empires 
or the West, be constructed those monuments 
ol rede, i, nt magnificenl grandeur which inoul- 

'"• w on 'li" bank- oi" the Gouges and the 

Nile. It was he who reared the stately tern- 
plea of Minerva and Jupiter, which ore so in- 
separably associated with all that is noblo in 
Grecian philosophy, all that is beautiful in 
Grecian art And in the dark aires which fol- 
lowed the downfall ofwestcju civilization, when 

the temples of Romo Were mined, the palaces 

ol tin- Gicsars plundered, the Pantheon de- 
spoiled, the amphitheatres laid waste, it was 
he who reared up the noble piles of Christian 
architecture which ushered In a new era iu the 
history ol tho world, aud another and d-mora 
beneficent period of human existence. — The 

• - » . . 

Dorse Rakh— Ansou B. Dinginan, of ML 
Upton, N. Y., has invented an improved horse 
rake, which consists in attaching the wheels to 
the shafts; and hinging the betid at its attach- 
ment to the thills, so that uothiug but the 
weight of the head is to be lifted, and this i 
done to much heller advantage than where 
the fulcrum is at the front end of the thill — 
an excellent improvement. The inventor has 
applied for a patent. 

omesfic djttmoiui). 


Ciif.ap loaf Oaks.— Take 2 cups of sugar, 
2 cups of bailor, 3 eggs, and two grated nut- 
megs, or two teaapooufuls of oil of lemoiL — 
Rub the sugar anil butter lo a cream mid beat 
in the egg.; take out half of this mixture, and 
to the remainder add three cups of milk quite 
warm and a littles yeast, and stir in .silted Hour 
enough to make it quite .stilt Allow this lo 
stand several hours till perfectly light, then add 
the reserved portiou of butter, sugar, and eggs; 
mix well together, and bake. By adding two 
pounds of raisins the cake will be very rich. — 
If coflee cups nre used, the nbovo will make 
four loaves. 

IxniAxjHEAL Douou Nuts. — A tea - 
and ajifflf of boiling milk, poured on two tea 
sifted Indian meal. When it is cold, 
two (ca cups of wheat flour, one tea cup 
butter, one aud a half of sugar, one of yeast, 
[nd two eggs, with a tablespoonful of ciuna- 
or grated nutmeg. If not sufficiently stiff, 
d equal portions of wheat and Indian meal, 
it rise lill very light. Roll it about half 
iich thick, and cut it into small diamond 
tharVjd cakes, and boil them iu lard. — Southern 

Buckeye Ukeaii.— Take a pint of new milk, 
warm from the cow; add a teaspoonful of salt, 

and stir iu fine Indian meal until it I nn - a 

thick batter; add a gill of fresh yeast, and put 
it in a warm place to rise. When it is very 
light, stir into the batter three beaten eggs, ad- 
ding wheat flour until it has become of the 
consistence of dough; knead it thoroughly, and 
set it by tins lire uulil it begins to rise;" then 
make it up into suudl loaves or cakes, cover 
them with a thick napkin, and lot them stand 
until they rise again, then bukeiua quick ovon. 

Make Your Own Candles. — Tako 2 lbs. 
alum for every 10 Iba of tallow, dissolve it iu 
water before the tallow is put iu, and then melt 
the tallow iu the alum water, with frequent 
stirring. This will clarify and harden tho tal- 
low so as to make a most beautiful article, 
either for summer or whiter use, almost Osgood 
as sperm 

II or Cake. — Sift n quart of Indian meal, 
and a teaspoonful of salt, uud a piece of but- 
ler the si//- of an egg. Wet it with milk, not 
very stilT; after you have stirred idl well togeth- 
er, spread your dough about half an inch thick, 
upon a smooth board prepared for tho purpose. 
Rub it over with sweet cream, mid set it up 
before a good lire, supporting ike board wiih 
u flat iron. When it is well browned, turn it 
over, loosening it with a knife After moisten- 
ing it with cream, brown the other side, as be- 
fore. When it is done, cut iuto square cakes, 
and send them to the table hot; split aud but- 
ter them at table. 


OB bit c a t i a n a L 


Pnosr, r»t I. .«! It. nil hi. Mil itlvo u ■ '• ■ ' 

I . .Iifi,-n, iv.,. I .... lilt I.. OUTo!. fr Ihl ' pi '■ Ol 

r ddti notion; oven iu. reading oufU UAlfa If"'" lalkini/. 

Tiie remark above — quoted from a chapter 
in » Biogropliia Lilerarn,' 1 on the essential dif- 
ferences between prose ami poetry — putt in 

words wlml OVl ry child in-lim lively feels, Ihul 
11 reading oughl to differ from talking." The 
contrary in and has been held by ninny teal h- 
ers, bat the few examples wc linvc known in 
which Uioy have succeeded in making it the 
practice "fa pupil, hovoahown us bow distaste- 
ful and unnatural it is. Sudi reading lias id- 
ways, "neomblaucc of petulant ease mid self- 
Milheicucy." very grating to the ear of the lis- 
toner. Froraauotc lolhc sentence above qno- 
ed, wc extract the following paragraph : 

ll in no less an rrror in teachers, than a tor- 
ment to the poor children, to enforce the ne- 
cessity of rending as they would talk. In or- 
der to cure tliem ('(singing as ii is colled, tliot 
L>, of too great a difference, the child is made 
to repeat the words with bin eyes from off the 
book; and then, indeed, his tones resemble 
talking, as far as his fears, tears nnd trerdbling 
will permit- But as soon as the eye i ogaiu 
directed to the printed page, the spell begins 
anew; for an instinctive sense tells the child's 
feelings, that to utter its own momentary 
thoughts, and to recite the written thoughts of 
another, as if another, and Tar wiser than him- 
self, are two widely different things; and as the 
two acts are accompanied with widely different 
feelings, so must they justify different modes of 

enunciation. — n. 

■ • i 

[For the Ituroi Now Yorker.) 


Mourskum.y sighs the wind nround my 
school house, to-day, fur there are no scholars 
here to enliven the weary hours as they drag 
themselves slowly along over the diid plate. — 
The clock stands there in its niche in the wall, 
with stern, upbraiding tick, telling me thai 
" lime halts not though my scholars are not 
gathered around mc." Day after day has it 
tiekod off the hours and minutes, and they have 
met mc here each morning with the same 
bright, sunny smile: each evening with the 
some shout of joy, I have seen them separate, 
each turning to his own home. Aud then I 
have offered up thanks and praises to God, 
that he has placed me here as one of this hap- 
py company. Oh ! the teacher's is not a selfish 
enjoyment; for, ever and anon after some hard 
explanation, how docs his heart throb, to see 
by the brimming eye that a new idea has been 
caught by the young mind of his charge. — 
When days and weeks of toil have been spent 
helping forward some one to whom nature has 
not been so profuse iu her gifts, does not his 
heart almost choke his utterance to find that 
one standing side by side with those who had 
previously been his superiors? Who would 
not be a teacher, as he looks forward to the 
time when his influence shall be the ruling mo- 
tive in those under his charge? lie will then 
occupy the position of father, counsellor and 
guide, and bus influence thus descending will 
aid in forming the character of succeeding gen- 
erations. E. C. Cob. 



ExriiEssioxs sometimes occur so apt and fe- 
licitous in their application, that they ure seized 
upon tuid udopted as common property. 1 1 is 
frequently, however, n more difficult mntter 
to name the author than to quote his words 
and among these may be reckoned the familiar 
expression, "First in liar. First in Peace, 
and First in the Hearts of his Countrymen." 

The JYational Intelligencer states that I Ibief 
Justice Marshall was the author of the above 
celebrated expression in reference to Washing- 
ton - . It was embodied in a series of resolutions 
offered in Congress in the year 1790 by Judge 
Marshall, then a member of the House of 
Representatives, on the occasion of the death 
of General Wasiuhotox. The following are 
the resolutions: 

Tiiliisdav, Dec, 19, 1799. 

The Ilouse of Representatives of the United 
States, have received intelligence of the death 
of their highly valued fellow-citizen, George 
Washington, General of the Armies of Ihe 
United States, and sharing the universal grief 
this distressing event must produce unani- 
mously resolve — 

1. That this House will wait on tho Presi- 
dent of the United States, in condolence of this 
national calamity. 

2. That the Speaker's chair bo shrouded 
with black, and that the members and officers 
of the House wear mourning during the session. 

3. That a joint committee of both Houses 
be appointed to report measures suitable to 
the occasion, ami expressive of the profound 
sorrow with which Congress is penetrated in 
the loss of a cxlatmjirtl in icar.Jtrsl in peace 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen. 

« . ♦ ■ 

Men of genius arc often dull and inert in 
society; as the blazing meteor, when it descends 
to earth, is only a stone. 

Pkuuaps wc cannot more appropriately 
open our Portrait Gallery for 1854, than by 
presenting the above capital likeness of the 
distinguished American writer, Wasuint.ton 
Iitvr.NO. A biography of Irvtno scarcely need 
be given, since he has written an auto-biography 
with his own pen; not in dry details of fuels 
and figure- — not in a chapter on the common 
incidents and accidents of life — not iu the self- 
puffing laudations sometimes published by the 
sue ■ - fill author while living, or by mistaken 
friends and admirers after he is dead — not iu 
any work dc igm d especially to set forth his 
own merits, and, presenting himself to the 
crowd, to say; " I,o! here am I, bow down and 
worship." The numerous works from Ihe pen 
of Washington Irving arc lu's biography, and 
iu them we catch a glimpse of the character of 
the man. The exquisite humor displayed in 
that inimitable work, Knickerbocker's JYcui 
York; opens to our view n power of apprecia- 
tion ofidl that is genial and sunny in humau 
nature. '-The Sketch Book," "Bracebridge 
Hull," and other kindred works, show us a heart 
alive to all that Ls generous, touching, anil pa- 
thetic;) " Astoria," " A Tour on the Prairie," 
"Tides of the Alhanibru," and similar produc- 
tions, display a power for romance blended 
with the historical, not inferior, although dif- 
foring in kind, from that of the great romauccr, 
Sir Walter Scott himself 

In the field of history, I riviNo takes rank with 
Prescott, nnd Sparks and Bancroft, as his 
life of Oolombus, and his works on Spain fully 
prove; and it is such authors us the above who 
have solved the question asked a few years 
since in England, •■ Who reads an American 
book?" by answering "Every Englishman who 
can read at all." 

Ikvino is one of the oldest as well as one 
of the most successful of our American authors. 
Among the numerous and brilliant writers that 
have risen within a few years in our country 
to challenge the popular applause, aud whose 
works have contributed not a little in pushing 
to the wall many old and standard publications, 
he stands unmoved, the foremost of the classic 
writers of his age and country; and his works 
are, probably as much sought after, and as 
much admired now as they have ever been. — 
They will never cease to be popular, because 
they are true to nature, and do not owe their 
celebrity to factitious or accidental circumstan- 
ces. Their language will never become dead, for 
it is the language of the heart. The style is of 
that chaste, easy, and flowing character, which 
a man can read and understand. Purity of 
sentiment, and elegance of diction, are Invixo's 
characteristics; mid the endorsement of his 
name Ls a guaranty that all may read a work 
and lie benefited thereby. 

What Bryant is to American Poetry, Ir- 
ving Ls to American prose; and the works of 
both should be accessible to the youth of our 
country as preeminently reading for the home 
circle. The contributions of the hitler, to the 
pages of the Knickerbocker Magazine under 
the coguomen of Geoffry Crayon, were among 
the most efficient means of giviug that periodi- 
cal its extensive and justly merited popularity. 
Ibyino like Prescott has won some of his 
brightest lnurels from fields of Spanish and 
Spanish- American liislory. Both are intimately 
acquainted with tho subject, both have spent 
many years among the rich mines of manuscript 
and antiquarian lore, stored away iu the arch- 
ives of those interesting localities; and tho ad- 
ventures of those stern enthusiasts and iron 
worriers, the Spanish cavaliers, furuish thomes 
as romantic in history, as are tho feats of im- 
aginary heroes who have an existence only in 
the realms of fiction. 

The literary labors of our author, have 
been remunerative iu wealth as well as in 
fame; and the income afforded him by the copy 

right of his works enables him to live in that 
elegant ease, and refined but quiet style, so 
gratifying to a man of Utemry tastes aud pur- 
suits. He has never been married, and various 
causes for this have been assigned by a gossip- 
ing public; among which are disappointed af- 
fections, and the early death of the object of 
his heart's devotions. Whatever may have 
been the cause, it has not in the least blunted his 
sensibilities to all that is instructive aud pleas- 
ing in the regions of fact or fiction; and we 
have reason to thank God, that, besides being 
snch ourselves, Wasuington Irving too is an 
A inerican. 


First and foremost in the list of those who 
will make their impress js Old Bulliou, who is 
not inaptly culled the Roaring Lion of the 

Next on the list i< Joshua R. Giddings, who 
will probably second Mr. Bulliou in most, if 
not aU his movements. 

Gerritt Smith, the eccentric head and front 
of the extreme wing of the Abolitionists, will 
no doubt, also side in the main with Messrs. 
Benton and Giddings, nnd startle the hot 
blood of the south with radical anti-slavery 

J ohn Wentworth, known as Long John, is 
another character, who, after uu absence of one 
term, returns from the Chicago district, and 
will be likely to make all the mischief he con. 

Caleb Lyon, an erratic poet and politician, 
philosopher and statesman, who comes from 
one of the New York districts as nn Independ- 
ent Democrat, and is one of the great cham- 
pions of the Laud Reformers, will also figure 

Jose Manuel Gallegos, the delegate from 
New Mexico, comes endorsed as a good Loco- 
foco, but he does not understand a word of 
English, and his speeches will therefore be 
Greek to most of the members. 

Mike Walsh, of New York city, appears on 
the national stage, and that as the very hard- 
est of the Hard Shell Democracy of the Em- 
pire State. 01 him we need not speak. 

The eccentric Wm. R. Smith, of Alabama, 
who is doctor, lawyer, preacher, professor, aud 
we kuow not what else, is another character 
returned to the next Congress as a Hard Shell 
Democrat. He it was who, during the hist 
Congress, made a move to have Kossuth in- 
dicted for high treason. 

» ■ ♦ ■ « 


The following amiable family picture may- 
be interesting ut this time, when Russia is 
thrilling her ursine nose into the politics of 

Peter I., the founder, as he may be called, 
of the prc-cnt imperial family, was the murder- 
er of the two daughters and the soils of his 
brother Ivan, and the murderer, it Ls asserted, 
according to more than one of the annalists of 
his reign, by his own hand, of Alexis. He was 
himself murdered by Menzikoff, (n name that 
has again risen up in history,) the favorite of 
his wife Catherine, who when united to Peter 
was ulreudy the wife of a living husband, mid 
their children were afterwards declared incapa- 
ble of reigning, because born in sin. Anne, 
the eldest daughter of Ivan, put 14,000 Rus- 
sians to death, und banished twice as many. — 
A revolution displaced the younger Ivan to 
put on the throne Elizabeth, daughter of Peter 
1., nnd her reign was remarkable for her drunk- 
enness and debauchery. Peter HI., her .-ac- 
cessor, wus notoriously the offspring of crime, 
and was dethroned und strangled by his wife, 
Catharine LL, the same infamous womim who 
had assassinated the dethroned Emperor Ivan, 
and whose own son, Paul— the father of the 
present Emperor Nicholas— was strangled by 
his courtiers, 

> » ■ « 

A oreat man is one who, in some sense or 
another, adds to the world's possessioas; be it 
in government, in poetry, or in philosophy, la- 
is a bringer into lift — a builder, a creator, n 
planter, an inventor— in some sort a doer of 
that which nobody else has done before him, 
and which nobody, then, besides himself, seem- 
ed willing or prepared to do. Now, it is very 
certain that the world really loses nothing. — 
A truth oucc known, is known forever. 

^\< , s/\< , >/'.' , >.'M'>.».ri,'\ l »^,'*,r l /'».»'./ , >^v«-»/'.»v,«'>/* 


A REMARKABLE fact in Natural History Ls 
developed by Professor Agassiz, in tho Novem- 
ber number of Sillltnan's Journal — viz.: the 
existence offuh producing living young. Mr. 
AC. Jackson, u gentleman attached to the 
Navy-Yard Commissionon tho California coast, 
while fishing in SanSalitfl Bay, caught with the 
hook nnd line a fish of the perch family con- 
taining several young, properly developed und 
lively. The occurrence seemed so extraordina- 
ry thai Mr. Jackson wius induced to -end the 
spa imens to Professor Agassiz al Cambridge. 
They were examined by the Professor, mid are 
pronoun, ed by him to be mi entirely new spe- 
cies. I fe proposes for them the Generic name 
of Embiatoea, in allusion to the peculiar mode 
of reproduction. 

The account given of the structure of the 
organs of Ihe species is very interesting. Pro- 
le or Agassiz enters into a minute scientific 
investigation. The body of the fish is coin- 
pressed, o\al. covered with scales of medium 
size. The jcalea ore cycloid, differing from 
those of other fishes which possess nn exterior 
resemblance to this style. 1'he posterior por- 
tion of Hie dorsal fin is supported by numerous 
articulated branching rays, which are sheathed 
at the base by two or three rows of scales, 
separated from those of the body bv n rather 
broad and deep sculeless furrow. This last pe- 
culiarity has not yet been observed in any other 
fish. The alimentary ennui is remarkably uni- 
form in width for its whole length. There arc- 
no ccccal appendages in any part of tho intes- 
tine; The ovary consists of a large hag, of u 
light violet color, clear and transparent, subdi- 
vided internally into a number of distinct pouch- 
es, opening by wide slits into the lower pari of 
the sac In each of these pouches, a young 
fish is wrapped upas in a sheet All the young 
are packed closely together, to economize space; 
some Inning their heads turned forward, and 
others backward. The number of young con- 
tained in the sncseein to vary. Mr. Jack-on 
counted nineteen; Professor Agassiz has dis- 
covered only eight or nine in the S] imens he 

has received. Tho size of the young is gener- 
ally one-third of the full-grown fish — a remark- 
able fact 

Of the specimens received here, there arc evi- 
dently two species, differing from each othi r by 
slight physiological peculiarities. The names 
of Etnliin (oca Jacksoni and Embiatoea Caryi 
are inscribed by Prof Agassiz. 

The scientific world will agree with Prof 
Agassi/, that "a conutry which furnishes such 
novelties in our days, bids fair to enrich Scicni C 
with innuy other unexpected facts." The in- 
centive to further exertion becomes more pow- 


Thk Island of Fierro, is one of the most 
considerable of the Cunories, and I conceivo 
that name to be given it upon this account — 
ll. ii us soil not affording so much us a drop of 
fresh water, seems to be of iron; and indeed, 
there is in this island, neither river, nor rivulet, 
nor well nor Spring save that only towards the 
-a--ide there arc some wells; but they lie nt 
such a distance from the city, that the inhabi- 
tants eau make no more use thereof. But the 
gn .il I'n -. rver and Siistaincr of all, reiii'.lie 
this inconvenience by a way so extraordinary, 
that man will be forced to sii down and ac- 
knowledge, that ho gives iu this, uu undeniable 
demonstration of His goodness and infinite 

For, in the midst, there is a tree which is the 
only one of the kind, inasmuch as it hath do 
resemblance to those mentioned by us iu this 
relation, nor to any other known to us iu Eu- 
rope. The leaves of it are long nnd narrow, 
und continue in a constant verdure, winter and 
summer; and its branches are covered with a 
cloud which is never dispelled, but resolved in- 
to a moisture, causes to fall from its leaves a 
very clear water, and that in such abundance 
thai the cisterns, which are placed at the foot 
of the tree to receive it, arc never empty, bul 
contain euough to supply both mad and beast 

r%\\\\h\\) $cabing« 


It may not be generally knowu thnt opera- 
tors in magnetic telegraph offices become so 
familiar with the sound of the instrument thro' 
whicli they receive communications, as to know 
what il says; that is, they lenrn to understand 
the raps and pauses as a language, and with- 
out the necessity of having the marks and dots 
taken upon a moving slip of paper, can, from 
sound alone, write out communications. And 
perhaps everybody does not understand thnt 
an operator at one oliiee may have connection 
with au hundred offices, and write in them all 
at the same time. At the telegraph office^ in 
this city, when communications arc passing 
from New Orleans to New York, every word 
going both ways may be understood; The 
operator is heard to call New York, from Now 
( Irleous, and in an instant the reply passes op 
its return. In this manner items of intelli- 
gence, business notices, messages and jokes be- 
tween the operators are daily exehongou over 
the enormous circuit of two thousand miles, 
and the most wonderful fact of all is, that u 
person familiar with the business, can stand on 
the sidewalk ii) front of the oflice, in this city, 
when the communications ure complete, and, 
by the ticking of the instrument; can under- 
stand the messages as they ply at inconceiva- 
ble speed— con hear the operators at New 
Orleans call, "Hallo! New York!" and catch 
the response from the Empire city, of "Aye, 
sir," while drawing a single breath. — Cin. Com. 

Umpkr the influence of music we are all de- 
luded in some way. Wc imagine that tho per- 
formers must dwell in tho regions to which they 
lift their hearers. We ore reluctunt to admit 
that a man may blow the most soul-stirring 
strains from his trumpet, and yet be a coward; 
or melt an audience to tears with his violiu, and 
yet be a heartless profligate. 



nr kawxt ma. 

Tmmr hiu, been chltdh* laughter, 

Footlt. |i- quick ,ui.| llghl, 

n.ii.r toIcob chiming, 

Young even ILvhluj bright, 
Tonal of deep rich oniric, 

Thrilling Ihl In irl .'.II iiirnugh; 
F» rn which Molo from violet*, 

The dorknea of their hue. 

Checks, which borrowed ohidtog 

I rom II..' r '« leaf; 

Draw >, untouched, by \ fnclb 

Of UU [ialoti r'.i grist 
Too forma, nt twilight bowing 

li. -.•!.■ ih.-lr molhet'a chair; 
Dimpled hand*, uprabted to Itnien, 

"Id altitude of pny , ir." 

Dut Jcnil f. ill hi. jMwrller down 
To crush Uiem cmo and nil ; 

i il.. I, ,.i need of (hem 

TO il. -c III- r, 

So back uliln lll« keeping 
I..' j.'»l'I.h lie bra (riwii ; 

Knowing full wall j ou'U Qnd them 
All rc-aol In II. aven, 


Nature, the field wherein God unfolds the 
infinity of his skill and hem ii. , h . ,.• in ihe works 
of mind und matter, is replete with the diyjn.- 
est instruction, and is murked by tho foot- 
prints of the Providence whicli is ever glowing 
with unceasing and everlasting love. In the 
extent of its revelations, in the glory of its 
mechanisms, in the harmony of its relutions, 
in the excellency of its results, themes are pre- 
sented of absorbing interest. 

In the far heavens, where colloseo) sy.-lcms 
of worlds dwell, stretching fur beyond the 
vision of the telescope, yet all retained in order 
and saved from coufusion, by the will of llim 
whose will is law and whose word is obeyed 

by the countless hosts ol celestial vaults. Iu 

thnt noble system, in which salelites revolve 
around planets, and planets uround the sun, 
and cornels come from and depart into remote 
space, ull held in their courses by the central 
world, by whose light I hey are illuminated, by 
whose heat they are wormed, and by whose iu- 
fluenee they are blessed. — In the atmospheric 
ocean that encloses the earth on every side, in 
which electricity aud magnetism roam and per- 
form their allotted tusk, where lightning plays 
und thunder crashes; where fierce storms rage 
and genial airs gently flow; where vapors float, 
snow is formed, rain fidls, and tho bow of 
promise is paiutad. — In the oceans of earth, 
whose awful depths, aud irresistible motions 
aud heavy roars|>eak the sublimity of Ood, and 
whose living forms and treasures excite won- 
der. — Iu the earth, where iiuiumcrablo forms of 
departed animal life are buried in solid rocks; 
where vast musses of a luxuriant vegetation 
have been changed into mineral coal, aud 
where metallic' treasures aro found. — The 
earth's surface, with its rugged mountains and 
fertile valleys, its broad plains and rich soils; 
its gushing springs and noble rivers; its grant 
forests smiling lidds, delicious fruits, aud vari- 
ous flowers; its diversified scenery and blended 
colore; its day for activity and its night for 
n -i ; ils organic life, from its lowest unfoldings 
up to mini, the most marvelous of all, each one 
.ii. lowed with capacity for enjoyment, and 
adapted to its outward relations. 

Iu all these, the car of the reflective mind 
hears thrilling voices that speak of the exis- 
tence of vast power, of unlimited wisdom, of 
impartial justice, and of boundless goodness, 
and the eye of the devotional soul sees dear 
evidence of the presence of Father from 
whom eometh " every good und perfect gift" 
Eor there is not oue object in nature, which 
when understood iu its relations mid results, 
does not show skill in its creation and beuifi- 
cence in its intention, and excite adoration of 
God, of whom we may truly say, " For of him, 
and through him, and to him, ore all things." 



A liKUTiri'i. infant had been taught to say, 
and it could say little else, "God will take i ore 
of baby." It was seized with sickness, at a 
time when both parents wen- just recovering 
from a dangerous illness. Every day it grew 
worse, and at last it was given up to die. Al- 
most agonized, the mother begged to be car- 
ried into ihe room of her darling, to give it oue 
last embrace. 

Both parents succeeded in reaching the 
apartment just il- it was thought the baby hud 
breathed its last The mother wept nloud 
when once more the little creature opened its 
eyes, looked lovingly Up iu her face, smiled, 
moved its lips, and in a faint voice said, "God 
will take cure of baby." Sweet, consoling 
words! they had hardly ceased when the in- 
fant spirit was in heaven. 

» m ■ • 

"A man," said one of the Jewish fathers, 
" should be prepared for death the dnv before; 
but us he does not know when that Joy is, he 
should always bo prepared." 

Hk that preaches gratitude pleads the cause 
both of Ood and men; for without it we can 
neither be sociable nor religions. — Seneca. 
. , ♦ . « — - 

Se.vtk.ntk from Hoiiai k.— No one is born 
without vices, mid he It the best man who is 
encumbered with the least. 



[Written Uoortfi Rural New-Yorker.] 



Most worthy friends, and patrons all 
On you may richo I I II lng> fall; 

On lifV-i Im-i'l Klrv:un, ma) prn-pe.rOUS galOJ 
Itefnxh you oft, und (111 your sails; 
Bach week, you'll find me ut your side 
Some fjood to cast upon the tide. 

Reports of all that' a new to bring, 
Unruly lightnings HtrOtcll the uing— 
Russians on Turku dire warfare wage — 
An Ineult on the pxsxiiitf ago, 
J\#l peaceful Arts our powers engage. 

No v.iirue or uudl .-■- ■< «1 dreams, 

1. 1 r form tin rtjiplc "f our tin m.\<, 
Wresting from Truth her golden teams. 
Vo ir aid '..<- <i>w. Irind MemLi, :<• tell 
<if crops thai tallexl or yielded well,— 
Relatiug/arfs ft\»out Uio soil, — 
" Knowledge is |H>\Tcr" lei lighten toil — 
Each ooo nil mllo should freely east, 
11. Joubh 'l t<» finrii at hurt, 

1 i • i * 

Emrbson is the author of the following beau- 
tiful verse: 

"I OAtoiiT the sparrow'n note from heaven, 

Singing at dawu on the alder hough ; 
I brought him home In his nest ot even, 

Ho rings tin' song, bat il pleases not note. 
For I did not bring bone the rirer and tky : 
Ue «uig to tuy oar, thet-e King to ujy eye." 

» ■ » ■ ■ 

[Translated from the German for the Kurul.J 

Or, The Revenge of the Just 

Semnow, the old fisherman, with limbs bo- 
numbed with cold, was carrying a load of 
twigs mid other pieces of wood, which lie had 
gathered in the neighboring forest to warm his 
Utile cottage. With difficulty he tottered 
along the snow-covered path before the house 
of Jthamar, the hunter, and was about to 
cross the bridge near which his little cottage 
Stood, when he was stopped by a rough voice: 
"Where did you get this wood? It is not 
yours. You have purloined it from mine." — 
Sbuxow was afraid. " My neighbor, 1 have 
not purloined it," stammered the fisherman. 

Itttamar — " Don't tell me a lie, old man! It 
is but yesterday when I was felling trees in my 
forest, and cutting the wood. The wood I 
left there; from there you took it, — put it 
down here," 

Semnow — " No, hunter! Honestly and just- 
ly have 1 gathered it, twig by twig." 

Itiiamar — "Yon lie! old grey head. Put 
it down here." 

Semnow — " Do but sec, I have nothing but 
small, dry twigs, which I collected just as I 
found them scattered upon the snow." 

Ituamar — "You huvc purloined it. Why 
must I listen to your falsehoods?" So saying, 
he seized impetuously the burdeu of wood 
from the old fisherman's shoulder, and hurled 
it into the stream. " Now the quarrel is at an 
cud," said he .scornfully, and ran into his house. 
Sbuxow looked sadly after the hunter, and with 
tears in his eyes went to his cold little cottage. 
A few days after, great masses of ico were 
floating in the stream, and many lumps rose 
formidably to the arch of the bridge. All 
around the ice was bursting ossunder, aud here 
mid there it was formiug in heaps which re- 
fisted and swelled the raging current At that 
time, Cuallisson, the son of Itiiamau, was re- 
turning from town, and wished to pass over 
the bridge, which lay between him and his 
home. Irresolute and frighteued, he trembled 
at the shocking scene, Semnow himself, who 
was repairing a boat, near by, dissuaded the 
youth from hazarding his life in crossing. — 
Itiiamar, on the other side of the river, per- 
coivod this, and impertinently culled out: — 
- Come over speedily; the bridge is not going 
to break just now; God knows how that quar- 
relsome old man wishes to mislead you. Come 
over!'' Cuai.ijsso.v runs — shock upon shock 
against the bridge. The youth is tottering, — 
another shock, aud he falls; yet another greater 
still, and the bridge is shivered to pieces, and 
to«vther with the youth thrown into the water. 
The father was raging, but the old fisherman 
felt great pity at the sight. Terribly the youth 
cried for help. Hemmed in by the beams of 
the bridge, and pressed by the ice, the torrent 
swept him along. Iuconsolably the hunter ran 
along the shore, cried and wrung his bauds. — 
How could he expect the fisherman would save 
the unhappy youth? 

But Semsow, with his silver-haired head 
leaped into his boat, courageously forced it 
throu'di the beams and the clods of ice, snatch- 
ed the youth from the whirlpool, and placed 
him sale upon the shore. " Here I restore 
your son," said he amiably, with a tone that 
might have tamed wolves. "Behold, he is 
fresh and healthy, only somewhat frightened." 
Ituauak dared not look up, and stood for a 
long time ashamed and mute. " Forgive mo, 
honest old man," said he, at length, very much 
moved, and with a stream of tears, which in 
spite of himself rushed down his rough cheeks, 
" forgive my harsh conduct." " Why should 1 
forgive your replied Semsow, with a friendly 
look. " Have I not taken enough of ven- 
geance?" "Ah," rejoined Ithamab, "beniG- 
cence is your revenge 1 O God! do the honest 
revenge themselves thus I" t. 


Ens. Rural : — Since beginning to write, 1 
have thrown off — I scarce know how or where 
— some scores of desultory thoughts and fan- 
cies, u portiou of which (in one form or anoth- 
er) have already appeared " in the papers." — 
But my book of " Chance Jottings " still re- 
ceives an occasional paragraph of a print-wor- 
thy character, so I have been tempted during 
the fragments of leisure now mine, to revise 
some past writings of this nature, and (adding 
thereto many new aud better thoughts) offer 
them to your readers. Their character will 
appear from the specimens given below, and if 
any one meets mi old acquaintance, he must 
rcmombcr that some of them "went the rounds," 
nuonymously, years ago. 

Yours, &c, J. H. Bixby. 

Alabama, GeuHCC Co,, N V .. ISM. 

Thoughts of 1mfui.SK. — We like to read 
what is written from the impulse of the mo- 
ment, for those sentiments and feelings which 
arise iu the imaginative mind when in the mood 
— when it catches from the occurrence or the 
Fceue the true glow of inspiration — are often 
best worth a record and a pcrnsul. 

An " Eternal Now." — Though we ever look 
back with u kind of melancholy satisfaction on 
the past, it dims not our forward gaze into the 
future. It is the realm of Hope — the clime 
where we reap the sure harvest of the seed 
which life scatters. But, that the fruit may be 
pleasant and wholesome, let our thoughts be 
anchored in the present — let us seek to give its 
appropriate use to every moment of that 
•• Eternal Now," which only is really and cer- 
tainly our own. 


Let the Unfortunate be Cheerfui.. — Rare 
are those genial souls who can always preserve 
their cheerfulness, for the "ills of life" come 
lighter or heavier upon every one — and seldom 
is the spirit with which they are borne propor- 
tioned to the weight with which they fall. But 
some people eutcrtain the idea that an unfor- 
tunate man should never smile or enjoy himself 
iu the least, ami give him no share in their 
Sympathies, unless he wears a gloomy look anil 
mopes uwuy his life. I do not believe in this 
doctrine. Honor to the man who has to bear 
sickness or poverty, or both at ouce, aud yet 
keeps clear of the heavier load of discontent 
Let him hope on and see sunshine, if he can, 
in the least breaking of the clouds which over- 
shadow him. 


Limited Views Partial. — "We judge by 
comparison. To exclude the great is to mag- 
nify the little." This remark, by, 
explains the reason why a limited view, though 
a clear one as fur as it goes, cannot furnish the 
ground from which to form our judgment — 
Our data must not only be truthful but general 
—embracing the whole subject, 

New Year's Thoughts. — Another year has 
gone from us — has passed beyond the domin- 
ion of chance and change — leaving its multi- 
plied trews of good and evil ou our mental 
aud physical natures. "We an' not what we 
hove been," butonrcoursc is beyond retracing; 
we can ouly review it, and thus learn from its 
teachings. Whatever it. may tell us, it is sure 
that our rcHeetions, should we live to the close 
of the present year, will take their color from 
our own conduct. Though "hy taking thought" 
we cannot "add to our stature," we can add to 
our pleasures — we can prepare for a pleasant 
retrospect by living well as we pass along. — 
We con perform our duties with faithfulness, 
aud refuse not even smidl pleasure-, but rather 
partake of all the little gushing rills which li II 
the sweet stream of contented felicity. 


Selfishness vs. Social Happiness. — Selfish 
men are never at peace. Their views are so 
narrow and so much alike that they are forever 
in conflict with one another. The path of free- 
dom and quietness cannot be found save by 
those with large hearts and extended views of 
the aims aud means of life. Social happiness 
in this crowded world, cannot be enjoyed by a 
community of selfish individuals. u. 
1 » i « 

Charitv.— Definition of it.— Charity em- 
braces the wide cfrclo of all possible kindness. 
Everv Rood act is charity; your smiling in your 
brothers face is charity; an exhortation of 
your fellow-man to virtuous deeds is equal to 
"alms-giving; your putting a wanderer in the 
right road is "charity; your assisting the blind 
is charity; your removing stones and thorns and 
other obstructions from the road is charity; 
your giving water to the thirsty Is charity — 
A man'.- true wealth hereafter is the good he 
does in this world to his fellow men. When he 
dies people will say, "what property has he 
left behind him?" ' But the angels will usk. 
" What good deeds has he sent before him?" — 


. . ♦ . « — 

If conversation be an art, like painting, 
sculpture, and literature, it owes its most pow- 
erful charm to nature; and the least shade of 
formality or artifice destroys the effect of the 
best collection of words. 

■ • ■ 

If sensuality be our happiness, we ought to 
envy the brutes ; for instinct is a surer^shorter 
safer guide to such happiness than reason. 

Let a close observer take a stroll leisurely 
among the shipping that lines the Baal river, 
and he will find that the naming of their Bhips 
is as significant an iudex to the national pecu- 
liarities of a people, as more consequential 
mutters. The Spaniard evinces the supersti- 
tious tendency or his mind, by such titles as — 
'• Santis-ima Trinidads," " St. Joseph," " Moth- 
er Miuy," &c. ; and one ill-looking hermaphro- 
dite bng we observed discharging cargo, bore 
on her stern the euphonious appellation of 
"The Twelve Apostles!" 

The i'reiieh, again, manifest their gaite and 
gallantry, by such titles for their ships, as " La 
Belle Julie, "La Bayadere, °Lfl Prima Dona." 

We met with but one Italian vessel, and she 
was small and of most primitive construction. 
Her sticks were badly strained; instead of the 
modern wheel, her rudder whs governed by a 
tiller of rough wood, with the end curved into 
u grotesque resemblance of a dog", bead. She 
was also a little "hogged;" and, in contrast 
with the graceful outlines and raking masts of 
the clippers that were near her, she npp' ored 
to as much disadvantage as a deformed man 
among n Gle of picked soldiers. We boarded 
In c sought the captain; but he spoke no Eng- 
lish, mid, beyond a few phrases from the ope- 
ras, our own Italian is bankrupt. Wc essayed 
German, however, and thore he was at home — 
invited us to enter the cabin, and pressed upon 
us his hospitalities. But the uumc of the ship 
was "The Archangel," and it confirms our the- 
ory. Wc found but two Butch (Holland) ves- 
sels in our widk, and these two atrcngchened 
the conviction; for the Dutch are an industri- 
ous, frognl people and the names of the vessels 
in question were "The Beaver," and the "Gold 
Hunter." John Bull's crustiness and pugnaci- 
ty was abundantly attested by such names as 
"The Badger," 'The Gladiator," "The Spitfire," 
"The Boxer," "The Julius Caesar," &c. And 
Jonathan, our Brother Jonathan, whose en- 
ergies promise to revolutionize the world, whose 
motto i- -peed, proglv.-iuii, and universal do- 
minion, shows his devotion to thi bjecte bj 

calling hi* ships " Sovereign ofthf Seas," "Kjng 
of the Cuppers," " Flying Pigeon," " West 
Wind." "Game-Cock," "Frightened Lightning," 
&c. — Journal of Commerce. 


I once knew n young man, (said an eminent 
preacher the other day, in a sermon to young 
men,) that was commencing life as u clerk. — 
One day his employer said to him " Now to 
morrow that cargo of cotton must be got out 
mid weighed, and we must have a regular ac- 
count of it" 

1 le was a young man of energy. This was 
the (irst time' he had been entrusted to super- 
intend the execution of this work; he made hi 
arruugemeuts over night, spoke to the men 
about the carts and horses, and resolving to 
begin very early iu the morning, he instructed 
the laborers to be there at halfpast four o'clock. 
So they set to work, and the thing was done. 
About ten or eleven o'clock his master comes 
in, seeing him sitting in the counting-house^ 
looks very blank, supposing that his commands 
had not been executed. 

"I thought," said the master, "you were 
requested to get out that cargo this morning." 

" It is done," said the young man, " aud here 
is the account of it" 

He never looked behind him from that mo- 
ment — never! His character was fixed; con- 
fidence was established. He was found to be 
the man to do the thing with promptness. He 
very soon became one that could not be 
spared; he was necessary to the firm as any of 
tlie partuers. He was a religious man, ;unl 
weut through a life of great benevolence, and 
at his death he was able to leave his childreu 
uu ample fortune. He was not smoke to the 
eyes nor vinegar to the teeth, but just the con- 
trary. — London 1 outh's Instructor. 


Jfur % $nuics. 

'■..•w'-.".--|.-'.'-. .-».'V>-..'VN >•»."«> 


BY WM. O. nilYAKT. 

Two dark-eyed maid*, at phut of day, 
Bat ttIicjo i rfy< r rolled away, 
With calm wnl brown and raven hair, 
And ono inis pole und both wore fair. 

Ilrlng flowers, they sang, brinjr flower* unlltrrro, 
i'i it. fitrrxt Iiloonut nf oamo unknown; 
ItriiiR buddlnp up ray n from wood and wild, 

Toatrow the blot "f Lore, the child. 

Clow rwiftly, fondly, whllo yo wopp, 
111* pyc*, tliut tl'.'jlh m.} " vin like elwp, 
And fold Uifl bandi In sign "1 n ', 
Hi- wuxon uuudA, ncrosa hli bivaM. 

And m.U:e h!» grave where violet* hide, 
Where a I ir-flowcra -*>> a the rhrulol'a eido. 
And Uui'-lilniv in the mi«ty spring 
Ofcloudl) i ;timrncrRing. 

Plaf near him, aft yo lay him low, 
Hi* idle ahaftA, bin looacnod how, 
The fiilkrn QUot that around 
tD ,Uh eye* in Kport ho bound. 

But wo shall mourn him Ion*, and mini 
His ready wnlle, his ready kJra, 

Tho prattle of hla little foot, 

gweel frowns and slammprod phrase* sweet; 

And graver looks, surone and high, 
A light of heaven In that young eye, 
All (hcAo shall haunt um till the heart 
Shall acho and acho — and tears will start. 

Tho bow, tho band shall fall to dust, 
Tho -diitiiug arrows waMi* with rust. 
Ami all of I»VO Uuit earth <-.ui claim, 
Bo but a memory and a namo. 

Not thus his nobler part sliall dwell, 
A prisoner fn Oils narrow cell; 
But he whom DOW wo hide from men, 
In tho dark ground, shall live again. 

Shall break theso clods, a form of light, 
\Y;ti> nobler mien nnd purer sight, 
And in the eternal glory stand, 

Hip}u.-t md uc,.r< -I iJod'n rii-ht hand. 

with each succeeding season. We wonld like 
when the winter of our days approach to have 
our stores well garnered — our work done — to 
feel no regreta a. 

(Written for Moore's Rural Xew-Yorker.J 


[Tnis Department will hereafter bo conducted by one of 
our female cootribOtOrl — 9 DOraOD in»t too old to cater for 
tin- S*OUOgi yet Of euflicJeut experience to Interest, If not 
in-ini. •[ Hi'--*;' who ha.-o Arrived at maturity. Shots ft Wife 
nod Mother, and conri-rcant with the tluU'.-s and obligations 
of a Daughter and Sister, and wo liave no doubt will rvn- 
dor Ibeso enlumus interv^Ung to all sustaining either of 
those relations. It may ho proper to add, that illness has 
prcvento-d her from attending to the present number, oicept 
in contributing the following article. J 


The Dover Enquirer states that President 
Lord of Dartmouth College, in his lecture be- 
fore the Lyceum of that town, discoursed for 
an hour unon this le.vl, in opposition to the 
prevalent idea that the " world does move." — 
The venerable President contended that the 
only movement was in a retrograde direction, 
and that every generation was not growing 
wiser and better and richer. Adam was the 
greatest landholder that overlived, and his pos- 
terity for fi.000 years had been dividing his pos- 
sessions. The men were not so strong nor the 
women so bemitifnl as 'hey were 1,000 years 
ago. Now-n-<lavs man was chiefly made by 
the tailor, und woman by the milliner. The 
master-piece-; of ancient art were still unrivalled 
by modern productions, &e., &c- The lecture 
wa- imbued with aucient lore, and was a fine 
cud for " Young America" to chew upon. 
. ■ • i ■ 

Conundrums. — We hnvo met with worec 
conundrums than the following : 

What wind would u hungry sailor wish for 
at sea 1 A wind that blows fowl and then 

When is a hedge dangerous to walk in ? — 
When tho hedges are shooting and the hull- 
rushes out 

In what color should useerct bo kept ? In- 
violate (in violet) 

What proof is there that Robin-ion Crusoe 
found his island inhabited ? Because he saw 
a great swell pitching into a little cove. 

What was Joan of Arc mude off Maid 

of Orleans. 

. ■ ^ ■ ♦ 

Good Abtiok — Some one — we don't know 
who, lint evidently a very sensible fellow— 
gives the following excellent advice. It is 
worth following— " May-be you are a bachel- 
or, frosty and forty. '1 hen, poor fellow 1 Sat- 
urday night's nothing to you, just as you are 
nothing to nobody. Get a wife, black eyed 
or blue eyed, but above all true-eyed. Get a 
little house, no mutter how little, und a sofa, 
juBl to hold two, or two and a half in it of a 
Saturday night, and then read this paragraph 
by the light of your wife's eye, mid thank God 
and take courage."' 

Another year has fled. Silently, impercept- 
ibly, the wings of Time have glided on, till its 
moutlis have failed in the past, to be remem- 
bered only as gone forever. The summer birds 
of yesterdny, as it were, have sought a more 
eongi iiial i lime — the beautiful of flora's tri lls- 
■ i r. - ~ have perished from our sight, and the 
perfumed air exchanged for cold nnd bitter 
winds — the little babbling brooks are stilled — 
the fields have doffed their green attire for one 
of pure und snowy white, and the music of the 
sleigh-bells merrily falls upon our care. As we 
are thus reminded of the quick transition of the 
seasons, we cannot but realize the rapidity with 
which we are hastening down the tide of life; and 
the tableaux can scarcely fail to come before 
our mental vision, of a similar " passing away " 
of our earthly career. 

This particular season most vividly portrays 
tho declining years of man. The scenes of 
youth, with it* fond hopes, and glowiug antici- 
pations, are o'er — the clouds and sunshine, trials 
and perplexities of middle age, past — the har- 
vest of this world's gain gathered, and maturer 
life creeps on. The form, beut beneath the 
buflctinga of many storms — the hair, whitened 
o'er like frost by Time's relentless fingers — tho 
mind, weakened by years of thought and plan- 
ning — the heart, sore with blighted expecta- 
tions aud disappointed ambition, exclaims, "All 
things earthly are -vanity and vexation of spir- 
it' " Their days of usefulness ore ended, and 
they are prepared to enter upon their rest 

With the Might of the old year, what chan- 
ges have been wrought 1 All the emotions of 
the heart have beeu awakened as it uoislessly 
advanced, dispensing joy aud sorrow in iu path. 
The homes of some darkened by the long ab- 
sence of loved ones, have been made to beam 
willi happiness by the return of the wander- 
ers; while other hearths were rendered more 
deeply de<oIate by a journey to a far off loud 
— ii land of hope and promise, tint from which 
the traveler ne'er again would come, the va- 
cant seat ne'er be filled, nnd the "Iugleside" 
ne or again complete. 

As we look back upon the months gone, it 
is n melancholy thought that the slighted op- 
portunities afforded for instruction mid improve- 
ment are beyond recidl, mid lost forever. We 
can number many golden moments thrown 
awav, many resolutions of amendment brokeu 
or forgotten. But we arc cheered with tho 
knowledge thut we have yet time to iicrform 
omitted duties, and that the experience of neg- 
lect will bo a monitor for exertion hereafter. 
The commencement of a new year is a fit- 
ting time for a retrospective glance at the man- 
ner we have fulfilled our intentions, aud for 
making new determinations for the futnre. — 
It behooves us to be diligent and nnweury in 
the exercise of our talents, as we are uncon- 
sciously but speedily wuftiug on towards the 
cud. Before we are aware. Spring will again 
buret upou us, with it3 buds and foliage, its 
sweet songsters and bulmy atmosphere, and so 

Wno has not seen aud admired the little 
child with bright blue eyes and flaxen hair, ita 
mild and winning ways, attracting the admira- 
tion of all beholders, — beauty und innocence 
personified? Such was Amelia, when a child. 
Who has not watched the unfolding of the 
beaut i I ul rose-bud 'I A t lii^t I he delicate leaves 
would scarcely be perceptible. As they ex- 
piuided, they increased in loveliness und fra- 
grance, until they were just ready to burst into 
full bloom. A striking similitude of Amelia, 
to the first dawn of womanhood. 

The promise of future usefulness seemed 
destined to lie fulfilled. A large portion of 
time, after she arrived at years of maturity, was 
spent as a teacher of youth, ami it was gener- 
ally known to bo -■■'• tory to her employers. 

Not that she loved the care and confinement 
oi ili- teacher's life, but she delighted iu doing 
good, and her duties, as far OS lay iu her power, 
were well and faithfully performed. 

When but a child, she saw the cold grave 
conceal the form of a loved mother, mid in 
Inter years received a father's dying blessing. — 
Though surrounded by kind friends, and scarce- 
ly knowing the want of a mother's love, yet the 
remembrance of former years had taught her 
to ■ cast her care upon One," who, we are as- 
sured, " ever carcth for us." 

Amelia luul not lived thus fur through life 
unloving mid unloved; her heart was early con- 
Becrntcd on the holy altar of afl'eetioiL The 
object of her plighted vows, was truly one of 
Nature's chosen men, and she had couseutcd 
to become his bride when the sun had agaiu 
dried the torrent of Nature's tears, und Spring 
had ouce more arrived with its beauty aud 
bloom, bringing its innumerable company of 
songsters for the gentle breezes to waft their 
sweet warbling- joyously o'er hill und dale, 
while the air was redolent with a rich perfume. 
How suitable the time, when the earth was 
decked in its fairest robes, for her to promise 
to "love, honor and obey," but ah! ere that 
time had arrived, consumption, with its " with- 
ering blight," had coiled itself around her heart 
strings with an unyielding grasp. 

She stood at the nllur, aud gave the rem. 
nant of her days to her heart's chosen one — 
gave him the privilege of watching all through 
the bright and beaut ifnj mirnmer o'er the rick 
couch, of doiug all that lay in his power to 
soothe and alleviate her Bufferings, as day after 
day passed away, while her body was racked 
with pain and anguish; and when tho Autumn 
came, he smoothed her dying pillow, — then, 
when her form was wasted, aud her eye grew 
dim, death snatched the young and lovely vic- 
tim, and bore it as on eagle-pinioned wings 
from his sight, leaving a louely home and a 
desolate bourth-stone. 

How fit the time to die, when the beautiful 
things of earth ore fast failing away! Why 
should we complain when the good and gifted 
are taken, knowing that God loves the sweet- 
est flowers far better than wc can? 

The leaves had fallen from the trees — tho 
sighing winds had sung a parting requiem over 
the graves of the flowers, mid ut the close of 
a beautiful, sunny day, they "laid her to rest 
in the arms of her God." 

"The rose withereth, the flower thereof 
fadeth away," — a true emblem of the life of 
Amelia. il 


Some flowers arc repulsive at first sight, but 
when closely examined, unfold a world of beau- 
ty. So with men. Don't judge of n man from 
first sight — he may have good qualities which 
will develop by acquaintance. 

■ ■ • ■ » 

A Wipe can make her husband her attorney 
or agent She can also sell or lease property to 
her husband. They are legal rights in N. York. 

Solomon-, iu describing the wise woman, says, 
'She maketh herself coverings of tapcft y," and 
it would seem that he, with all his wisdom, did 
not think it a waste of time for U wife to culti- 
vate the ornamental us well as the useful. She 
who "lnyoth her hands to the spindle," aud who 
1 holdeth the distaff,'' may also deck her house 
with tapestry, and her household with "divers 
colore of nncdle-work." 

Prom the eadiesl ages, woman has so exer- 
cised her taste ami ingenuity. Iu the quiet of 
dome-tie life she has reproduced, with her won- 
d-rfnl little needle, (he flowers of the field mid 
the pictUrCS of the artist. 

There is, perhaps, no city in Europe that does 
not bear witness to this skill, from the rich 
old tapestry of ancient palaces aud curiously 
wrought altar-cloths of the churches, to the 
humble bobbin-work of the Swiss nnd Scotch 
peasant women. 

The patient run beguiks the solitude, of her 
cell with the delicate embroidery of muslin und 
silk, mid the Indian woman forgets her bondage 
in stringing colored beads to imitate birds nnd 
flowers for the birch bosket und the gay mocas- 
sin. This love of needle-work is nniversal in 
our sex, nnd we believe it has a refining in- 
fluence upon them. It is a sedative in trouble, 
n menus of support to the necilv, and a source 
of gratification to the lovers ot the beautiful 
—Miss Anne T. liilbur. 



The Governor's Message. 

— -$^9l|K§ 



Our New Volume.-Briefly. 

At the Inst moment, jubI 09 the | ages "f this 
number ore closing fbi the pn --, wo are naked 

for "mine cbjjy" (•! (ill this do| ailment J Ollll 

hence, like the authors of ponderous tomes, wo 
indite the prefneo ok leader Inst, but, unlike them, 
we muat do ii rapidPj — io this wise: 

Thank* to the generous exertions' of its friends 
in all sections, we ore encouraged lo commei ce 

this volume of die Rubai with an cdil i 

t/arty thoiuaitd. TJiia is about double our.for- 
mcr circulation, yet from present indications we 
shall liuvc few, if any, extra numbers to Bparc 
as specimens, Indeed, we have been more than 
Hurpri ed unco tho opening of the campaign.— 
During tLo paal leu days our receipts on sub- 
scription han fully doubled thou aftht eorri | end- 
ing i» ricA of lad year ! — » result as unozpi cted 
as it is gratifying. Wo bad anticipated an in- 
orcsEod subscription, bul were ool prepared for 

SOcb an muhiticbe us is pouring in from all di- 

rectione— overy mail teeming with scores of lists 
ol iifu subscribers, Ibi applicants located in 
carious cotions, — from Canada in California. 

Under theso auspices, and in suob n drei 
is now under your eyo, wo conimenae a now 
year and volume of the Uuual, wilh a firm de- 
termination to ineril the unexampled favor and 
support accorded to tbe enler| rise, It is a pel 
nf • hi r.-, i lit!, journal — one which we original d, 
mid, with tlin aid of numerous uurscs, have 
nourished until it lias become, wo fondly trust, 
tin' companion of thousands who appreciate 
xealous efforts and independent discussion. To 
increase the value and interest of its pages, and 
thus keep pace with the generous offorts of its 
friends, will continue to be our earnest endeavor. 
« i • ■ ■ 

Up to ToiEi — Though we published no pa] or 
last week, it has been very dillicult to issue llii- 
nuinber in season. Indeed, it is an arduous task, 
this donning a new suit, providing copy, and at- 
tending to or superintending the minutnj of sun- 
dry other important malton — a good deal like 
commencing house-keeping, but more laborious 
and perplexing. We have experienced both fe- 
licitii -, but award the palm to the Elephant we 
have almosl continually seen for the post two 
weeks — during which period our daily tasks 
hnve been so prolonged as to prevent us (except 
ou Saturday and Sunday evenings) from touch- 
ing the pillow until next morning I Perhaps 
it/a "better to wear out than ti> rufll out," bul 
now that we've got a good start on the new vol- 
ume — and perchance elevated our credit — we 
propose to ignore the adage and sleep a few 
nights with both eyes closed. 

— Since the above was written, wo find it will 
be almost impossible to issue tins number as 
early in tho week as usual, or as we intended. 
Howover, future numbera will probably be fully 
• up to time." 

• ■ ♦ . . 

To CourETiTOiis von Ora I'ukuiims. — Though 
tho agents and other friends of the IUii.u. are 
pouring in the names and funds beyond all pre- 
cedent, exceeding our highest expectations, but 
very few enter tbe arena as competitors for tho 
large prizes. The specific premiums Beam to bo 
tho most popular, and wo have already paid 
many in cash, books, and extra copies of our 
journals. This probably arises from tho suppo- 
sition that there would be a rush for tho large 
premiums — and may rosidt in confining tho 
competition to a few individuals, perhaps less 
than a dozen. 

Persons who have written us for information 
in regard to their prospects of success, Ac., hnve 
not been answered, for tho simple reason thut it 
would be unjust to advise one and not the other 
competitors. In this matter wo cannot honora- 
bly show nuy partiality, and therefore whenever 
we report shall do to iu tho paper, or in a cir- 
cular addressed to each person interested. 

■ • ■ 

Wavxb CoirxTV IlEroaTixo. — Our clerks aver 

that Wayne Co., N. $*., is entitled to n spcoial 
vote of acknowledgments. On figuring up the 
receipts on Saturday evening Inst, thoy discov- 
ered that Wayne had subscribed, on lhat day 
alone.tnr Jive hundred and Utenly-tVQ copies of tho 
Rural for 185.11 This may appeara-stiimper," 
but we have tho "documents*' in substantiation. 
Other counties reported largely on the same day, 
but Wayno is clearly entitled to tho banner. — 
Wo doubt whether any weekly in tho State or 
Union ever received, in a single day, so large n 
number of subscribers from one county of so 
small territory and population. Thanks, good 
friends, for yoursubstanlial and magnificent snl- 
ni -i- urn- Wo shall not be likely to doubt any 
encomiums upon your wisdom or intelligence, 
the productions of your soil, or tho belief of the 
good people of your county in progression. 

■ * ■ ■ 

Alleoaky Speaking. — In our Wednesday 

morning's mail, wo received (iu five letters,) 
$210 from Allegany Co., N. Y. Considering the 
ago and population of the county, this is a re- 
markably handsomo report. Wo bend in grate- 
ful acknowledgment to alt friends, everywhere. 

» ■ • ' ■ 

Now is tux Time for tliose who would give 
tho Kubal a benefit, to make efCurtu in behalf 
of its circulation. Reader, if you like our craft 
and cargo, please exhibit this number, and suli- 
cit subscriptions. See Spceial Notices, PremU 
u 1 1 1.-. 4c, under head of Publisher's Department. 

Governor Setmoud transmitted his Annual 
'.;. «agc i" 'in Li - ; Inture, which as omblcd on 

I i lay, at two o'clock in tho afu nun f thai 

day. li is rathci an imposing looking docu- 
ment, covering considerable over a page of an 
ordinary ni R •; ui .anditi length «"ill preclude 
its being nail bj Fomo who would rit bur wise .1" 
so. It in tempi iati and moderate in its view.. 
and recommendations, but contains considera- 
ble unnecessary material. For instance, Hie 
whole ni the find column iB taken up in hi tin icol 
cenccs and laudations of our ancestors, 
the materials for which are pal as accessible to 
i | pie as I hey are to ihe Governor. 
The Message then discusses tbe subject of the 

Couirnou Scl Is, and embodies an abstract of 

Ihe Superintendent's report; from which it ap- 
pears tli at — 

The amount of the Common School Fund on 
Ihc.illih Of September last, was $2,383,25] 23 
Doing an increase over last fiscal year ol £28,- 
707 11. 

The total amount of moneys appropriati d bj 
tho Superintendent for tho coming year is §1,- 

101,210 HI. 

Tho number of Schools in 1653 was 11,68-1. — 
In 1852 the whole number of children taught in 

district schools, was 866,935; number attending 
private schools 3li,8l) ; number of children nt- 
ii ndillg colored schools 1,680; amount paid for 
teacher's w ages $1 ,'.l.'tl,s70 1H; amount paid for 

district libraries $111,499 39: total amounl ex- 
pended for common schools $2,lliS,2IH 52, 

The Governor recommendsnscparnlion of the 
office of School Superintendent from that of 
Secretary of State, and the establishment of a 
distinct department. Ho recommends the i stab- 
lishment of Slate scholarships in the higher 
Seminaries of learning, and also strongly com- 
mends the effort made to improve the condition 
of idiots. 

In regard to tho insane, among other things, 
the Governor says — 

There are at this time 446 patients in the Stale 
Lunatic Asylum at Ulira, and 55G in the Luna- 
tic Asylu ii Blnckweli's Islund. It appears 

by the reports which have been submittedtu me, 
lhat tbe elforls to improve the condition of this 
unfortunate class of persons have been attended 
with the usual degree of success. I renew ihe 
n < meiiiiatioii contained in my message of last 

year, fox the establishment of another Asylum 
in the western part of tho State. 

Tho Deaf and Dumb, and tho lilind Asylums 
ore also recommended to the notice and benefi- 
cent action of the Legislature. 

After speaking favorably of tho valuo of 
Houses of Rofugo for juvenile criminals, tbe 
Message lakes up the subject of the State Pris- 
ons from which it ap] tears that — 

Tho number of convicls confined in our Slate 
Prisons, Sing Sing 913; Clinton CM; Au- 
liurn 766, Total, i860. Ul tbeso convicts 101 
are females. 

Tbe Message censurossevorely, and justly, the 
pernicious practico of confining all grades of 
criminals together in our common jails, by which 
means the belter classes are brought into contact 
with the worse, the former being thus greatly 
corrupted by the evil influences of the hitter. 

The subject of the canals, the canal revenues, 
and the enlargement, occupies, as itdeserv, .-., far 
the largest portion of tho document Partial 
enlargement and improvement, to the amount of 

yJIIO.000, is recommended to be done, forthwith, 
which will enable Ihe largest class of boots to be 
brought into immediate use. In regard to tho 
amendment proposed to the constitution so as to 
obtain a speedy completion of tho public works 
the Governor says : — 

As the proposed amendment was agreed to 
with remarkable unanimity by tho members of 
the Legislature, representing all portions of oui 
Slate, and us a measure of compromise betwot n 
conflicting news and sentiments, I recommend 
iu adoption by you, and it* submission at an 

early period. If Oils is done and the people ap- 
provc of tbe amendment, tho Legislature can, at 
lis present session, pass tho laws necessary to 
carry out its requirements. Thecoudition ol" our 
canals render it extremely imporluiil that n fixed 
and definite policy be at once adopted with re- 
gard to them. 

On the subject of temperance the Mcsango is 
non-committal it asserts the enormity of the 
evils of intemperance, and acknowledges tbe 
failure of all laws to regulate tho trafic in in- 
toxicating liquors ; but it recommends no reme- 
dy therefor, merely saying : 

The whole subject will doubtless engage your 
attention. It is surrounded by difficulties Olid 
embarrassments, and unless the legislation iu re- 
gard to it is judicious, it will increase tho evils 
which it is r-o important lo prevent Any meas- 
ures which you niny adopt should lie framed so 
a. imi to conflict with well settled principles of 
legislation, or with the rights of our citizens. 

Tho Messago winds up with n column of ex- 
traneous matter which, liko the opening column, 
might have been omitted without injury to its 
symmetry or logical arrangement; niidsuchan 
expurgation would have added greatly to its 
Strength. Chief Justico M u -ii m.i ouco told n 
young lawyer who, in Court, was laying downs 
platform of principles, that there were some 
things the Supreme Judges of tho United States 
were presumed to know ; and Governor Sev- 
uoi-r might, in somo of his speculaliro and liis- 
torical remarks, have presumed the same thing 
of the Legislatnre and "tho rest of mankind." 
With these few exceptions tho Message is an in- 
teresting and valuable stato paper, and ono wor- 
thy of careful perusal by the people. 

Tub West — Though tho majority of 
our subscribers are residents of Western and 
Central New York, the circulation of tho Rhbal 
is by no means small in the Western States, 
from which wo are now receiving largo acces- 
sions. -Michigan and Wisconsin nre particularly 
well represented in this rush, each daily strik- 
ing us with pretty largo " dobs'' — an infliction 
which wo will endeavor to bear with becoming 
fortitude. Wo are auto receiving favorable re- 
ports from tho Eastern and Middle States. 

Our Albany Correspondence. 

Moniht. Jnn. 2,18*4. 

AtaiAxr is again alive — teeming with fun and 
I ilitics. To-day lie Dsanlly Btaid city abounds 
i itb gay belli ■ and gallant beaux— with long- 
facod officers and clerks retiring Irom their fat 
positions, and hungry candidates grasping for 
their i Bay chn i • and chu 1 1 cul • The rush can 
bnrdly bo imagined bj one who is not familiar 

v. ilh similar i cents. 

The time-honored custom of making calls on 

New Year's day, wa-> never 1" II. r nliscrved. A 

light fall of snow bronghl oul all the available 
materia] in tho shape of sleighs, and as it is the 
ofl of the season, the livery mon look np 
and laugh. 

I paid my respects to his Excellency, Gover- 
nor SrvMOfn. and to some of the State offici r~. 

The Governor is no lees fitted to do justice to 

the social Circle than to the sterner functions of 
the Exccutivo department He is certainly an 
Bgri i able officer in every respi ct. 
1 found thonow State officers fully initiated in 

i heir various departments. Gen. Leaves wnimi, 
Secretary of Slate, litis appointed ALKXASDsn 
0. Jonssox, of Troy, as Deputy Secretary, and 
Samuel S, Ka^hai.l, of Washington, as Deputy 
Superintendent of Common Schools. These 
appointments will give good satisfaction, espe- 
cially the latter, as Mr. Kaxuall has filled that 
office for somo dozen years under former admin- 

Hon. E. O. Si'Aiaiux'1, Treasurer, has named 
L. L. Dotv, of Livingston, as his Deputy. Mr. 
1). has previously filled this position. No better 
appointment could be made. 

I' Phelps, Esq., will be continued in the 
Comptroller's office, as ho has becomo an indis- 
pensable fixture in that department It is ex- 
pected that there will boa clean sweep of all 
u there, 

R. F. Hioks, of Livingston, is tho Deputy to 
tho Clerk of the Court of Appeals. B. S. Vax 
ItBXraKLAKn, of Albany, is appointed Clerk iu 
tho Land Office by Hon. John T. Clabk, Slate 
Engineer. The other clerks will be designated 
from Ihe various counties of the Slate. 

The caucuses this evening have been more 
than usually spicy. On the part of the Whig 
Assembly, the following hnve received the nom- 
ination: — Robkiit H. Piiuyx, Speaker; K. U. 
SimnMAX, Clerk; S. A. Nichols, Sorgcant-nt 
Arm-, John Davies Door-keeper; livuox Ells- 
wobtu, Assistant do. 

The above will undoubtedly bo elected to- 
morrow on the opening of the House, without 
nuy delay. 

Tbe Democratic candidate for Spcakor isHon. 
DbWitt Ci.ixtox, of Now York; mid Jons S. 
NAFP.wfor Clerk. Tho Democratic Senatorial 
Caucus named tho officers of the last Senate, 
with few exceptions. 

The Whigs of the Senate have nominated 
Ilunii J. Haktixos. of tho Albany Knickerbock- 
er, as Clerk, and others in proportion. Hut the 
mail will close soon, and 1 must break off, reser- 
ving what is worth telling till another time. 

As the Whigs have a majority iu both houses, 
an early organization will take place, and the 

M ago be seni in. The Message, though very 

lengthy, is quite n readable document. 

■ » i , 

Congressional Proceedings. 

i '..-.. .i.r -. has managed to get through tho 
holidays as is usual in all such cases, to wit, to 
adjourn over until they are past Tho members 
have however again assumed tho harness, and 
we may now look for legislation to move oil — 
Tho Hon. tii.LiiiTT Suitii has made an out and 
out abolition speech, in connection with the 
Koszta affair, and it is the only speech of the 
kind that has for many years been listened to 
with any kind of patience in Congress. Tho 
venerable form, Ihe firm mellow voice, tho elo- 
quent style uud logical reasonings of tho speaker 
absorbed tho entire attention of the House, and 
commanded the respect of all who heard him. 
It is a new era in Ihe abolition question as con- 
nected with Congress. 

The most important measure yet introduced, 
is a bill for the coiLstxiiction of a Pacific radroad. 
It was introduced by Senator Sewaok, of this 
Slnte, aud provides for tho building of the road 
by a private corporation, to which the United 
States is to loau its credit, in the sbnpo of public 
stock or otherwise. No lands are to be donated 
except the right of way. aud the road is to be 
built not south of the fortieth parallel of lati- 
tude. It is not probable however, that this, or 
any other scheme will be adopted at present. — 
The known hostility of the administration to in- 
ternal improvement, by tho General Govern- 
ment, and the jealousy lhat exists botweon the 
friends of rival routes and rival schemes, will 
preclude the adoption of any measure, at least 
this session, to build tho road. It is a maltor of 
great public interest and Congressional action, 
will be awaited wilh much curiosity. 

The Turkish Question. 

Tui'. foreign news by the bjsl two sp ami rS is 

ofn very interesting and exciting character.— 
The report ofn great naval battle in tho Rlaok 
Sen, ami the defeat and destruction of the Turk- 
ish Hoot, took'dvory one bysurpriBo;asthopTe- 
ucc see of the Moslon) Laud forces had 
led people i" e\ j ad similar rosultsupon tho sea. 
The first accounts bowevor, exogeratod tho facts, 

and made oul llm engagement I" be more bril- 
liant fertile hi,-.„'iii> ami nuue di.-.'t-lerous lo 
the Turks, than it really was These accounts 
win- received through Russian and Austrian 
sources, and rtf course fni ored tho Russian side. 
Subsequent uews bos scl the matter ncarei right, 

and the next si. amor will probably contain an 
authentic statement of the affair. 

It now appears thai the Turkish squndron was 
greatly Inferior in strength to their opponents, 
and the battle was fought with adespcration mi 
the part of the former, lhat would have given 
them the victory if the forces had been equally 
balanced. As it was, several Russian ship- and 
steamers wore cither burnt or sunk, and the re- 
mainder of tho fleet were rendered utterly uu- 
-ea worthy ; and only managed by dint of tho 

groulesl i vii lo drag themselves into a safe 

harbor, like a wounded snake into its own hole. 
An account of the affair, so for as ascertained, 
will be found in our next page. 

Great iudignntion is manifested against the 
English admiral, Slabs, who was in command 

of the main division of Ihe Turkish fleet, on ac- 
count of his lying idle at Constantinople and 
giving feasts and parties while another and a 
lessor portion of the fleet was engaged in a 
struggle of life and death with a hostile and 
overwhelming force. Some of tho English pa- 
pers demand tho recall and trial by n court 
martial of Admiral Slaok. 

It is staled lhat when Louis NsrOXROX heard 
of Iho result of the battle be was completely 
overcome. The prospects become daily more 
certain of the involvement of the Western [ oh - 
era in the quarrel, and the combined fleets are 
reported to have boon already ordered into the 
lllaek Sea. The Scandinavian ami tho Anglo- 
Saxon have heretofore fought togelherand over- 
thrown the Caul , bul Ihe Haul and lie Anglo- 
Saxon have Dover as yet united against thaScau- 
diiuvian ; and if they do so now, tbe pride of 
race as well as nation will render the contest a 
bloody ouo indeed. Tho issue is slow to be 
j i d, but when it comes there con be no with- 

%t\m ^rfbitif.'i. 

The bank circulation of Canada is I ii- 

maled ul $20,000,000. 

New and rich deposits of gold novo 

lately been discovered in Russia 

The jailor of Toronio 1 as been fined S10 

for selling whiskey to the 1 1 isum r.-. 

Several new and splendid churches ore 

to b built in Buffalo thi i 

Three Ihouf and dollars have been .-nh- 

pi ril i in Covington tor the I 'lay Monument. 

Cnssius M. <'!av contciuplati ■ ii] cning a 

banking house in Cincinnati nes I spring. 

Fifty miles of Railroad are now in 

oration iu Egypt. 


Disastrous Conflagration. 

About one o'clock on Tuesday morning (the 
27th ult..) a fire broke out in a bakery on Front 
st, Now York, which destroyed more than a 
million dollars worth of proj>crty. Several 
stores on Krout street were burnt, and the cin- 
ders, flying over the tops of the buildings of an 
entire block which escaped the conflagration, 
sot fire to aud consumed several tine vessels in 
tho harbor; and among them Ihe new world- 
renowned clipper ship IJ-rcal JiepuLlic, This 

magnificent piece of naval architecture', justly 
tho pride of her builder, Doxald MuKay of 
Boston, and the admiration of all beholden, has 
never made a sea voyage. Sho came round 
from Koston a few weeks since, and had juat 
lakeu in her first enrg* for Liverpool when the 
calamity happened, which iu a few hours left 
her a blackened and unsightly mass. She was 
tho largest ship afloat, built iu the most substan- 
tial aud beautiful manner, and was capablo of 
carrying a cargo of 3,500 tons. 

■ . ♦ . . 

J2f In tho Supremo Court of Massachusetts, 
in me case ol" James Mitchell vs. the Boston and 
Worcester Railroad, ihe jury, after being out all 
night, returned a verdict for defendants. This 

was a suit brought by plaintiff, a brakeman ii 

The Legislature. 

Bom branches of tho Legislature convened 
at tho Capitol at 10 o'clock on Tuesday. New 
inorubcrs of the Senate were sworn iu by the 
Lieutenant Governor. 

The oath to members of Assembly was ad- 
ministered by tho Secretary of Slate. 

Hon. Robert U. I'ruyii was elected Speaker 
of the House. Richard U. Sherman of Ulico, 
Olork. S. 11. Nichols of Chenango, Sergeant ul- 
Anns. John Davis of Oswego, Doorkeeper; 
1!. Ellsworth of Chatauque, Assist Door-I.i . | • i 

In Senate, Hugh J. Hastings was elected 
Clerk ; Joseph H. Gnrlinghouse, of Ontario, 
Sergeant nt-Arms ; H. M. Katon, of Warren, As- 
sistant Sergennt-at-Arnis ; Samuel It. Sowell, of 
Brie, Door-keeper, and Almon lleechor, of Steu- 
ben, Assistant Door-keeper. 

The Messago was read iu both houses, after 
which thoy adjourned. 

he employ of defendants, for §5,000 damages 
for the less of one leg at the knee by falling 
from a freight train while iu motion, which ac- 
cident he alleged was in consequence of the neg- 
li| once of defendants, iu not providing suitable 
ladders for him to pass over the lops ol Ihe cars. 
The case has been tried once before, aud result- 
ed in a disagreement of the jury. 

jy Benjamin Buckingham, of Northfield, 
li., was one of the earliest California adventu- 
rers. He returned in due time with $50,000 in 
gold. Ho was not content. He made a second 
visit to the land of gold and golden dreums,and 
returned penniless. Last week he was found 
dead in a mountain cave. His revolver, which 
was found by his side with oue barred dischar- 
ged, aud a small wound iu the head, told the 
melancholy story. His age was tweuty-soveu. 

f_3J" Bennett, Marshall •£ Co. of Pittsburg, 
hn\c bought a quantity of largo iron cannons iu 
Canada, which thoy wiU convert iuto railroad 
irou. Tho cannon were used against the United 
siatin throughout tho whole of tho war of 1812, 
and it is taid made sad havoc among our troops 
ut Maiden and Lundy's Lane. Converting can- 
non iuto i .nil ".el iron lb au approach to beating 
swords into plow shares. 

5^~Itis stated lhat Mrs. Miller, a daughter 
of lierrit Smith, excites n great deal of curiosity 
in Washington, by appearing iu full Bloomer 
costume. Sirs. Miller is quite handsome and 
young, and her dress consists of a Scotch plaid 
frock, which comes down to her knees, pants 
with morocco bootees, and a jaunty black hat 
and feather, such as tho ladies usually wear on 

j5p"The remark of tho Duko of Alba, at 
which young Soulo took offence, consisted in a 
comparison of Mrs. Soulo to Margaret of Bur- 
gundy. There was nothing intrinsically offen- 
sive iu this ; and unless there was something 
contemptuous in tho manner of tho Duke, tho 
young gentleman was rather hasty in his hostile 

Jg" Judge Grier, in tho United States Circuit 
Court at Philadelphia, has decided that tho 
translation of Mrs. Stowe's novol of " Undo 
Tom's Cabin" into German is no infringement 
u|«in tho copy right. This disposes of n ques- 
tion of somu importance, which was raised iu 
this instance for tho first time. 

The best court of equity is a good con- 

i hi uffi mler seldom j onions, 

They have a Maine Liquor law bill be- 
fore the Tenii. - , . I . , laturc. 

— — Within ton dayB. a nullum and n quart i r 

or dollar., in U. S. stock haw. been red, eon d. 

Three-fourths of the enure labor and 

capital oi tbe United States arc employed, i ithi r 
directly or indirectly, in Agriculture. " 

_ — . Contributions to the a unj of about 

S700 have been made in Toronto [o pun i , 
11101 lor the 1 r of II. at city, 

Montrenl harbor is a complete blank at 

present; not a Binglo v. -.1 of any dtscrii lion 
is visible, except tbe ferry boats. 

The Tribune says it is settled lhat Ihe 

Crystal Palocu in New York is to be "a perma- 
nent institution." 

— — The Livingston Uuion says — Mrs. Long, 
oi York, has made cheese every Buinmer.cavc 
one, for 75 years. 

Tho present National Debt of Fie land 

is al-uil 1,000,000,000. with no signs of speedy 

The members of the South Carolina Lc- 

gislaturo are agitating the question oi giving to 

Ihe people the election of I mm, in, Hal l-.hctors. 

Prince Jerome Bonaparte, brother ol 

Louis Napoleon, has jut.t completed his 79th 

The loest a by the late floods in Ireland, 

are estimated at £80,000. A subscription of 
£800 has beon rais, d at I lork. 

— -The Carter block, opposite the Capitol, 
Lansing, Michigan, was destroyed by fire on the 

On Saturday last, a man was tarred ami 

fealhored in Clyde, Wayne COUutv, for whim ilie 
his wife. 

— — Matthew Johnson, a resident of Virginia, 
has been arrested at Richmond, on tho charge 
of kidnapping a slave. 

A petition for a prohibitory Liquor Law, 

signed bv 8000 males and 500U females, has, been 
prc-ei,te.| to ihe tleorgia Legislaluie. 

— — A public dinner was given to Gen. Wool 
at Troy, on Ihe 31st Dec. He has been ord, ,, ,| 
to California by Government 

-— M. Guirot was the twenty -°i cond child 
or his parents; all the progeny died young, ex- 

eepl him and asLster. 

— - — A firm at Louisville is engaged very ex- 
tensively this season, in packing pork for tho 
I-.nghsh market. 

The New V,,rl; Herald bos one ofita pe- 
riodical rumors from Wasliington of fresh ii i 
Col expeditious against Cuba. 

Ono of Bennett's witnesses in the n conl 

libel trial, testified that ho staid at home and 
wroie ihe Parisiau correspondence of the New 
York Herald. 

It is proposed at Cincinnati to build a 

suspension brolee across the Ohio, at all eleva- 
tion of 78 feel above the height of the Hood of 
1832— cost 5'iOO.OOO. 

Mr. Hay dock, tho Temperance leciurcr, 

known as the c.v-wood-.-awyor, was arrested iii 
Washington, charged with lecturing in the street 
on tho Sabbath. 

The Great Western ffailway is now open 

from London to Niagara PnBs.a distance oi i i ' 
miles. Regular trains arc also running ,ast 
from op| osito Detroit. 

A German who had been bitten by a 

mad dog nine weeks previously, dud Ln St. 
Louis ou Wednesday of lost week". While being 
lakeu to the hospital, he bit a friend in tho arm. 

Rov. Thomas F. NorrLs. proprietor of ihe 

Olive Stanch, weekly newspaper, died at his 

reside nee in Somervillo, Mass.. ou Weduc.-da, 
moruiug, the '21st ult 

. Senator ALherton loft $8000 In President 

Piirce. not tor his own personal use. but as a 
fund, iu trust, lo ho expended iu Washington 
city lor certain purposes. 

A great many passports have been ap- 
plied for m, the Departinoni of State bj Hunga- 
rians and others going to Constantinople, in the 
expectation of military employment 

The .-learner Marlboro, a river boat, just 

-t.u-iing for Oheraw, 8. C, exploded her both r, 
Dec £id, killing tho eoptaiu, the mule, tho chut 
engineer, and twelve ol the deck hands. 

The oountry trade of Charleston, pays 

the Courier of that cilv, has increased sinci tsin 
from $1,200,000 lo a 1,500.000. to tho sum. in 
1853, ot $18,000,000 to $20,000,000. 

The Albany Journal says that effort- are 

making to secure the reuiovul "of the Columbia 
County budiliugs from Hudson and Chatham 
Four Corners. 

— — There ore two Ouikshanks. brothers.— 
Robert, the eldest, iB an artist, who resembles 

and imitates his brother George. Oue is about 
73 years old, aud the other. George, is about 70. 

Tho Mercantile Library Association ol 

Now York has extended an invitation to Thomas 
Carlylo. to deliver a course of lectures in that 
city. His answer has not beou received. 

Mr. Soul*, tho Americnu Minister to tho 

Court of Spain, has purchased a splendid estate 
at Castillon, his birth pi..... . in tho Frcuch De- 
partment of Art ago. 

Ono reason of the high price of butter is 

tho largo quantity scut to California, where it 
has accumulntod far beyoud tho demand, aud 
sells at a great lass to tho shippers. 

The Seneca County Agricultural Society 

intend holding a Winter Exhibition cm the 2d "f 
February. Hon. Gary V .SackcVthis beou cho- 
sen President, in the place made vacant by tho 
death of Mr. Delafiold. 

The St Louis Republican notices tho 

contemplated lectures by Lucy Stono in thut 
city, and asks for her a candid hearing. Tho 
young lady is warned, however, not to (ouch the 
tabooed topic of slavery. 



rforrip ,3*utcllii]fiiff. 

Ai-rival of the Pacific. 

'I'll.: Bfcainahip l'acific arrived Dec 26, with 

111;..- !,■ . I 

Slie li fl I iven 1 on the I llli nil. 

Tlio oewa is oi thrilling intercut. Tlio great- 
eel nnva] lint do since Navtuciuo, boa boon fnuglil 
wiili terrible l"-s of life, and total doatructtoii 
..I t\n iil_\ -oni ^lii] s nf war. 

i Rtllov ing are the | ai i colors : 

On the SOtli November, tlio entire Russian 

fleet, from Sebafltopol, under Admiral MoRhinof, 

. ] nil, appcari 'I olf il"- rurkisli 1 arbor oi 

Siimpo, whore Vifie ^duiiral Osoiun Boy lay, 

wiih 1 I Turkish enil. 

The bottle immciliatoly comttioncod, the shore 
baltorii being of nu use, 

'I : ii Turks fought, like devils, and would not 

mi !• r. Willi mi. -t desperate bravery thoy 

fougjit until in c i-hii) after another, in the iiuin- 
bei of 13, v, . re biiiiXi blown up, or burnt. 

S .ii Turkish frigates, two corvettes, one 
Rtcunier an, I tlireu trauspnrts, wilh eoveral llmu- 
ea id nn n , I avc been toialh destrnyed, aud Os- 
n in- ; ey, the rurkisli Admiral, is tafcen prisoner. 
..i tlio Turkisli aliips had, beside crows, 
800 troops mi board, on their way to Ciren«in ; 
also, a i|iiuulily of money to pay the fleet. All 

The Turks burned or sunk seven Russian 
shij -, vi* — two lino of battle, three frigates and 
inn steamers. The battle lasted only one hour. 

The remainder <»f I lie Russian fleet was so 
shattered thai ii could scarcely reach Sevasto- 

H • r. or the French and Engliah fleets V— 
' - dancing partief in the Bosphhrns, Ad- 
miral Sl_adci the Kuglishroou in command of tlie 
uiuia division of the Turkish fleet, isalsoparty- 
al ancl or ui the Bosphorui . 

He n ii, rni. I to anchorage on the SCth, four 
.!., before the battle, saying that bo could not 
find the enemy, although merchantmen contin- 
ued to report having seen numerous Russian 
i-lnj :. of war prowling about. 

Arrival of the Africa. 

California Jlrlus. 

Tun Africa, from Liverpool, arrived at New 
\.. i.. Dec, 30. 

Lord Palmciston ha* resigned hi* office of 
Home Secretary nf-State. He i. ovi - I" .'hum, he 
will not consent to the new Reform Hill, winch 
! the | orliamontory franchise. His re- 
signnliou, the TVwim fays, lias no connection with 
.in,, i - m ii..- i ast, and will not alter in any way 
the policy of go vormni nt 

From I'm key there is nothing really new. 

The naval battle ui Sjnopc i* confirmed, — 
The 'lurks lo -i cloven ships— not fourteen — of 
Which thiee were tian- [Kirw. '1 'he Russians lout 

ii veil shii --. The affair was not so disastrous to 
the Turks a~ first reported. 

The allied fleets nro still in the Bospkorus, 
nnil bavo scnl two Hi union, into the Black Sea 
to inquire into the Siuope but in 

There i~ no confirmation of the rumor that 
Ben ni had declared war ogaiiiEt Turkey, but it 
is supi i.-. il in he true. 

Diplomatists are still bnsy with their notes. 

The armit'% oil the Danube nre in winter 
quartets ami ilo hostilHics. 

Liverpool Hiicadstuffs. — The buoyant tone 
of the market is undiminished. Wheal and flour 
ii . freely offered and find buyers at extreme 
rules. Prices have advanced outho week Sapor 
i arrel on flour, and (id | or 7 < » lbs. mi wheat 

Indian corn rather bolter and quoted by a 
few houses dials per quarter dearer. 

Litriii'ooi. Provisions. — Win. Cnrdner A Co.'s 
Circular says beef sella slowly at about previous 
ratep. Small parcels new Chicago sold with dif- 
ficulty at litis. 1'ork very dull, favoring buy- 
ers. Bacon Bolls slowly. Lard lsrUis lower, and 
buyers holding hack for a further decline. Tal- 
low quite irregular. Checst — tine qualities in 
fair demand, Ordinary dull. 

i lover need 2s pi r buod^cd lower. 

TllE Vehv L* — Bv Submarine Telegraph. 
It is currently reported that the allied fleets 
have been ordered into the Itlack Sea. 

London, Saturday Morning. 

The Turkish Embassy lias received advices of 
the Siuope engagement They do not differ 
much from the published accounts. The Rus- 
sine had losl i wo of their largest and beat ships. 
The town was toIallyUestroyed. 

'Ilotos IJarapajlifl. 

Arrival of the Northern Lijht 

The steamship Northern Light, from San Juan 

del Norte, arrived on iheSJth nil., wiih 526 pos- 

seugors ami $1,500,000. 

There was i Itipi ed by the sierra Nevada, via. 

n agn'a, Dec I, $1,035,118, and bv the VYm- 

,,ii. Doc. i. via. Panama, $s04,871 

News arrived in San Francisco on the Hith 

ult, over the tiaiusey route, in sixteen days from 
New (Irli (ins. 

The Mountain Eclio says thai the miners al 
Dargari Plat arc making 'from $1 to $32 |" 1 
day. One company took oul thirty -two oum 1 
in one day. Bnifeer 11 ill die-" in;.;:- an- n juscnted 
as the richest in that vicinity, 

A company of enterprising citizens of San 

Francisco have purchased n lot of ground on the 
western side of the city, which they intend to 
convert into a rural cemetery, after the plan of 
Ci tin terics attached to the eastern cities. 

Stockton is represented as being very un- 

TIlO Chinese of San Francisco have il mated 
§l,0tltl to Captain Love's It angers, for their ser- 
vices in capturing the bandit Joaquin. 

From the report of the LegislatlVi OomnntlCC, 

ii appears that, the Slate debt of California ifl 
$3,ia7,688, and the yearly interest 8231,912. 

There has been some excitement at James- 
town, between the miners and citizens, the for- 
mer asserting their right to dig up the sir,. 1... foi 
gold — the latter denying it. 

The past fortnight' tian been n very important 
one for the miners. The ram has filled the 
gulches and raised the rivers, and the works of 
the dry season are closed. The diggings in the 
river beds Lave been abandoned, and in many 
cases, valuable dams, flumes, itc, have been. 
swept away, although the rise has 110I been great. 
The miiiers now look Lack upon aildcouul tin il 

profits and losses for tlio losl sis nth.-. The 

shipments show that undiminished amounts of 
gold have been produced ; yet many ol the dig- 
gers complain that they bave spool much money 
in canaliug, machinery, ibcatid have made little. 

The miners are pretty well prepared for the 
winter, aud if it be favorable, I he golden harvest 
will be richer than ever. 

Now ilig".iii! s have been found in a number 
of plnci s. 1. ni nothing extensive. 

Near Mincsota, in Siena county, the tunnels 
pnv very well. A lead two hundred feel wide. 
evidently mice the bed of a stream, has been 
found Under n mountain, anil tillll teet above the 
level of flic middle Yuba, near by. In thin lead 
are found the remains of trees, some rotten, 
others petrified, others changed to a mineral re- 
senibling sulphate of iron. 

Several valuable quartz veins have been open- 
ed in El Dorado, and soma discoveries have boon 

mode in Calaveras, which, it is thought, will 
raise the latter to a high position among the 
quartz counties, 

The Oriuid Jury have indicted three of the 
city officers of San Francisco lor defalcation. 

€ in m er c tal . 

J5F" There are rumors of very serious charges 

being [(referred against the Governor of -V 6£0- 

ta, which, if substantiated, will lead to his r. - 

1 a), lie was "ne of the active Democrats o'f 

the las! 1 residential campaign, and drew pay al 
a Congressman, while stumping it for GbmrbaI 


£:§?" Mrs. Amelia Opie, the celebrated Eng- 
lish authoress, died recently at Norwich. Eng- 
land, aged Bo. Her "Illustrations of Lying," 
ir as immortal, as unfortunately lathe vice winch 
she has done so much to render odious. She 
was a Quakeress. 

K^ The editor of the Albany Journal has 
vi ,i.,| the wine Cellar of Mr. Longwortb, at 
Cincinnati, where he saw l.ill.UDI) hsijUi*, seve- 
ral hundred boxes, aud 20U.0U0 gallons of 1111- 
bottled win.,. He has returned nomo since, in 
good health. 

py Meigs has given nut an immense con- 
tract for hard brick on tho walur works at \\ ash- 
ingtoii, at eight dollars and a half per thousand. 
Brick for the Capitol extension is now supplied 
from New York, at fuurtveu dollars and a half 
per thousand. 

V$~ In the Legislature of Georgia a bill has 
been introduced t<- eitlblKh a system of com- 
mon school education in the State, and Inappro- 
priate $'200,000 for the education of poor chil- 
dron in the dilTcreut counties. 

s^~ A law has been introduced in the Legis- 
lature of Georgia, prohibiting the separation of 

slave children under live years from their moth- 
ers, unless such separation \n- absolutely acces- 
sary to settle estates. 

J5J~ The Southern administration paperc con- 
tinue to ridicule aud denounce the New York 
Hards, and utterly deny them any credit for 
their professions in favor of tho rights of the 

jf»~The Hon. Brookins Campbell, Demo- 
cratic Representative from Tennessee, died hist 
week Sunday. of spinalafleclioii. He was wbout 
45 years of age, and leaves a wife and one infant 

«T A model return upon a writ was recent- 
ly made "by a deputy sheriff in county, 
li. .liana. It was — " Sarvcd the within, but was 
fit with brick-bats by' the woman k> tliat 1 
couldn't sarve it." 

About lfiOO immigrants, with 250 wagons, 
look a new route lo the head of Williamette 
Valley, got lost, and snll'ereil severely. Several 
died "by starvation and exhaustion ; it is not 
known exactly how many. Within I wenty-lour 
hours after the news reached tho settlements, 
•211,1)01) pouuds of flour were on the Way to aid 
thorn, and within cighl (lays there were M pack- 
ed animals, 23 loaded wagons, and 290 head of 

cattle -1 in nut All the immigrants arc BOW 

Tho immigrants who have attempted to cross 
the Cascade .Mountains by the new road, have 
Buffered severely. 

St. Helena is lo be hereafter the terminus of 
the P. M. S. S. Co's steameis, instead of Port- 

In attempting to arrest an Indian who had 
murdered a white man near Port Townscnd, u 
Belli occurred between the settlers- and the In- 
dians, in winch one of the former and several of 
the latter were wounded. Tho culprit, after 
some delay, was captured. 


Our dates are to the 5th of November. Up 
to that date one hundred and twelve whalers 
had arrived at Honolulu, Lahinaaud Ililo. The 
port charges for whalers have been reduced. 

Honolulu is said to be free from small-pox, 
but. the dl-iase is carrying oil' many of the na- 
tives in the rural portions of the Islands. 

The '/,,., i, ni sale at Kanai, containing 

$2,000, was stolen on tho 24th of October. 

Hawaiian Missionaries have been dispatched 
to the Marquesas Islands to convert the natives. 

In 1 olitics, a calm seems to have followed the 
storm, although tho approaching election is be- 
ginning lo excite attention. Free trade and un- 
Itexatioh to the United Stntes are warmly advo- 
cated by the Liberal party. 
■ » ■ 

Arrival of the Texas. 


Tn f. 1 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ! ■ ■ ' ' I I ■ ; ■ 

it. > I 1 ■' cm [| « Tliolfl Intuition of the cloud, wlifeb 

■'■1 .". I n'Ul ■ • !□< 111 G i'''i>' '1 .1 C011MT1 1 

.. : ' 1 i, I moron hrar -a W II 

ll Up 'Mil the ^'i"»t of n bugbear [a fright- 

01] III" limit] cfl] I Ifl Ult; mil" H im]«-l, it I •> \Ur |L'iilc».v1 

lUOleoltlc* nt Km-, v,iii«-h (cod \>> dopran tho. Blockn «f 
roaila running through ibal placo mwl \ht\t 

nn»! poMigo on tbo Iak» «lioro Uno Iiqvc I 
1 for .1 time a*. Icart, nn<I It I- to l*> hopvd r uno 
I Indol irrnDgetnont «iii bo ctTCotod which »-iii romoro (do 
grf Qiraiicct of ill pa Uea, U •«'! ovouti^thct in In ■• 
/,'. (1 11 in iH-iiiv completed, wlilch ftiii soon op^n n now 
u ■ 1 .mi (hi« W«t by Lbo «u> «f thf ITjipet Provln ■ in I 
Nnv*am full*. 

ii,. 1 itii-iiiontlily Klil|ini«mt nf puM In (ho AU/Ulllc 
■ :n San Pnuiclaco, luu hcon belwowi [hrcts and fnin 
rntlllon dollar*; of wlildi nmonnt tho Nlcaragufl RioWtt i 
Northern Light, brought *<• I^cw Vorfc 61,400,010 in g/ihl 
»lu«t. Tlie Bti amor Wlnflt 1-1 Scoltj vhfch «jt- nrreckol «>n 
ocont | Lvugo down lo Panama, had an! nlirnil n 
ifljUton of daUarfl in c><\'\, r.H nf trhtch ww nvod. The 

Liverpool "Icoiiiorn a! r.j.-h''* continue \>> r\.-rr nut 
:il-itit hulf it inllli'iii CBCh tn Kurnj o, but thry tJ<* in. I «>.- 
poll DJ I : ■■.■' i i H much 03 arrive*, which tfavf* nn 
aooQrbalatlOg Iwlanco In ouf humid to m«.i-t the lncrwv** , d 
duinandj of Intornal trad.'. 
Tho Tribute tho depo Itosofgold for coinage at (ha 

I'hiltnli l|)ii:i mint for tho put year, u» coinjcu.;U with Uul 

of lftMJs ufollawi: 

1W2. 1M3. 

.hinunn- W.IM^.I M.' J • - 

Kebmnxr 3,010,222 :i.-n 'd 

March .!,v.:.l.v. 7 . : 

Vpril 8»OT1,03? .I.:.-,..... 

«o kWfilS 4.4^5,000 

Jnria 8,080 r.\ 4,MS,1?0 

lulv J,l". 

Ati K ual -'.'Ti **oT£000 

Or 4.24^687 3,027,^05 

OelAboT 4,4W,no.« 

N'orembcr 7,27 Q ,941 

r 3,333,031 4,44. r .,0'«) 

Tntnl 8ol t Ooti,'J70 $53,373,60^ 

Surphm In 1833, 8^,307,2:0. 

The ftcmt-annual intenat on ft largo amount of State, 
Count j, oit\, and nulroad corporation Loud* hn.- fallen 
due an * I le ii | aid ..jf during the week, a* ru>o a grcnl 

i.'n,.' . of di Idondfl on pojlns stoekf. Thli rcU k conNld* 

enitih' iinmuiit of fund* allnat which h&sbcon accumulutliif; 
In the trcajiirieaofthc fcovi corporntlom for the panlftfx 
monthl. Tho Ulchlgnn Southern road lately paid a dlvi- 
ffend of 10 per c. ut. maldntr, togo(hor with a prerioua dlvl- 
dfiitl, 17 per c*nt. for (bo >« :ir. The Mlddgun Central Iim 
made ono dividend of S per cent, fur (ho \v.\r. TUv wmU i 
hueincwi of nil the great lines or rail road ■ has been largo, 
n. . v-. '. ■ . uirttJ itock -■ i! al ii . : . i -.. ;-. UI< UJgnii 
on (hern .-x. divided 110, Midi. Continl da i'*>\. ''ir. 

Market |ntcllitjfnff, fa, 

i!eii...L Ni .v-V.iiii.ii-. IIiiick, ) 
ltochi.tir, Jnu. 41b, 18W. j 

Tin: market* open ftt Uic <>f tho non y, ir 

wliu cotuitlorablo activity. \V:i.,it uid Float b ,.< lagnla 

gonif up, iiinl now utiu.l nt u higher tlgnn.. Uum Iboy bare 

■ in reacbod, tlio l&ttcr btinx 'tuote^l nt S7,Au^T,76 

per barrel, uli'l tlio fonntT ut $1,08 p.r lui-li. I. 

A gooJ ilcnl ot Inulu lia» Wen koIii^ on in niuabi, wi«cl- 
nlly |.oiU, Qii.1 tirgo u.u:iutille9 or iln^«.^i hogi hnro Leon 
biought In; i»n lbo rail ■ iinnared with lbo price of grain 
arc not qullo ." aathfoctor; lo producer*, it U. quolcd In- 

J.11 at 8J,ai©5,Jo. 

TIm.t.. .vr,- I u,-' miintH'rt of country tmnn In our Htrcetft 
to-ibiy, bi'lin villi tbo ..,,.-. r prodaoffnl tho Relilsaud 
foreoU, as tlio wuddou thaw bjut |^\.,n rirmpra olbnonltluu 
lliat U10 good .U'igliine nf a four days (x*l iiralouL ou.lvd. 

Ecchcitcr Wlioleaale Prices, 

FtOUl! AM. lii us. 

nour, I,' 1 67,611 

U beat, I'u 1,1'.' 1,70 

I'.irn 70 [7 

OatK Wrt-l-'c 

Ityu OUiat-J 

Rirlry ten ■ 

Uackirboat OOflflo 

I '" 7SviitSl 

I'.irk, moM bbl Slft.00 

li,,. ■ ,vl 6,2i 

Owl, mi-^1 bbl . .10,1" 

Do. Mtl 4,i«i, ,"" 

Uultoo caxcaaa, 

Iim.-. •iii,.1...1 lb 9fo)10c 

Shoufdora 0', ,:.. 

Uliickeiu ctJTe 

rurkoya ; 

Dairy, fcc. 
Butter 16017c 

Cb sei'.'Y 

Ijinl, tried P.. ll 

li... leal tic 

Callorr ', 

Eggw, dot 18iaib'c 

Caudle*, box 1 I 1 .- 

The stctuiiBliip Texas arrived at New Orleans, 
Dec. 2G, from Vera Cruz, brioguig San l-'ran. . .. 
JateH by the Kami-oy route, via. Mexico, t<> tho 
Ttli iir t., being one week later than our previous 
ml vices. 

Tho mail Btcamship Witlfield Scntt, which 
I. ft Sun Francisco Dec. 1st for Panama, wont 
ashore on tho following day on the coast of 
Santa Unrbara. She is a total loss. Her pos- 
BeogetB and treasure were all saved and arrived 
back at San Fraucitco on the (ith, when ihey 
were again dispatched by the California on tho 
7th for Panama. 

The ship Eclipse, of New York, was totally 
lost on the 20th Oct., CO miles south of Sau 

Tho steamship Cortes, from San Juan, arrived 
nt Sail Francisco on the 2d December. 

Silver minis of extraordinary richness had 
been discovered near Acnpulco. 

» ■ ♦ ■ ■ 

Arrival of the United States. 

The steamer United States arrived at Now 
Orleans Jan. 2d, from Aspinwull, 27th ult She 
was detained Kldays waiting for tho Wiuficld 
Scott. She reports that the Illinois, with the 
mails and treasure, nailed for New York on tlie 
evening of the 06th. The Illinois had 350 pas- 
tengvrs and §1,250,000 in gold. 

■ » ' « 

ZW A singular death occurred in New York 
lately. A little girl was desirous to boo tlie body 
of a man in u neighboring house, who had been 
murdered. She was allowed to do so by her 
jiarcnls, hut fainted at the sight, was carried 
home in convulsions, and soon died. 

gjp" The averago income of each person in 
England is twenty cents a day ; in Ireland, eight; 
in France, fourteen ; while in our most industri- 
ous State*) it ia thirty , and taking tlio whole 
nation, seventeen. 


At market J,425 Cottli I 1,480 Snoop, and 1,050 

5\i it.. 

PriCCC — It. "f I'.tM. ; m irk. 1 -bill 11. 'I |.rice4lmvi' declined. 

\\. ,,,.,,: ■ , ■<>; Iiit-1 .,0, 1I1 _,:",:■,,■,,;■'., :.| .].., 

... -.|,., J, 
" 60,72.! 

1 n :, 1 1 ,1.... _s 1. . ■ .-. 437 

, I 1 ■: 17. tlin ■'■ ■ nld S30Q90. 

1 , -li.ill ; . I,, I f 

v I, ,1 ,'! 1 ii. '.:< .uid Cc; at re- 
tail (r J .. ; 


, . jbrli 1 llli ' 

, . - . ni thli uum r!W0 
,| thi 1 , ■ : ■ 

Covii j .l.-iinuil ..t it'J-.i.;'-') for the 

i.tiiii,, . Pi Imo colli i. id tn u>tl, 

M _■ 1 11 

t. red I'hoj ire In Di 1,7 ' u | nda, 

i| kilt. 1 in 1 oil rei . ■ 

mil I. .11. 1 an ■ an ■ wnl la den ut i,'- 1 

bead wild it y- '.. 0,S 1 1 ao m diug la o,aaliTj . 

^v." ^»^^%»^». 

a r r i a g c s . 

I. Ill, .111 1!,,- I.'.lh ut'., U) 111.- Itrv. .1.. I -1.1, rthubrido'afaUier, «r. JOHN l' 

', 01 r,,.v! -M.l., .S. V., and M. • A .,. 

daughter of E. Uoiib, 1' 1. 

'pulili.sljri's' |totos. 


r;_*r A'ihnt.s. — Any r'T',11. can act ■ 

fur the rti'i.u. Si., ■•'.'., i, .-. 1 1—1,11.1 .ill «l. 1. n mil accord- 
In • lo 1, nil. .\lll bo i.niiit.'l la prumlumA, &c. 

Or" I''"' 1 li dal . r." to 100 ,,,| Its,) 

I, ■ ,,'i ,,1, Hi.- ii.'iui. ■ nm! 1 f nt icu perooi 

,.,.. ||, ,., 1 eom| !■ i" Ibi tr Ush .di-rwarln. 

rp"TnE ROHAL l« piilill-bi "I .trlcllv opon the c*«I 
lyjTJOl — wnl no loncer llinn paid for — and all oni.»ra 
1U0 lid bo In accorilanro with loiuw. 

E^ilrB loiral rlul. price In $1,25 for nny nuu, 

over 20 — and S1/.0 under that number, unloM a 
I, ill nr Iw.'ntv h ..1 

fj"J>"H making up elula for tho haul, the Woo 
1 l:,. n bo added at 35 eta. a copy, 

ulilrli Ik til., lowest .I'll. 1 il, , . 

OTIs r.'ii.llii.i,: for dob*, pli rid Dan] I 

Drafll .ui N.h V ..I. (,l,.|,i |]ng ll \ iiiiii-i.l linl.-ad uf 

..r c.rlillcatai of Deposit on ln.-.d lauilei. 
E7* I* "rltlng ua, pli tlcnlar to giro joor P. 

' I . . corrcelbj — lbo oaniQ ..f your Poil OIQee foot 
i'.,.n,l County, and Slate. Write at) nanim plalnl. 

f£y Tikimi: irhblnn their iwper« chsnged fmm one iul- 



Cliukclllil, dsugblcr of Koilumbll and Ljdia Footer, 

II - , ,'.u-. 

I. Alabama, N'. V., .,11 the S8II1 ult- of eouumntlon, 
SIAHY A. llllODES,aged23yuar». 

tv l-.t.-viii... Doe. 22d,hy Her. H. li. I'.il.-., Ill 3 

dicMtoftnollior,«liouW ci-e U.c name, of both Po.lOIIic.-. 
— the firmer adtrat, a.-, well na lbo ouc di In 1 

C:l " Mr. C. Mi.iiiit, i., Jul,- authorbed to act an Agent 

foi tho l'i 'i 'Al. N'i.n-V..:.i...i: In 11,,. r lUcj ofChaulau- 

,"' 11 I ' ill II ' '. N. Y, and Warreu, Pa. 

gy Piinoiu who hare forwarded 916 for a club of I. n. 
cao oxlond tho niunboi 1 I . ddI ■ -Atc for $10, but all the 
1 il 1 r . 1 -,'p* mult begin at ono dato. 

li-J/" " l« ""' ' !. 1! all membor» of a club ro- 

cotvc their ooporfl al ono ( 1 oil •. \v.- ..-n.l lo a* many 

'i neowory toiiecnmmo'Iale tin- i.iibwTllwn, 

tTr'Tin-. pojtago on the Itriut, in but H', conta per 
quarter, payable In odranco, to IDJ p .rt of the stale— and 
"', conta lo tnj part of the United .states,— except Uonn ,• 

County, trhorQ 1 1 goea I 

jry PKVSOXS onlill. .1 to cash pnmlum.", wm pleono 
aamo In roniitUng for clubs— tlioaioaklngiaro 
of Ibu premiutn. Having DJ tha Iroublo of rc-malllng. 

UJT AODITJOHH to clul* m y i , „,.!,. ni unj tl mei „t 
Hie price per copy paid for lbo original dob. 

By Extra uumlwro of the Hciul will be fRrn-uded to 
.ill .li*i osed to old In augmenting lit circulation. 

E?"All boifneja letter*, roiamunlcatioiu', it, ihoul I 
boadilraaed to I), il. 1 M,, , , 1 ocbealvr, N. V. 


1 - the only American Journal prbmuily detotod to 
11,, n». i,,,,i iVool md Stock tlrowerB, nod ibould bo In 
thi band I «.f eecre tneuer of Vvmttiie Animal*. Ii la ably 
conduct.-. I. |,,i. li -ii. .1 ii. 11 .• 1.1.1 -i,|i'. 1111.I no. 1> 111 
lod Knch 11 oiboi conloinifl ,■..., mi Rei^owol Iho Wool 
and Cattle Markcla, ,111. 1 much other u.-rjul mid nttat'lt in- 

bean be obtained from 1100th ire. — 

ih., iim. v.ih, mi. .',,.,iiii, I,,.. 1 July, 1853. Subscription! begin irltb llta Jul> nr January nnmber. 

Tonus:— I "n Cntn a Year; live Conies for 52; 

Eight Ibr S3; Eleven (br S4. luck volumes boun.J in pa- 

per, at 40 cli. each, — unUiund ui 35 cIk., or thraa for $1, — 

An extra copy fxco lo every pcrean remitting fur a club of 

moio < "i lev. 

Voblliihed iiii'i.iiily, lii octavo form. Spodmon number» 

^enlfiee. aTuacy.'iiroperli end 1, at our rLsk. 

Addrea* 1). I>. 1. UOOIll , ftodicmcr, N. Y. 


Appl. -, bu>!i . . . .37 l ,i.>.7.V: 
1)0. dried SI, UP 

I "i ''"' ■ :iT', -/..'J, 

llil'i - l»D -■ 

SLiugbler 1 , 

Calf. Uc 

SbecppelU *1 ,. 1,02 

L.-UHU do T 


1 I..-,. -. t'U SO.OWeT.OO 

Timolny 2,6003,00 

KUu 1,25 


Wood, hard -1,0004,60 

i>o. nofl 2,. 1 

1 " I, I .'high, ton...!',." j 1" 

Ilo. Si-nuilun 0,25 

UiOHilmrg 1 ,11 1 

Do. Char Sei'iuc 


Salt, bbl Sl,02>a 

II-'.', Ion 9 613 

Wool, lb 85 ' - 

Wlni.. 1,-1, , 1.1.1. .$4,60(39,50 

P quintal .4,50 

Trout, bbl s.i'.i 

Ashe* — Market qulol for old. Bolee, puts $5,60, and $5,- 

7'' I", pi :.rl«. 

Ploui — l.iulo cbanj^ In Wetittrn end State. Iloldcni 

linn ; in.iuliy good ,i lualite DgurCj and ilii- 1 . bid foi Iota 
lo arrive. II. Il.r ifraillti held willi inu.-li l.nui,. -s ulnl In 
i.kir 1, |i,.-.i. 1 in ,1, in «|uivi nl $7.76. Soles WefltemkCnnal 
al !7,76©7,SlVj common to alndghl Stste; $7,76 T, 1 -:', 
mix. ,1 to fancy jlichiitiui und common n. good Ohio. 

Grain— Holder* of ivln.ii I,.... .1, u..,, I fur pi-ijii,. par- 
.-.■!-. ...i,-i,l.., I, al,...- lbo vIvwH of buyers. Salo» 2,000 
Undid* at aliout S2,"*). 

Uye, unsettled and higher; aolea $1,21. 

1 » .i plenty and uuh 1. ol i'' 

Barli'y aearee „' - ' 

Com in limi!*»l RtTpnty and price-, bettor; denmnd fair. — 

-J,- .i ;., ...7-- ni ,v -.,,,ti,'ri, iviiin- L ,,,i ,,ii',-, , : : : 

1. 1.1 S, mill. .11 11. in., I; -Im-J,' W,,l,rii mlv..|; .-i, ...-.r ,,; 
n.und wbil,', <-.- ..Ill round yellow. 

l'roiihi.ih- — 'lur iii.ii)..'l f." 1 ..rt i. K-ll. r ; it. in, 111 1 ni,,n» 
acllvoaod mtlier llgbl ; rales tint) l.bU. ,1 Sl:i,27....1.".,.'iu f.,r 

old nan; 814,02^1914,1 l0( gl2,2J5 do. nrimo— $11,. 

lJ'i 'II. '..'i ..Id d..; .'bar ..:..!.•.• ..I BIS. 

Dreea d hoga ""' pli nty ,,1 01 iQOIji . 
Lard more active but prices unchanged; wile* 4no bl.t-. 
and t/x. ,.1 DM ..1", , 1,100'kbgl a' lie. part to arrive, 
Hull, r in Im.ii, .1 . 1, ni .ml at DQ12o Ohio; 15fall0c State. 
Cheese p.lbi ot BKOlpXc. 


BciT Cuttle from 87(^0,60, wilb DOCAdoniJ ivj«» of uxtrn 
at » lilfflitT h(-ur.'. 

CovTr. ao<l Calvi-ri fn:»ui S"^- t" ■■*' 

Veil I Colroi from fiT^Tf per |K)una. 

Sborji, $3 lo 4&7.»4 ; IJunX*, S2>bQ to 3^60©^. 

at w. Woolfbrd'i nun • dead, WoKhiuptno ntn^i.— ne«r 

CnlUa — 'AW ut ULirki't. PriDSi nr.' oh Miami :— Extra S",- 
W ; Hot qualltj S7 ; 2d do. tlW; M do, 3^1^6,60. 

Cow* &n<\ CaU'M — Xooo 

Sheop and JsumW— ],t)0O in nurkvt. l'ricca ;.t from S3,- 
Uut-l. E\tiu S»i\60. 

Swino— 960 iu market. Price* W^J6 T cwt 


At oxirU.-t 652 Cattle— about 600 Dcpref, 62 Storey cm- 
flbtUoir of Working Oxen, Cow* nod C.ilvci, yosvltngs t« » 
iluiI lutCA vr-am old. 

Pric«— Slatltol Ilc-rf.— EttmS7,Wl; first qo-tlitj- S7 ; 2.1 
do.$fi,^i<ftfi,DO; .Id do, 96; ofliln&g i&QfifiQ. 

hid.-*— 80,50 Y cvt. Tallin, S^SOt^V. 

ivibi 8101,37. Calf i-ktiu. lO»c Y lb, 

Yi^l CxUvt'iM- *5, G&&. 

BanvltiQff C'Atil. — S'^fl. 

tltom — Working Own— $70, M, 100©1«. 

Cow* and CU»i — B2& 81, U6, «geii. 

Y«*rUop>— «W. 16&1&. 
Two ycara old-^21, 25. 2S,'c38. 
Tlireo ftm old— S-J0, 82, 'Jt\ 41©48. 
Slu-cp nod Uunl«— '^515 ot oiarkot. Priom— Extn $4,50, 
6@10. Bj lot— S1.75. 2. a^/i*". 
Sm Lno— 273 turd ni So ** lo. wholmle. 

IU-marlu— Tho number of eatUo to-d-.y la Munll, but tho 
qu.ilil> in good. Tin* naJi.* fcre mueli U<tt«r tiiiin Lv»t »cok 
>• '■). .inn- uuotoUonj*. Siily bt-ad of otii-ii, fraui Wunli- 
injetoo Co^ N. Y., woro ejeellent* and took blght-M price. 
The unount uf clock eold wlilU< on lbo wny to nuLrkcl, tLUt 
week, U largo. 

Sojnmun j' 'ni lii"- dr.-t "f Jane, 1S-U, ft por»on calling 

lU'TTOV. info i in i <! Ml imlU i.lti:il |hn1 a m.m t.j tl)0 
najili ol Jjinet Clark, of Itunb, Uooroo county, \. 1 . 
blkcd oil Uic qui hie!; mid fiiorllj diuil, nt 1 1.*- bouH of an 
Elder Kirgrtty. The i^amo <•( tho plac4 .- ii'l the ro id snu 

fur '--11. n i roic the mi- 1 1 '.'i ace n rwJj( d tlio-. LDtemlod. 

An\ pi-<.ti lur. int.- :i:n l.n... . rjal ' ■■ 

v «'....( ii.. (u.t i r t..-i lo the igcd and vridowi .1 molliei .'i 

.1. by riiimnunicitiny vrilh L. D. LangKorlh'j, 
I.ti/.. ol KoChJSti r. N. V. 


I dave for Kile, by the pair, young Cochin ( tatna fowl-, 

uftrraiiU'.! genuine, and dosSraJtle ror thell 9) enmetty, irrtui 

-i&- .iiitl bvauty of pluavLsre. Thi'V tTOQt tin- j..'i - ', I >. 
ami li-st ini|rortatlom In Lhu United State*. Hio jri/mine 
Cochin CUlniu ImYg no fftrperlor*. Clrcahu 
i;.. . live i agtw '•■•■> oni to ipuli an I . L^oiii beJnf on 
LhaNuiv VoiU t;* iit::d (Loin .iM, ft. . ! i ml (orwftrded by 
Esiirew, dailv, lo all part- of tlie conntTj . \-' Ire i 
,.. i RODNEY I.. \IUM>, LvoiL-, H; V. 



r.ivT.MviNo 200 acn i of (rood Und, ■Hualcd In the town 

Of Harrintrtori, wiUiio »ix mil'.'? of I'OBU Van, and on the 

itAKO'ioadTleading Qrtwn Penn Ynn to I) lb rhb firm i* 

in .i good BtAto <>t rulliv.'itinu, well TralOrtd, nUmH.iltl* 
ulAptod'to pnuinv- or i:ra'n crovrin^; ohoul 160 kcrCiof 

. |. «i---l I >jid f ruid -Ai «>f li.-.ivy litnU-r. Tbe bouse i I 
neu*, '1 good Uvrn*. goi I b dt in oul . ill -uili- 

ri.'iilly In -•■• ("i in-' l.n in. A I: .• •■■ ■ It ud of fruit tn-i-S 

bearlna » great vnrfety "f choice fruit. It l» eoovenieolly to bo divided Into two fum , oacb ombniclng an 
(ivciTige projiorlioii of cleared and lliul-ered bind. Tot mi 
en>y. Poiafflflop .*i»« D it' OOJ timo to »uit tlie purchu.<-i.T. 
i ||i i il COJ ■ '. ■ ' 1 1 I u n I 01 lot il.- r i ulicuJiuT, Inquire 
.,1 in,- sub* i Itx : od tho i'i< mines. 
r-J00-3t.*] DELIA HATHAWAY. 

UarrlOgtoD. Ytttos Co^ N v., Di 21, 1553. 

Wr m->' r.oiMir our iupnly «^r Peruvian Ounho, p*' 1 
nhlpfl Bluchardi Beiuitor, and uraj Kcath|r,frain thoCbln- 
■ ii.i lsimi'L., nnu nxo non preparw to mat* 
Ihc Hprtna luppljr. Ai Oio d( mand ii large, ne would ad- 
rltwulwho iu.-y \* in irnntoftlili rnluauu aunon le 
make curlj apnlfcaUoni Prico, 84f) per i«.u of 2,000 lb*. — 
Lie particular to otiservfl tli it « rert bag Is branded — 
No. 1. 

WAMtJlNrt-l* l'CT[rviA> 




FOK TUK I'KIII'MAV i;uv»:r:.\ J i.'T. 

r.ONOKir k '.Hirnxo. 

Statu Agricultural WaxohoiUO, 25 flifl it, X. V 
Janoan 2, 1KM. [200-21] 


For Skip liuthlcru, lUtat Rui/drr^ Lumber Merchant* 
Farmsr$ and Mechanic*. Ucing .» coned meoflun mi nt "l 
SauiUlnjr, Uo&rde, Plunk, Cublcail CouH'nln ol Squan and 
Round TlmlKir, gin- Ion, Wood. -'U-., eompTiWd m a oum- 

bi r ol Tut l< ft: t" P It tl 

iiifintli, Board or i:> ;it, by the V r Day, and i'-dlrodd 

l»L"Luict'5. Alro Intcreat T.ddi •■>, it tovon per u-nt. 

By J. M Scribncr, 

Author of "Enpinr.'r*H und .\!<vb.inic'N Companion," En- 
gluvvr'K Pocket Table ilook. < tc., etc 
So\rcel> U'lt pOOiblO to odd lo tlie rvoomn 
tl ibO' : . ■' !l ' " ( '"i" 10 UUi | '.'. Kvrnr 

oue*>rho i^ ongnged In buying, filing, meniraring or In- 
specting l umbcj "I anv Mod, «iil at onoo anpreciato i 
work of thU Liiid N" | ii''.- nr « >i- DJM hi- I- • ll I] n- -1 
In revhdng und enlarging ihw <*ditioii, to uiako il in etorv 
■ i nv. ni-'ut and nCcunte. 
Tlie Log Tabic oral coniputcd by drawing di.i cram* for 
, i i. and every log, from 12 to -i-i inch cm In dbvnttor, and 

tin* width of e.ich Ix-.ijd Liken, nfler taking oil Uja wiui.- 
i 'in- ur:i lolul t.f cai Ii lio:u-d COnpUtOtOl the amount 
each log will giv, und if there on N- any dependence 
placed upon 'u.-li htrii-tly mathetnatlenJ accarocy, no one 
.11 be it.»t" for » mo moot to abide ibe rr^ultn ben given, 
Ofl UlC nujlhod adoplod In the author CdD H IttH i" notliln,; 
. l.-r than fttrlct honoatj and mathemaUcal aocuracy, to the 
[airliii iolert.-hted. 

the bent eviil. nre nf the UM-fulrn-**. und |>of.iil;uHty nf 
thin l-rok ii llio mnld and exleiodvo nalc of nearly onu 
Imndi. d ttn.n-.intl, -Incc Ita pulille.ition. We do not hoaj- 
tnte i<> ok,) no book of lu size and price coot&iiu more 
un foi or eorrcef tablet. 

In all new »ud lumber ronnlrlea thi txiok will be fnnnd 
v.i j convenient iu, it compli|0< much that u ujhTuI for the 
fiinner, txieelianfa*, and buwn'w m;in. 

OrdcrfeoUclteo\anfl n UU-jtU dipcount mado towhole«aJe 

Price, 25 cb". at retail, fi copies for ono dollar, nent po*U 
n .. ipt of thi' 'Uununt. 
Atldrwi GEi». IV. FISHER. PuMUher. 

Rocbi-trr, N". V., ISM. |200-4toow] 

Rare Inducements to Agents and Others. 
As heretofore innoune.-d, tin- Fifth Vnlumo of tho 

Hi B w Ni tV-YORKKB, tot 1854; itIU Ufl in it -r. .11 . injprOTCd, 

the Proprlolor baring determined 1 1 . , t it nhall InnUre- 

RpeelliOXcelelOieroritn ] I. . n ,md*. ni, >r.^v 

journaJ*. Ho aim offen groflUa inducement* Uinn ever 
before (" each and ..ll dhmond to oct a* ngcnl-j or form 
clubn. The nHontlon of all Intereitcd U rcttpcclfully IbtI- 

b I l«. ill- foi loo n. . list "f very lil. a] 


1. 8E\ I SI Y.i 11 !. In. I I ms, i.n i sill, mill, paxen 
• ■ ii.lifi-.- as it... ..,-., ii, -i Durobci ,.| rrtul) -ui-.i.l.i> rsli 

tl - 1 - • ... 1 1 - la I • i. i i ii, i lo liio 

K. k.'.i. Ni.,i- Yo ,j. -i inHiu ordliiB to our 

dull tun; — previous lo lit- It b .1' April, liSM. 

•.'. PIFTY DOLLARS in C. in lot] 1 ,,n ichlliBg us 

Ond I >l_. •! in lllil,.:l. M .1 ofi 1. 
■"• . T 1 1 1 1 : [ I' I. 11 |.\|. . isrCi :, ,,, tl„, ^r^n m.. n jln g 
11 ilii m ,. , Drnolier. 

i. TWENTY DOLLARS, in Ouii, IoUiii [. ; nvio wudlns 

.1 Hi... i,„ : iiMiiii.i gru ii, ,| iniiui,,.,. 

6. F1FTSI X DOTJ LRS, in Vum or Hooks, to the 
1 n ■ 1 - 1 • 'i Qumber. 

0. nVELVE DOLLABS. IM I'uri; 01. BooiU, to Ui_ 
, . nilini.- ih,. nrsl (slxtb) grvatcsi dudiUt. 

7. TEN I)i>I.|..VI-n, ix I>la» OB OciaxK, lo Uio persoo 
svadlng 1L0 oi'it (fovontli) grrAlost nau 1 


Lronler tn resell End rvtvard , phby 0?ni vrbo nviy len.l 

.% portion of iolliiiiico In sopfKirt or tlio RnjLLL New. 

Yorker, ■ ■• otter IoUiom irlio .in oot compote for oldier 

"f tin- 1 ■ the Toll liberal gral iltii 

1. FIVE t"'t 1 HIS - ' v ... .,.- . ol IVmsTiR'a 

l' > ai mi ,.• 1. hi. , 1. in vi ., ii.r >.i In Ag.'1 11. ,' I ... 1 11 ,1 
nl fur 111TV ..i mon ■■ 1 1. 1 pli • 

," '. UjsuU rlpUoiu [■ ...| . irllon lilr,) iccorUlnr lo our 

i.n.,-, |.i. ii,,,.- iu 11,,, i:,iii ,.r April, HS.V1. 

2d. I IVI. nm LARS, in lt„„' ■•-. 01 foul «tm eo| 
tin- Urn 11.. I.....1. |,i.,..i riniilliug ,,,1... nl I.,- ».,i:t . 
or uiurv suuserlbors, as nbovi'. 

M. THIIRB I) U in In I iks or n Imndsomtli 

' "",.1 rolu ..1 lhu i , for ' .., i,, eruri pej ,. .. - 

in i 1 1 in.- r,,r roiRTY aubscrlbeni. 

-1 1 li- roevmj one irmllllng for rtrnrrv enplm, (J2i.) 
»c irlll gin in. . ,11-.. r..|.v ..I ll.,-, uul (llii- 

■ I -' I «>1 ■ "I 1111. IV11.11. liiimii.ii 

■ ■ , —or. If prvI.Trvl, OD I'ltir OOD] 0{ 
Ihi 11 ii.h .1.1 • I,.'., in Uoukn. 

Bib. To .-.-. 1-1 one remitting r..r TBI eojilet (916.) tin ex- 
tra , op) •( ll,,' li. i:ai. tun! three rolumea (i«wt orpraaent) 
ol Ibe W00I Ol tu— or, Iruirail of ...1 . IV U_H iii 


flth. r>. .."tv one r, luillin/ f..i . . , roj.l. . (^lo,) an ,'x- 
Uaeom .1 lln Roral, eltliervnluiue n| the WooIUrosvr, 
uii.J ,1 bound \ .,!. ol Gem ne I- inn. 1 foi 1843 or '40, 

7th. T.. . ,.r, one remitting for Till ci oploa(S 1 aUhu 
roll lbo Wool Oiover, ud a bound TolunM of Gen- 

i'lMX. Funuur for I sib or '-111. 

8th. To.i.rv |»T-nn rcjDlltlpg f.r «v- ropr {#2.) »«.< 
...II gin > .'...,, of .IiIiit vuluinu Wool (Jroweror tho Fur- 
in.:r f.r I-Jn ..r 'I'.i ,i» |.|,f.ried. 

All coil. 1 ni,-, (,,r preraiuLUS aro oiuoctcd lo oilhoru 
strictly tn tlio following 


Two Don.Aiis a Ykah. Three Copies; one ymirfi six 
Copies forSlo— Tea Copies for B15— Trn ni. CoplosforftlS, 
and ... addlttonsj nnmber »t (he nunc mi.. Nsmesof 
sul .11-1.-. irritlen on Iho laj^-n. if.!, ,,. .1, i„,,..,,. r buti- 
the rlub. Cluii |upi'ni nut to different ofllc-s If desired, 

Cjr.Spe.imeu numbers, Ac, famudied to nil dls- 

pt Lto eomj roi Fremlam»,or whu ilestre to oilcnd 

the clrenUIIan of the Niw-Yohkeb. sjutncrlptiua money 
prO[wrly eneluaed, may !<■ mulled .11 onr Ink, If nUrewod 
to D. D. T. MOORE, Roehssler. N. Y. 


NOB, It fc t-l lVLi.r Sktsoa StkkkT, rtrrpiLO. — Jhram 
V II kite tr Co, mieee.-.-or" to >Il..,,i, & I/jifrin;:. whole- 
-.1., und retail dealerv Id all klads of Agricultund Imple- 
ment* und Machines. Field, (i.irden and Ilower SimiIs; 
Krult nud dniain. jitrd Tree*, Shrobs and Flowers: Orieotnl 
I'oulln-, At. AlAo. Agents for lbo Ito<toD Itelting Com- 
pany's' vuloanlsed ludia rubber goods, Ilolllng, Hose Pack- 
ing, ic n Ac. 

fjitlera anUdtod, all of which shall rrcelri' prompt atten- 
tion at lowest market rate*, and all articles Harrant«Nl an 
represenUKl. III1U11 C. WHITE k CO. 

Hikaji C. WniTK. [lMtt] Auasa Mihos. 

Rtahr's Tremlum Piano-Fortes or\. a Gnrt rnto article for 
lhat purisise, as numbers who bought them last jr-ar will 
t(-*tliv. I have 011 luind from 10 to 20 flnUhinl Instrnmrnls, 
beside fO to SO others constantly in proee*iof cooslniclioni 
and sliall at all times be h-iopy to supply lho«' who {after 
nomination aaa\ Lo do tfAiVA ail are tacUed.) btlloTV lli.-m 
lo be tho best In market. Every inMruim-nt *U1 be war 
ranted to giie entire aatltdaction, at 47 Uain st, op-stair*.. 

Roclioslrj, Doe. 20, 1S6S. 


DBTAIiTuiiST nr Ciixnmriiv.— E. S. C.hik, M. D, Pro. 

1 ' '..luLNln- and ItaapLlicationh lo AL-riLulluri. aud 
lbo V , in. 

I'. K Humn. UutrUCtOC in AnalTtlral Chemlstrr. 

Tbb. 1 >.-; -■ -tin ml .,t the University, haying-been |>enm- 
lu-uijy ealoblUlud, a i-j.a,-ioiis Laboratory itiD be. op.-n.-d 
for the n-oepiiou of Sludonta, on Tni -.L.\. the 10th - 1 1^ "f 
Janu-irr Inxt. There will be n Course of Inlru, 11..1, in 

Pxocllcal and Analytical C'bemialrr, ,jkI ., 1 ^.. ..f i^-<- 

tunpe by Prof C.viilt, on the application- of Cheinl 
Agrlcnlluroand tho HnouCicturing Arts, coou'nuing during 
11 term >,f tbroo mnulhs. Tlie Laboratory will bo open 
from 11 A. ii. to I r. 11. 

Tlio Leclurea ""til bo dcllrcn-d In the ercmlng, and wQI 
bo free of ehargv. 

For l-^beir.iior)' Instruction, $*^0 per term, or 8tt' p«'r 
month, for a shorter period. Studeuls rrill be eharvsl wilh 
brx-siage and lbo tlbi-uileuts tboy cinsume, Stutleota will 
also have access to the jttote Agricultural and tieologicul 

Analysis of Soils, Onu, Mineral Wnlcra, it., made on 
reoyonnblo tonus. 

,,|h. - Prof. E. S. rxnu, r.l Albany, or either of lbs fol- 
lowing (.'onilrin..n :— Luther Tneker, ofOeo Alluui.. Cultiva- 
tor: liou. 0. P. Johnson, Slalo Agricultural It«>oms; l>r. 
.1 II \nn*y, IJ.'.I llm.-ulway. g07-3t. 

20,000 Onnciu.n ix Anvaxoie 0> Ptolicstiox.— Will 1- 

ready Uondar, Dec. .lib. ISia. Lit tit Amu for fonat/o 

TJUU FrientU, by the Anthor of "Kern Learcs." unr. 

elegant lilmo 300 pages— 8 IlluslraUone. Price 7S cento. 

lb., same — gill islgeSl. 
Copies sent by mall, post paid, on receipt of prir*\ 
PubUabfsl by DERBT .'; iliLU.n. Auburn, N. V. 

Ilr.iiiiv, Obtox k MiLi.niAX, liuitil... 
For tale by all Beoktw-Uea throughout the United Stoles 

and Canada^ 



1 c t i c a L 

•/\<%,'»."..'».'S« , ^./',rt.''^.^.'' 

[Written i".- W( .!.'• IturaJ Jfew-Yorkp. j 


nr wit. s. c. kxovixs. 

0, TlfTT jnnmi'y of lif.-, In ml limir-tlm'- "I' 

M .. ■ -iu n.. if rojrgt •! nod rough lo Uii 
A r,.i Uu nadowi "r gtti I maj i ndrclc oat clu'loc**, 

Ami linicli all ""' hopt totbll -i.i; 

Vi i Qic lunllglil i Ml coral . Uiouj li cnvi lop" J In 

Ami gn ntoj ■■ ' nrlth n lialo ol light, 
As Uin »linilt.' thnl ha* mottled aivhlli' on Lho mi ador, 

Wlit ii l"|"' '"'""i i'iir \i>\\ I' .in ' Hi' I " 'i ' ''""'' 
Though llu-frlcmhi which hnil spoken In prnlMtooui hi I 

When wealth held u. up t" Uii gWJ "i Ihu <-nnvd, 
Mny protend w.- hit Grangers, and repulse our nnl.r.i'-. «, 

Whi ii i Hi ortj come" In lb. worn, tattered ahroiid; 
Yet fl/r* will remain, /uiil uioi,- dear that tin- number 

I., nnall, uliaii compared Willi the nunibi r before; 
Ami UnlrfrleniMiIp will brighten, though nil olM bo sombre. 

Ami gladden our pathir.-iv lho .--une nor yore, 

Then the eye will look up, which win nut down In udnem, 

And loon will bo hnuhed from the uuUioii onco more; 
And tbo lip thnl m -Hi nl will i>penk hut In gladness 

And smilo id Hi" I'l.a-iir.i w1h.1i y. 1 i« in ulnn 
And lho dnj-ntar of hope, glowing brigliUj uceudant. 

Will ralvj wllh a glory I" ihuken no in ; 

And the ninllgBt of Joy, with ClTulgi oec re ploddnnt, 

Will Inlno whore tin' ihnitowi wore lingering In i 
Grand Itaplds, Mich, 1SS3. 

[Written for Mooro'i Rural No» -Yorki r. | 




A nation tlitit has long enjoyed t he M' 
of peace, bos very dim ideas of the distresses 
ami horrors of war. The din of a far-off con- 
flict iriay be wafted to their ears in a softened 
murmur on the passing breeze: the rumor of 
blood and battles in foreign lands niay be pre- 
sented lo tliem in the pen-and-ink sketches of 
n doily newspaper at two cents a copy; "nil, 
stripped of its revolting feature?, men limy read 
of war at their case, over their evening tea or 
morning toast, the booming of cannon being 
represented by the noisy hammerings of some 
live years old juvenile of the masculine gender, 
and the groans and cries of the wounded and 
the dying, by the shrill pipings of the "nest of 
kin," numbering, possibly, as many months. A 
brilliant campaign in an enemy's country is n 
capital means of furnishing candidates for civil 
offices of all grades from the President down- 
wards, and of fastening a long list of maimed 
pensioners upon the public treasury; but unless 
war is the result of a direful necessity, the nation 
which involves itself and others in such n ca 
latnily is guilty of treason before high heaveu! 

There arc occasions, however, and those too 
often presented, when the temple of the two- 
faced demon must be unbarred, or freedom mid 
the rights of humanity will be trodden under 
f.itit, and deeper wrongs be brought upon man- 
kind, than Mara with all his train of attendant 
furies Li able to iuflict. At such a juncture, it 
is right and proper that the plowshare should 
be beaten into u sword, and the pruning hook 
into a spear; and plodding husbandmen anil 
gentle shepherds should be transformed into 
soldiere with mailed breasts and lion hearts. — 
That such occasions may become less and less 
frequent, until the promised time when the lion 
shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall 
lie down with the kid, should be the daily 
prayer of all men; and, in the chaste lauguuge 
of the Litany, in common with a deprecation 
of other direful curses it should be, " from bat- 
tle, and murder, and from sudden death, Good 
Lord, deliver usl" 

We look buck to the scenes of the Revolu- 
tion with pride mid self-complacency, now that 
its revolting and direful features have been 
mellowed down by lapse of time, and its sor- 
rows and iii-i " ■ ■■■ have been washed out by 
a long period of prosperity nud joy; we re- 
count with glowing imaginations, the deeds of 
daring, tho actors in which have long since 
passed away. Wc kindle our own patriotism 
nt those shrines of national erection, the high 
priests of which live only iu history and song. 
Wo find men of peaceful habits tr.uisfomied 
into heroes, and obscure individuals suddenly 
raised up to fill high niches in tho temple of 
Fume. Many of these men are identified with 
the wholo period of the revolutionary struggle, 
and others with a single action or a single in- 
cident connected therewith, tho repelling of a 
single inroad, or the overthrow of a single in- 
vtiding force Among Ihe latter may be reck- 
oned tho hero of our story. 

Damki. Ashxky, the ]ierson referred to above, 
was the son of a widow, living in the then ob- 
scure and almost frontier town of Olaremont, 
New Hampshire. His father had been dead 
sorao years, and at the time of his deceuse, he 
left his pecuniary affairs, which had become 
sadly involved by unfortunntc speculations, in 
irretrievable confusion, and his wife a widow, 
with thrco small children, of which Daniel 
was tho oldest The grandfather of young 
Asulet was bring in the family nt tho time of 
tin' father's decease; an old man iu years, but 
with a vigorous constitution and on nndimmod 
intellect Ho was joiued with the widow iu 
tho administration of his son's estate, and, by 

dint of the shrewdest and most, prudent man- 
agement, contrived to reserve tothehoart- itrii I •- 
••ii family, out of the general wreak of their 

fortunes, a small rocky farm, Ijing on tl ul- 

skirts of the 'village. The widow was one of 
(he best and most prudent of women, and the 
old gentleman continued lo reside with her, 
and till, as I'nr as it was possible for him to do 
bo, the place of a father to the orphan children, 

Pa.n'iki. grew ti)i up in man's e late (that is 
to say, to tho size of d man, although as ycl 
young hi years) very intelligent^ sohcr and in- 
dustrious, but very quiet and bashful withal — 
He was brave and generous, i " 1 ' ' udued with 
nil tho noble trails of human nature, and wo nil i 
iii any moment have risked bis life unllinclniig- 
ly in the of humanity; but ho would 
quail before the glance of o woman's eye, as if 
lie bad stumbled unwittingly upon a masked 
battery of cannon. In common with all other 
young on n, be was susceptible to the charms 
of female society; bul he always drew back in 
thoir presence, leaving tho field uncontested to 
his young associates with less brains than him- 
self less mental accomplishments, less personal 
attractions, but more assurance and self-pos- 
session. If he had been blessed with the gen- 
tle influences of an older sister or two to lead 
him on, these fault — if faults they were — 
would have been overcome; but unfortunately 
for him. the other children were both bov, and 
both his juniors several years. His mother 
and his brothers loved him, fur he was dutiful 
uinl affoctionnto; the village schoolmaster es- 
teemed him highly, for he was an n | •* scholar; 
the neighbors all respected him, for he was so- 
ber and upright; the young men of his ac- 
quaintance though! well uf him, for he was 
considerate and generous; and the young 
maidens liked him notwithstanding his bash- 
fulnesB, for he never did or said anything indel- 
icate — albeit they would have liked him better 
if he had not been quite so shy. 

There was a little, merry, blue-eyed girl, just 
two years his junior, nnmed i \nt. II .wit. who 
had been his school companion through all his 
early years. Her parents lived near neighbors 
to bis own family, and having no brothers, she 
was always entrusted to his care, lie would 
go before to make paths for her in the deep 
snow, carry her on hi- sturdy young shoulders 
across n swollen brook, nud in fad, watch over 
her on all occasions as the apple of his eye; 
and ".Tenxv," as hp called her, fully reciproca- 
ted his kind regards. On more than one occu- 
-ion i if truancy and misdemeanor in school, 
bad her tears ami pleadings shielded him from 
punishment ; and he had in turn often done bat- 
tle in her behalf like a true knight. 

No wonder, then, that the two grew np to 
love each other; but as the voting man c tine 
to annlyzo his feelings, and view them in their 
true light, he became bashful and reserved, and 
lost all courage to confess the soft impeach- 
ment His manner became constrained, al- 
most cold in her presence, and, as opportunity 
to manifest his preferences succeeded opportu- 
nity without avail, it is not strange that Jenny 
began nt last to doubt him, painful us the mn- 
\ iction was to her. She tried nil means maid- 
only modesty would permit to draw him out, 
but in vain; and, piqued as well ns wounded 
at Ins seeming indifference, she nt length com- 
menced trenting him in turn with a coldnes3ns 
uncongenial to her own nature as it was pain- 
ful to both; and she on several occasions gave 
utterance to a sarcasm that wounded him lo 
the very soul. Her kindly nature always re- 
volted at it, for she was one of the gentlest of 
her sex, nnd mourned over it afterwords most 
bitterly in .secret; but she half suspected he 
loved her, and on tho-e invasions strove to 
bauish bis shyness by exciting his anger and 
half driving him to desperation. But it was 
to no purpose, the explanation could not be 
made, and the unfortunate misunderstanding 
widened the breach between them daily. 

Young Asm.KY worked assiduously on his 
mother's little farm, in order to aid iu support- 
ing I lie family, for his grandfather at this time 
had become stricken in years. He dressed in 
homespun, like all other fanner's sous of that 
early day, although he had a better, or rather 
n more ornamental suit, which he wore upon 
important occasions, to wit, upon militia train- 
ings and muster days. These were great days 
among our colonial ancestors, who looked nit- 
on the militia as the main pillar of the State; 
and young Ashley held an important position 
in the town troops, no less so than that of 
captain. He was indebted for his rank, eleva- 
ted as it was for one so voung, partly to the 
fact that ho had joined the corps as a volun- 
teer, several years before bis enrollment bad 
been required by law; hud having been elected 
from the ranks to the lowest grade in the scale 
of non-commissioned officers simply, because it 
was difficult to find ono willing to perform its 
drudgery, he had risen gradually to the, rank 
he now held, by the successive resignations and 
exemptions from military duty of his seniors 
in office. He owed his promotion partly to 
this, wc sny; but it was partly owing, also, to 
the prestige of his father's and grandfather's 
names, for they had been captains before him. 

The grandfather of the young captain had 
been a soldier in the old French and Indian 
wars, ond hud mingled freely in the bloody 
scenes and horrors of that period The fire 
of his youth had not even yet burned out, and 
he loved to excite n military spirit in the young 
men of tho town, under the plea which proved 
too prophetically true, that they would yet be 
needed ui the service of their country. A sys- 
tematic course of oppression had long been re- 
lentlessly pursued by the mother country, and 
restlessly endured by tho sturdy colonists. — 
Clouds which threatened a coming storm, low- 
ered portontiously and darkly above the eastern 
horizon, nnd blood had already flowed in the 
streets of Boston, where five citizens were shot 
down in a melee by British troops, which had 
been quartered there to overcome tho free spir- 
it of the people. But when, five years there- 
after, u company of provincial militia, training 
upon Lexington common, were fired upon by 
British troops and several of their members 
killed, the whole country rose up in arms; and 
Ihe battles of Concord and Bunker Mill, which 
immediately succeeded, put an end to all further 
hope of reconciliation. Patriots, young and 
old flocked to the standard of their country, 

and tho whole thirteen colonies stood up in 
op n rebellion against their king. 

Captain Ashley was strongly inclined to 
join the army, ns many of his own company 
liad done, loii i lie tears, of his mother, and the 
necessities of bis young brothers restrained 
him. It WU3 u sure slrutrifle in his in .ill, how- 
ever, and nothing but filial duty of tin mosl 
exalted character prevented tne inclination 
from becoming overmastering. He heard of 
Hie battles on Bunker Hill and other fields of 
' intry" | lory, and he Bighed to join bis 
struggling conutrymen in active service; and 
once when Jbnxv Hart luughingh called bim 
a fair wenthor soldier, he leaped from his chair 
ami seized an old fire-lock, which was suspend- 
ed over the mantel, with such desperate energy 
that, in order to restrain him from starting 
forthwith, she was lain to ask his forgiveness jrj 
tears at her injustice. She pictured to him the 
bight r duty he owed his deceased father's fam- 
ily in such glowing terms, that he was fairly 
persuaded to relinquish his determination. The 
only thing, therefore, which was left for him to 
do, was to enroll himself among the minute- 
men, and bo in constant readiness to repel at n 
moment's warning, an invading army from his 
own door. And such njuncl are arose fullsoon. 

Tho whole country bad been in nnns two 
years, nnd both of the contending paries wen? 
preparing to make the third a decisive and 
vigorous campaign. The enemy hnd negotia- 
ted with a pcliy ' Ionium prime in furnish per 
capite an nrmj of hi- own subjects, to be paid 
for, like cattle fie ihe shambles, at so much a 
head, in Uiecvonl of their being killed or of 
never returning to their own country. The 
Indian-' had been bribed to anbury the hatchet 
in behalf of Great Britain and against the rebel- 
lious Colonists, and every possible effort was 
made in advaucc to crush out the spirit of 
resistance by tho terminution of the eiisuiutr 
campaign. A vast army of British troops and 

mercenaries had I n concentrating on the 

Canada frontier preparatory to o descent upon 
New York and the New England Suite--, with 
the ile-i'.'ii of descending the Hudson bv the 

way of Lake Chnmplnin. i |uering all the 

adjacent country, establishing a chain of mili- 
tary posts that would cut off New England 
from the rest of the Colonies, and then con- 
quering them in turn. Treason was set to 
work in the American army for the purpose of 
lending to the enemy efficient nid, and, like the 
viper in the bosom of the countryman, of 
stinging colonial liberty to death. The cam- 
paign was admirably planned, but for the 
schemers lamentably tun I disastrously executed, 
resulting in their defeat and disgrace, and 
eventually in at least one unfortunate and iguo- 
minious death — namely, the death of Major 
Anoiie upon the scaffold. 

The cloud that had been gathering upon the 
Northern frontier came down at length in blood 
and liit*. General, with an nrnvy 
confident of un easy victory, moved forward, 
capturing the strong forts upon the borders of 
Lake Cbamnlain, and penetrating deeper and 
deeper into tne rebellious provinces. The blood 
of murdered innocence flowed under the Indian 
hatchet;, and cried for vengeance from the 
ground. Gradually the lines of circumvulla- 
fion, drawn by an indignant and outraged peo- 
ple, approached closer and closer around the 
doomed army of Buiiooyne ; his supplies were 
cut off! Ins scouting parties driven in with loss, 
and defeat and starvation began to stare him 
in the face. In this juncture of affairs he dis- 
patched Col. Baum at the head of a German 
mercenary force, with instructions to scour the 
State of Vermont for forage nnd supplies, nnd 
to drive into camp nil the horses and neot cot- 
tie he might find scattered among the green 
hills. The march of the marauders, uccomnn- 
iiied as I hey were by a strong body of Indian 
allies, threw the whole country into a state of 
the most intense alarm. Couriers were dis- 
patched in nil directions to call out the militia. 
The force of minute men were summoned per- 
emptorily lo the field, and hillside and valley 
resounded on all sides with the din of arms. 

It was nbOUt the 10th of August, 1777, that 
Col. Baum commenced his march ; and at the 
first call made by Hen. Staukk for succor from 
bis countrymen, CnpL Astn.KY mustered the 
few remaining members of his corps and pre- 
pared to take the field with them in person. 
The harvest was at the time ripe for tho sickle, 
nnd the grass, so necessary for the winter 
supply of buy in that cold climate, was in the 
field, much of it as yet uncut ; but he thought 
not of that. The necessities of the country for 
the services of her children were paramount, 
and he hastened to obey. The morning the 
little band of patriots were to sturt, they hud 
assembled on the village green in order to re- 
ceive the benediction of their pastor nnd the 
farewell of their friends, mid were about to take 
up the lino of march, when old grandfather 
Asm kv, his head as while as snow, wus seen 
approaching the company with the steady, meas- 
ured tread of a soldier. He had upon his 
shoulder u king's arms musket, which hadseeu 
service in the old French war, and a huge caa- 
touch box and canteen strapped upon bis back. 

"Daniel," he stud, approaching nud address- 
ing the captain, " You must surrender the com- 
mand to your first lieutenant and go home. I 
will take a place, as your substitute, in the nuiks." 

" No I grandfather," responded the young 
soldier, "il cannot be 1 It would disgrace me 
eternally to do that, and tho whole world would 
call me a coward and a traitor ever iffler I Go 
back to my mother and tell her for the, if I fidl 
in the coming light, that it was not as an un- 
dutiful sou that I went forth to battle I" 

" N o man is n coward but he who fears to do his 
duty," replied the old man; "yours is to go 
home and look to your mother and young 
brothers and leuve me to fight in your stead. 
I can hold a steady gun, and my eye is not yet 
dim, and if I do not mnke ns good a soldier as 
you, with nil my experience in battle, I will 
withdraw from the field disgraced evor after." 

" But," persisted tho young muu, "suppose 
we are defeated ; you would uot be able to 
oscnpc, you nre too old to run." 

"He is h poor soldier who goes to battle in 
a righteous cause and thinks to run," the grand- 
father answered. " You would not do it in 
your hot-blooded youth, nnd I certainly would 
not in my cool old age. If it is tho will of 

Providence that one of us be killed, certainly 
it is far better that the lot should fall on me. 
My nice is well nigh run in any event, and a 
year or two can make but little difference either 
way, if one is prepared. You will have many 
years left to serve yourcnuuta and your race.'' 
In vain the voting man argued, for the gnuid- 
-ire's determination was immovable, and he 
turned at I'-iierlli to his companions in arms for 
an expression of their opinion in his favor ; bul 
the arguments of the old man bad been so for- 
cible, that lo the siuprise and mortification of 
Ihe voiinc captain, they ununimoii-'ly look Bides 

against him. They were all acquainted with 
the widow's circumstances, and the necessity of 
her son's presence for her comfort and support) 
and they fell, too, that the country would not 
be the loser by the exchange of any soldier in 
the service for the cool old veteran who offered 
him -'elf as a substitute. The clergyman was 
called upon to settle the matter in dispute 
between Hum, nnd both parlies pledgetl them- 
selves to ubide by bis decision. He reviewed 
with all candor the arguments advanced on 
both sides, and decided in favor of Ihe veteran. 

Tears of mortification and disappointment 
stole down the manly cheeks of the young cap- 
tain, as ho unbuckled the sword from his side 
and surrendered it into the hands of bis junior 
in office, and then, after watching the retiring 
column until it filed out of sitrhi around the 
base of the western hill, be turned his face 
homeward with a heavy heart. His mother, 
win. was well aware of the old man's intentions, 
although they had been kupt secret from the 
son, was overjoyed at his return, nnd strove iu 
vaib to cheer bim up under the bitter disap- 
pointment. He felt it ns a kind of personal 
repromh, and he would not banish from hi.-. 
mind the idea that his return would be regard- 
ed as tin act of cowardice on his part The 
dim phantom of Jenny Hakt's contempt floated 
across his imagination, and the recollectiou that 
she had once called biin a fair weather soldier, 
nettled him greivonsly; for he could not but 
confess in his secret heart that her good opinion 
was most to be desired by him on earth. 

After the humble supper had been dispatch- 
ed that evening, the mother, with a view of 
diverting his mind from the gloomy train of 
thought in which he was indulging, tallied to 
him in a cheerful strain of the busy week that 
was to ensue; the smnll field of spring wheat 
must bo harvested; the early oats must lie cut, 
and the meadow hay-Iicld mown. Hi- though) } 
however, were far away from the quiet pur- 
suits of husbandry, and bis ears were tilled with 
the imaginary din of arnus. "What," said he, 
"if grandfather should be killed while I am at 
work in the hay-field!" "Mj Godl" he added, 
springing to his feet as the possibility of such 
an event presented itself to his imagination, 
"the whole world would vote me a poltroon 
forever after. It is too bad — too bud!' and 
he sat dowu again in the comer of the ample 
hearth and refused oil consolation. Finding 
every effort to reason with him vain, while the 
disappointment was so fresh upon his miud, his 
mother quietly withdrew and went over to one 
of the neighbors not far off to talk over the 
painful events of the day, ami also to attend 
6ome brief religious exercises which had been 
uppointed for the purpose of invoking the in- 
terposition of heaven in behalf of their sons 
anil brothers, who had been called into the field. 

As it happened by chance during this absence, 
JgNNf HaW, whose thoughts were running up- 
on the dangers to which the young .soldier was 
exposed — for from some cause she biul not 
heard of the substitution, and supposed her 
secretly cherished lover was at that moment 
far away, upon the march to battle — stole over 
to the widow's in the hope of gleaning some 
consolntiou in her own behalf, and of hearing 
of some parting expression of good will towards 
herself from him. Judge then of her surprise 
as she entered, to see the young man sitting 
listlessly by his own fireside. Her Drst itnpul.-c 
was one of joy at his presence, but her excla- 
mation, mingled as her satisfaction was with 
surprise and doubt, was of a nature too com- 
plicated to be oualyzed by him. 

" I thought," she said, without returning his 
moody salute, "that you was far away, with 
the rest of the young men, in the service of our 
country.'' "I intended to go," he answered bit- 
terly, "but have been overruled. Mother, and 
grandfather, nud the parson, took counsel to- 
gether, and came to the conclusion that the hay 
must be cut, and that the harvest must be 
scoured, which is white for the sickle; and I 
have therefore been compelled to stay nt home 
and do it. The old man nas gone iu my place." 

Tho wnrm blood flashed over Jenny's cheek 
like lightuiug over n summer cloud, as the 
identical idea be most dreaded, flitted through 
her mind; ami without pausing a moment for 
reflection, she responded with energy: — "For 
sbume! The harvest i.< white for the sickle, 
and must bo cut indeed; and you arc willing 
it tliovld be done! but the harvest is your 
grandfather's gray hairs, and Denth is the 
reaper!" The youth leaped from bis chair as if 
stung by n serpent, crying — "Great God, this 
is too much!" nnd then turning towards the 
girl with flashing eyes and in a tempest of 
intensest passion, be added fiercely : — " Jane 
HartI you wrong me! yon wrong mo cruelly! 
You have once before this reproached mo with 
cowardice, and now you charge me with a 
baseness in addition, thut ought to bring blushes 
to the face of the Infernal Fiend! I hnvo loved 
you in secret, .as I have loved my own soul; 
but I will tear away your image now, although 
up to this moment it has been my heart's most 
sacred idol I I wonld trnmple it under foot, 
even if I trampled with it my hope of heaven! 
Farewell! Tell my mother she will next hear 
of mo on tho field of buttle, and if I fall like 
tho coward and poltroon you think me, may 
the carrion crows batten on my carcass!" 

Ho seized his hat and was rushing for tho 
door when she caught him by tho anu, crying: 
"Oh pardon! pardon, as you hope for mercy! 
Daniel— <lcar Daniel! if you leave me in this 
way I shall be haunted by remorse forever! I 
have wounded you in a thoughtless moment, 
and on my knees will I make atonement!" 

Sho strove to detain him, but he shook her 
off in tho fierceness of lus passion, and rushed 
from the house, leaving her fainting. 

[Co.xcludkd ■tarr na.| 

§0tttl)'$ Corner* 

" Attempt thf end, nnd norer itand i" doirtil : 
nothing « to ii irf, bul hcotcIi will iiml u oat.* 


£59" Answer in two weeks. 

Wu will forward the Ruual three months, free 
of chnrgo, to each of the first/bur persons (resid- 
ing out of the city) who send correct answers 
to tho above Rebus previous lo the publication 
of the solution. 


Is weighing specimens of Quartz bearing 
Gold, it bos been found convenient to '>-" a bal- 
ance mad ci of ivory. IS inches long, round, and 
of tho saute diameter throughout Ihe length and 
weighing ono pound Troy, and a small pin in 
tho centra of each end fur fastening the article 
suspended by a line silken thread; it is also di- 
vided into pari- to tlie i„ of an inch from ono 
end. I found that n specimen balanced .'I 1 , 
inches from the fulcrum, iu water, and 3 inches 
from fulcrum out of water. What was tho 
weight of tho specimen, — Gold contained with- 
in, — and value of the ' "'Id at $16 per Oz., call- 
ing the sp. gravity of Gold 19, and quartz 3t£? 
Ciias. o. Looms, 

£g?" Answer next week. 

Qi BSTION. — Place four figure threes so as to 
make thirty four. 

t^" Answer next week. 


Answer to Illustrated Rebus No. 2. — .|..'n.ei.i- 
linat. Soft ShelU, Wooili/ Heads, and Silver Vrtii/.i. 

Au-wor to Mihecllanctius Kuigiua. — Junius 
Mercantile Auocinlion. 

Answer to Problem. — 23-I. 

(Mil anu- junior. 

I Must LivR. — A man whom Dr. Johnson 
reproved for following u useless and demornli- 
ziin.' business, said iu excuse, --Yon know, 1 1... - 
tor that I must live." To this the brave old 
hater of everything mean and hateful, coolly 
replied that "he did not sec the absolute ne- 
cessity of that." 

Candid Advertisement. — In the New Zea- 
lnndcr, of May 19, we find the following card : 

" Boot and Shoe Warehouse, Just ppened, 
n .spleuded variety of ladies,' gents, una chil- 
dren's boots und shoes, the very best ever im- 
ported ; also tome of tlie very icor*L" 

Men are mode in the image of God. Gon- 
tlemeu nre manufactured by tailors, barbers 
and boot makers ! Woman wus tho last and 
most perfect work of God. Indies are ihe 
production of silk-worms, milliners nud dress- 

■ o ■ 

To undertake to reason a girl out of love is 
as absurd as it would be to attempt to extin- 
guish Vesuvius with n two ounce syringe, Tho 
only thing that will break a loTC lit is bard work 
and boiled pork. 

■ i » ' » 

Naomi, the daughter of Enoch, was five 
hundred nnd eighty years old, when sho was 
married. Oourago, ladies I 


in v.vr.itr satciway, 


FmscRn-rio* — 52 ft rear — SI lor rix month*. To 
dut* and Ap-olrt rw fuUoira : — Thrco Copies ono yrivr, for 
95; Slj Copied (nud ono lo Act-nt or gfHer up of club,) 
for Sill; Tod Coplm (nnd ono to Affonl) for SIS; Tironty 
f*npj,« for $25, and anj additional number, dirwrlc-i to 
Individual* at tho Bamo rate. Six month* »ab»eriplioo» in 

fy SnlnrripHon monqr, prop»rlr tnclorcs^ mor bo «-nt 
by mall at lho ri«k of lho I'ubtUhor. 

ADrKKTismo. — Hrlcf and appccprinla ulrartamiMntil 
trill bo ln«ortod at SI, 50 per M|uar», (l*n tinea, or 100 
irordu,) or IS cenui por line — i» odemec. 7h* cimjntioa 
of tho Kcral XBir-YoiutKK L. torcrxl thouMod Rratcr 
tlian tliit of any oUior Agricultural or similar jo urual in 
Amorlea. ioo«bVun-.i, fcc, «iu not bo advvrbWd io 
tbi« |iopor on any tonn*. 

\UT All communlmtion*, and builnnw lottora, ahoulil 
be addruencd tti 1). II. T. Mooim, Rochester, N. V. 

XOx-StrnsoKi mum Into when* handu thU number of tb» 
HriiAL may fall, aro raquoauU lo jriro it an ciamlnalioa, 
and. If approTcd, Uielr m pport. S*o proapoetu*, lYemiaat 
List, io., on preceding nago- 

w 2 ^ 



{WHOLE NO. 210. 

$toort's guni ^cto-florlttr: 


Agricultural, Literary, and Family Newspaper. 


JOSEPH HARRIS, In lb* Practlod Department*: 

EDWARD WHIISTER, in tho Literary nod Kens Dcp't*. 

Corrv.*pnnilin£ Editors: 
J. H. Hrxnv— H. C. Wim -r.,— T. K. Wktmorjs. 

Tin: Rriui. N'ew-Yobker la designed to bo unique and 
beautiful in appearance, and unfurpufed in Vtilae, I'urit, 
ami \".i i E i " > OfConleDtB. ItA conductor* earnestly labor 
lo mike it i BeUoblo Guide on Uio Important Practical 
Subjects connected irltlj Uiq buslm-M of those trhose in- 
terests it advocates. It embraces more Agricultural, Horti- 
cultural, Scientific, Mochanlcal, Literary anil rJum Matter, 
lntcrejwrwd with many appropriate and handsome engrav- 
ings than auy other pajKir published in this Country,— 
rendering it a complete Aoiucultuiul, Litkiuici and 

eauilv NBiraPAPiB. 

(fs?" For totum, he., last facie. JT\} 

|litral $teto -Earlier. 

Progress and Improvement. 


Last week wc said there was no country in 
the world where so many horses were kept, in 
proportion to the population, as in America — 
Wo rimy add that in no other country is the 
horse worse used than here; in none docs he 
work harder, fare harder, and receive less at- 
tention. This is owiug, perhaps, to the fact 
that in Europe the labor of one horse is equal 
to 1 tint of two men, while here we pay asntucb 
per day for a man as for a span of horses. — 
Let any- one visit the French or English stables, 
and he will bo satisfied, by contrasting their 
Bj stem with our own practices, that we are la- 
mentably careless, uud culpuby negligent of 
the health of our horses. How often have we 
seen a spun of horses brought in from n hard 
day's work, swathed in sweat, turned into a 
cold stable, fed, and left to dry, as best they 
could, without any other attention than to 
strip the harness ofT them, and throw it over 
the stall. How often, too, do we see a span 
of horses driven Jehu-like into the city, and 
then hitched with their feet in ice-cold water, 
to a post — from whence, after shivering u few 
hours, they are driven as unmercifully home 
again, to receive tho cold comfort of lying 
down to rest, (?) covered with clotted perspira- 
tion, which, perhaps, is curried off them next 
morning, prior to another day's work, as se- 
vere and as inhuman as the preceding. Our 
horses are short lived, and no wonder. The 
ouly thing that surprises us is, that they live 
half so long, and do half the work that they 
are compelled to perform. 

That warmth, to u certain extent, is equiva- 
lent to food, we have iterated and reiterated 
a hundred times. That comfort and cleanli- 
ness are essential to heiillh and long life, is a 
truth equally worthy of being sounded in 
trumpet tones, iu every farmer's ear. Look 
at that, English hunter, so active, handsome, 
healthy and sleek. After a hard gallop, he is 
brought home to a warm stable, his feet and 
legs washed in warm water, his cars rubbed 
till they are warm and dry, and then the groom 
rubs the legs and body till the horse is dry 
all over, and his coat shines so that you can 
sec your face in it So necessary is it consider- 
ed in Englaud that the horse should be rubbed 
dry, that u practice has been adopted, and now 
prevails very extensively, of clipping the hor- 
ses, that is to say, tho hair is cut off as close 
as possiblo with a pair of shears, and then, 
with an instrument, somewhat similar in shape 
to a curry-comb, containing some burning Html, 
generally naptha, or spirits of turpentine, the 
hair is burned off completely, leaving the body 
as smooth and as destitute of hair as a newly 
shaven chin. The rapidity with which the prue- 
tiee has extended proves its practical value. 
Wc know many old formers who were, at first, 
so strongly opposed to the practice, that they 
laughed at the bare idea of the subject; ami 
yet these very men, having been induced to 
try it, declared that their horses coidd stand as 
much again work, as with their coats on, and 
that they would not let their horses remain tui- 
clipt in winter on any consideration. Stage 
coach and carriage horses, hunters and farmers' 
hacks, ore now very generally dipt, saving on 

immense amount of labor in grooming. We 
notice that Meciii has recently proposed to 
clip his farm horse.*, and to attach a blanket to 
each harness, in such n manner Unit it can be 
easily thrown over the horse, in case he has to 
stand for a few minutes. 

We mention this clipping operation, not that 
we wish it adopted here, but to show how im- 
portant it is considered to have horses kept 
clean, free from sweat, with the pores of the 
skin in healthy action, &c We would advise 
not to tinge off the hair, but to kcop the hor- 
SCS in a comfortably warm stable, blanket them, 
if necessury, and the hair will be short and 
smooth. If you have been to the city, do not 
drive home at the rate often miles an hour; there 
is no necessity for it. Though ours is n fast age, 
and this a pre-eminently fast country, yet six 
miles an hour is fast enough for any farm 
Gorses lo travel. If driven home at this rate, 
[lie horses will be dry, and if a blunkct be 
i In-own over them, they will need little or no 
grooming. Wc need hnrdly say that to insure 
the cleunliness and comfort of horses, or other 
animals, it is necessary to havo clean footl, 
clean racks, clean mangers, clean litter, clean 
blankets and harness, &c Show us n mini who 
has a good team well taken care of, a good, 
substantial harness, kept well mended and oiled, 
and in perfect order, and we will show you u 
good and thrifty farmer, who keeps things 
snug and saves money. 



Few seasons have been more unfavorable 
for rearing and maturing the cereal crops in 
Urcut Britain, than the year which has just 
come to a close. The wcluess of the soil, by 
the almost incessant rains, during the preceding 
lidl prevented the usual breadth of winter wheat 
from Being sown, and what was sown was gen- 
erally put in, in bad condition. The continua- 
tion of snow and storms in mnuy parts of both 
England and Scotland, to a late period in 
spring, again prostrated tho hopes of husband- 
men. Spring wheat was therefore sown in 
-small parcels, and' that in bad condition. The 
wetness of the season throughout, thereby in- 
ducing a low range of summer temperature, 
materially ufTectod crops on heavy clays, par- 
ticularly when uudruined, ami seriously affected 
the productiveness of the wheat crops general- 
ly. Taking Great Britain as a whole, it is very 
generally conceded Unit the aggregate produce 
of wheat will be ono fourth short of a full aver- 
age. From authentic sources, both public and 
private, it appears that the wheat crop in Scot- 
land is greatly superior to that of Engltuid, 
and that is unusual, tho erops iu tho former 
country have ripened at least ten days earlier 
than those of the latter. This advance of the 
ripening process in Scotland, notwithstanding 
its northern position, and also the superiority 
of productiveness over England, notwithstand- 
ing the disparity of climate and soil between 
the one nation and tho other, speak volumes iu 
favor ofScoltish husbandry and Scottish hus- 
bandmen — 

" When, in spllo of nature, cropa hare been taught to rise. 
Which to these norUicrn dlmca wise Heaven denies." 

Thorough draining and on improved system 
of agriculture, have not only improved the 
condition of the soil, but materially affected 
for the better, the temperature of the country. 
Within the last twenty years the seasons have 
been completely changed. The stern severity 
of winter has been removed and a more uni- 
form temperature prevails throughout the year. 

Previous to the introduction of Scientific 
Agriculture iuto Scotland, had such a succes- 
sion of snows and rains deluged the earth as- 
have befallen the British Islands during the 
post year, the season would have been chroni- 
cled amongst the " dear years " and " years 
of famine," and there would have been a " clean- 
ness of teeth throughout all their borders." — 
Thus wo see, that although science cannot al- 
together prevent the calamities of uupropi- 
tious seasons, it can greatly restrain and modify 

The fluctuations in tho price of groin in 
England, tho rise and full in tbo American mar- 
kets; both consequent on information, often 
fulsc, received from the scat of war iu the East, 

have led mnny to suppose that the high range 
or prices can only be sustained by the prolon- 
gation of war between the belligercnl powers; 
It is nmusing to see what effect the telegraphic 
dispatches received from abroad have had on 
our markets at home. The Russians are ad- 
vancing; up go our markets. Anon they re- 
cede, war is: improbable, the English market is 
reported dull, and down goes wheat u quar- 
ter dollar ! Again, the hostile powers are 
making active preparations — war is inevitable 
— there is a great demand for wheal, and 
prices are advanced one shilling per bushel, 
above yesterday's quotations 1 Thus prices 
have been see-sawing in our American markets 
in consequence of two despotic, semi-barbaric 
powers being nl loggerheads, although the seat 
of war is distant from us many thousands of 
miles. The Russian war, we have no hesitation 
in saying, has been used as a catch by artful 
corn-speculators, both in this and in other 
lands, towards their own aggrandizement. 

That there is a scarcity of grain throughout 
the British Islands, we have already shown, and 
that there is n short supply generally in Europe 
is not to be gainsayed. The harvest in France 
has been so deficient thai the French havo be- 
come importers of grain to a great extent. In 
many other States nnd Nations of Continental 
Europe there is hardly a sufficiency to meet the 
demnnd until the coming harvest. The Italians 
have already had bread-riots, and what the end 
may be it is impossible to divine. 

That a great detd of the excitement which 
has arisen regarding the high range of provis- 
ions in England, has been produced by the 
probabilities of an eastern war, cannot for a 
moment be questioned; at the same time these 
extravagant apprehensions are more ideal ilnui 
real, us will be seen from the following facts and 
figures : 

■Mad we much greater apprehensions of 
actual war, (says an English journalist,) than we 
have, we should have none of our obtaining 
supplies of grain from those parts of Russia, 
and from those countries bordering upon it, 
whoso produce is usually shipped from the 
Black Sea, by ono means or another. The best 
Polish Odessa wheat, which is shipped from the 
Black Sea, is removed many hundreds of miles 
from the place of growth to that place of ship- 
ment. Ix.'t a journey of the same length I"' 
taken in another direction, and it will find its 
way through entirely different channels to the 
English murkct, as' long us it is tho most profi- 
table and most certain." 

" Iu 18-16 out of un entire import of wheut 
and Hour of 2,341,000 qrs., America, including 
Canada, supplied 1,I~>0,000 qrs.; and in 1847, 
out of on entire import of 4, -Hi 1,000 qrs. the 
same countries furnished 2,233,000 qrs., or both 
years as nearly as possible one-half of the entire 
quantity, while Russia furnished less than 20 
per cent And what the United Stales nnd 
Canada will be able to furnish at the presout 
high price with the extended cultivation, but 
above all with the remarkably increased facili- 
ties for transportation, uo one can pretend to 

Thus wesce, even although wnrshouldceoso, 
that the eyes of Great Britain are directed 
America-wards for Ihc extra supplies of bread- 
stuffs. They will require large supplies from 
us, not only to meet the exigencies of the pres- 
ent year, but also tho demand of the next, as 
all in anyway acquainted with the British mar- 
kets know that the effects of one year's failure 
are not removed for two or three years to come. 
American wheat, wc havo no hesitation in say- 
iug, will command, during the current year, a 
higher range of prices, nud in the year to come 
(evon allowing British crops to be more than 
an average) prices that will amply remunerate 
American skill and enterprise. Ever since 
1846 tho English tux; habitually and every year 
importers of no less than 32,000,000 bushels 
of breadstuff's, ono moiety of which is derived 
from our shore. John Bull must be content, 
therefore, thai I he Americans and not the Rus- 
sians, "rule the roost" 

N. Davidson Redpatu. 

Yesterday, (17th December,) having occa- 
sion to cut some maple iwles, I found that the 
sup ran as freely as any time last spring. The 
fact may be worthy of record. — p. 


In 1842, a pure blood Arabian horse was 
presented by the Sultan of Muscat to lUvm 
Pinoiiee, Esq, of Salem, Mass., as a mark of 
distinction anil particular regard. He is said 
to have been selected as one of the best from 
a si ml of one hundred horses. Iinamn, t In- 
horse here alluded to, was the sire of '• Tartar," 
of which our engraving is on excellent likeness 
Ho was bred by Asa Pinoree, Topsfield, Mas .. 
and is now owned byJ.S. LEATiTT,.Salcm, 
Mass. He will be oiglil years old the coming 
spring. The beauty of the horse is considera- 
bly diminished in our view, by tho unnatural 
and cruel manner in which his head, beautiful 
as it must bo allowed to be, is curbed in. Mi 
back, too, viewed from above, is rather too low, 
and is longer than accords with our idea of 
strength mid symmetry. For speed, however, 
this will not be an objection. The best points 
which the engraving displays are the head, 
(which we consider superlatively beautiful,) the 
well arched and exquisitely set on neck, the 
large, well developed, muscular quarters, owl 
strong Hat legs, short from the knee to the fet- 
lock joint 

We need not say that such horses as h\tsum 
und Tartar are a great acquisition to the 
-tuck breeders of this country. The Arabian 
horses arc known to be the swiftest, hardiest 
and gentlest in the world, aud though recenl 
information indicates that a superior Arab 
mare has never been sold out of the country, 
yet such us have been imported into Europe, 
have stamped indelibly their valuable charac- 
Icristics on the breeds crossed with them. The 
modern Euglish racer owes some of his best 
qualities to Arabian blond. Accordingto Mr. 
Layard, there ore five distinct breeds of Ara- 
bian horses, which ore said to descend from 
the five favorite mures of Mahomet. The ped- 
igrees of their horses are kept with thp inost 
scrupulous accuracy. The mares are consid- 
ered most valuable, A Bcdouiu parts with 
even thing rather than sell his mare. They 
frequently fetch as much as §5,000. Their 
average height is from 14 lo 1 tj hands high, 
seldom reaching fifteen. They ore never 
placed under shelter during the heal of 
an Arabian summer, nor protected from the 
Idling cold of the desert winds in the whiter. 
The saddle is rarely takeu from their backs, 
nor arc they ever cleaned or groomed. Thus 
apparently neglected, they ore but skin mid 
bones, and one is surprised at seeing an animal 
he would scarcely ride home, valued almost be- 
yond price. Although docile as a lamb, and 
requiring no other guide than the halter, when 
the Arab mare hears the war cry of her tribe, 
and sees the quivering spear of her rider, her 
eyes glitter with tire, her blood-red nostrils 
open wide, her neck is nobly arched, nud her 
mauo ami tail are stretched out lo the wind. — 
Tho Bedouin proverb says that n high-bred 
mure when at full Speed, should hide her rider 
between her neck and tail. 

They are so porticnlar about pedigrees, that 
when a horse fulls into the hands of an Arab. 
his first thought Is how to ascertain its descent 
If the owner be dismounted iu buttle, or if ho, 

even be about to receive his death blow from 
his cucmy, he will frequently exclaim, "Fellun 
(such a one,) the mare that fate haa given you 
is "f noble blood." lie then describe- her 
. and lolls wlm owned nud rodo her dam. 
After a battle or foray, the tribes who have 
taken horses from the enemy, will S"nd an en- 
voy to ask their breed, and the person so cho- 
sen, passes from tent to tent unharmed, hear 
ing from eai h man, as he eats I113 bread, the 
descent and qualitic 1 of tho horse ho may have 
lost. Wo may leant a lesson from the uncivi- 
lized Arab in regard lo purity of blood, which 
we, with all our boasted knowledge and im- 
prove icnl are opt to forget 


In our essay on supcrphospliato of lime in 
the Transactions of the N. Y. State Ag. Sopi- 
ted that, judging from its effects 011 
turnips, it \iaa probable that superposphato of 
I dc, applied in the hill, would be found an ex- 
cellent manure for tobacco. To teat the mat- 
ter, our fri nd R. Linsi.ey, Esq., of New York, 

nad the following experiment on his furm iu 
i! ■■.•.•en Co, Conn.: — "Soil, aBondy loam, 
in good condition but not rich; has been tilled 
eight inches deep, and had one crop of tobacco 
and two grain crops taken off in three years. 

I'hi- tobacco we make a deep farrow and till it 
v ith well rotted manure, cover it with soil uud 
gel the plants just below the surface We 
pursued tin* plan with sections iu tho field tho 
prt sent se ison, and between tho sections mudo 
small hills aud put in about n large table-spoon- 
I'ull of superphosphate, covering it from one to 
two inches deep, and set the plants above it. — 
In other ca-os, we set the plant without any 
other preparation, except having the ground 
well plowed nnd harrowed, and after the plants 
had been .. I two days, wc placed around them 
the same amount* of superphosphate ivs had 
been placed iu the hills. The first of tho sea- 
ion the plants on the barn-yard manure grew 
best) but were not quite so good color; but as 
soon as the hot weathor ctuno on. the plants on 
tho superphosphate took the lead and kept it 

thi -di the season; the leaves were thicker, 

larger and more pliable, und their greater lux- 
arioosness over the other portions of tho 
field could be seen at a great distance ; in 
fact we thought tho crop worth full 15 per 
cent more than where tho barn-yard manure 
was u-ed. The top dressing of suporphos - 
phntc thd little or no good, probably because 
it was so near the surface that it became dry. 
Wc are now pulling the tobacco, and tho color 
and general appearance since it was cured is 
fully maintained in favor of supeqmosphotc." 

Phot. Norton has well said that the labo- 
ratory alone is pretty sure to go wrong when 
it attempts to prescribe rules for practice. The 
Chemist must go into the field and study actual 
experience, if he would serve the farm effect- 
ually. Those who theorize only, rarely become 
wise or reliable teachers in any department of 





Messrs. Ens.: — To convince many, that an 
affirmative answer to the heading of this epis- 
tle is correct, is very important, at least I find 
it so, in canvassing for subscribers. I will re- 
late one circumstance from among the many, 
Called on fanner N — (one of our big farmers,) 
solicited his name for. the Rural: he objects, 
says it don't pny, he took the Genesee Fanner 
a year to no profit. Why, said he, I had rath- 
er have a lecture from Farmer S than all 

your agricultural papers and Comstock to boot. 
(About this time the professor was pocketing 
the hard-earned dollars from the yeomanry of 
this section of country, in view of which he re- 
vealed to them his wonderful secret.) In reply, 
I told him Fanner S took two or three ag- 
ricultural papers, among thcin the Rural, and 
that was what made his instructions so profita- 

I will now tell you how I have made tailing 
the Rural pay. The first year I took it I 
wanted to lay down a quantity of eggs for 
winter use. I found in it a recipe composed 
of quick lime, salt and cream of tnrtar; said 
recipe was kept by some as a secret in order to 
sell it, (not us u humbug, but on account of its 
merits,) and and did sell it as high as §;") per 
recipe. I tried the method, and found the eggs 
the next spring fully equal to now laid ones: 
and the advanced price on what I sold in the 
winter paid for the Rural. The next year, 
Terra-culture was a very interesting topic 
among the farmers in this locality — made the 
more so, by the puffing of certain Editors, for 
the sake of the fee. I was somewhat inclined 
to go in for a share of the humbug, but its ex- 
posure (in lime,) in the Rural prevented it, 
thereby saving, in time and money, more llinn 
another year's subscription. This year — (the 
third,) I wanted to paint my dwelling house; 
cheapness, durability and appearance being de- 
sirable. I noticed in the paper a recipe for 
cheap paint, composed of hydraulic cement 
two parts, and white lead one part, ground to- 
gether in oil through a paint mill. I have 
tried it, and it proves an excellent paint, being 
as cheap or cheaper than the so-called mineral 
paint, and, I think, much better; it adheres 
firmly to the wood, forms a hard surface, nnd 
as to its durability, I have not the least doubt; 
the color is a cream or light drab, and I think 
it will not fade. Here I find a saving of some 
fifty per cent, which would pay for more than 
one year's subscription. So much for the prof- 
its arising from small items. The profits aris- 
ing from the more important instructions on 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Gardening, &c, &c., 
it would be a difficult matter to figure up. — 
Aside from this it is worth its cost for family 

I think I have demonstrated that it pays to 
take Vie Rural. The next thing is to make 
the many non-subscribers believe it, for, with 
some, the only motive is the pocket. One way, 
and perhaps the best, is to exhibit the puper; 
for it carries along with it, its own rccomen- 
dation, and if any arc lost, friend Moork will 
replace them. S. Eaton. 

Lysandcr, Onondaga Co., N. Y. 
. . ♦ . . 


Analysis of Soils. — An astute, practical 
farmer writes from Oneida county, thus: — 
" Greeley went a thousand miles to deliver an 
Agricultural address. How I envy him his 
enthusiasm I He tells farmers to ' analyze the 
soil.' Now, I have seen four or five sorts o'f 
soil in one field; and any practical farmer, not 
a mere animal, would manage such a field 
without analysis better, perhaps, than Greeley 
would with it," It is the misfortune of some 
of our best farmers to mistake all the theory 
and empiricism of the schools for the true re- 
sults of scientific discovery; and it must be 
conceded that the great errors promulgated at 
times, even by men the most learned in organic 
chemistry, have done much to shake the faith 
of farmers in such impracticable theories. 
Again, the most correct theory gained by ex- 
periment in the laboratory, when attempted on 
a large scale in nature's laboratory, the farm, 
may foil entirely; because here, time is required 
to eflhet those chemical changes, by the aid of 
the elements, light, air and water, which the 
chemist quickly effects with his re-agents in 
his laboratory. Methinks the best single ser- 
vice chemistry has done for fanners, is in show- 
ing i iir in how to save that part of their animal 
manures which is nt once the most valuable, 
as it is the most volatile and certain to be lost, 
if not saved by those chemical combinations 
which Bcience has shown to be within the 
reach of every farmer. It must be admitted 
that the analysis of a soil, surface or subsoil, 
bo liable to vary in its constituents in so many 
places in the same field, is rather a bootless 
experiment to benefit the farmer. Every 
farmer knows by tho water from his well or 
spring, whether his soil is deficient in the car- 
bonate of lime: by application of wood ashes 
he may learn its deficiency in potash; further 
than this, tho practical management of his 

farm, by judicious drainage, with rotation of 
crops, green clover and plaster, and the best 
application of hisazotized animal manures, will 
soon give him, under close observation, u prac- 
tical insight into the capabilities and deficien- 
cies of every lot on his farm. That masterly 
R. I. farmer, Adam Anthony, said that Pro- 
fessor Jackson had analyzed the soil of his 
farm, but that ho got no new idea from it; he 
had already anticipated the deficiencies in his 
soil, and had applied tho very amendments 
suggested by tho chemist. When science is 
thus confirmed and endorsed by practice, me- 
thinks farmers should ut least give up a part 
of their prejudices. 

Farmers' Cluiis. — The editors of the Ohio 
Cultivator not only recommend the forming 
of Farmers' Clubs, but they "suit the action 
to the word," nnd givo material aid in the pre- 
mises. They offer to give a complete set, nine 
volumes, of the Ohio Cultivator, from its be- 
ginning, to any farmers' club of twenty or more 
individuals, one half of whom are regular sub- 
scribers to that paper, on condition that the 
club itself has twenty dollars book capital of 
its own. This is, as the French say, comme 
il faul, another good original example from 
the great, all-progressive State of Olu'o. No 
one who never belonged to a literary club in 
his younger days, can estimate the advantages 
to the dormant or unfolded intellect of boy or 
man. Solosion says that the face of a man 
sharpeneth that of his friend; and as the face 
is only the index of the mind, it is the miud 
Hint is sharpened in its collision with mind. 
Of what uso would be those public lectures, so 
rife at this season in our great towns, but for 
the face, action nnd emphasis of the lecturer; 
how many leaves lio on the table, uncut by 
either men or women, who, nt a public lecture, 
listen with rapture to the written word, when 
graced by the pause, emphasis and action of 
the lecturer? But tho effect is better than its 
cause— curiosity; a laudable thirst for knowl- 
edge is excited, books arc read, authors are 
consulted, papers arc subscribed for, and habits 
of intellectual life are acquired, and the char- 
acter of the man is separated and redeemed 
from that of his fellow-laborer, the cozy ox. 

Tub President's Message.— The Agricul- 
turist has animadverted pretty severely on the 
President's late message, for having neglected 
to notice the largest and most important of all 
the interests of the nation, Agriculture. Trnb 
it is, that while the fisherman receives his 
bounty, and the manufacturer sees every other 
class of the community taxed for his direct 
benefit, under a discriminating national tariff, 
our great agricultural interest has had no legis- 
lative enactment for its particular advance- 
ment, unless it is the privilege of buying wild 
land at government prices, — land that would 
be worth nothing but for the hard labor, great 
privation, and exact economy of the pioneer 
farmer, who rarely ever realizes the cost of his 
improvements. But President Pierce was 
doubtless restrained by the truth of the old 
adage, that " Hercules should not help n man 
until he had fust put his own shoulder to the 
wheel." While the professional classes provide 
first of all for their own liberal education, then 
clamor loudly for tho endowment of educa- 
tional institutions for their own benefit, farmers, 
as a class, have done nothing but acquiesce in 
the trite saying, as false as it is impertinent, 
that the liberal learning of tho schools would 
be superfluous in the farmer's humble social 
sphere and calling. The State of New York 
has already chartered on Agricultural College 
which, if farmers are true to themselves, will 
soon be in a state of progress to completion, 
when it will receive its proportion of the lite- 
rature fund, and, if farmers will it, other State 
endowments. But if farmers will not put their 
hands in their pockets, or make any movement 
to save the intellectual iulcgrity of their own 
great heritage, they must expect to fall not 
only beneath the notice of the political head 
of the nation, but to remain either a nonentity 
in their country's councils, or the blind instm- 
nicut of party leaders. 


Friend Moore: — I send you the following 
for publication, if you think it worthy a place 
in your valuable paper: 

I have a yonng horse, four years old next 
spring, that has practised pumping water for 
himself to drink, for two years past, whenever 
ho was thirsty, and had access to the pump. 
I hove a cistern in my yard, in which is a com- 
mon cistern pump, with a piston rod and cross 
bar for a handle. Ho seizes the handle with 
his teeth, and forces the rod up and down, till 
the water comes freely, when he drinks, and thus 
repeats the operation till he is satisfied. I have 
thought he sometimes pumped for amasoment> 
when he was not thirsty. Georoe Quick. 

MfDdoD, N. Y, Jan. 1844. 

Bloody Urine. — Give to tho animal once in 
two days in a quart of water, a table-spoonful 
of nitric ucid. In ordinary cases, a cure may 
be looked for the first or second dose. I know 
of three cases where it has cured, and not one 
where it has failed. 


I have frequently heard peoplo remark, that 
thoy could not salt down beef so that it would 
keep good and tender through the year; and 
for this reason, purchase conied beef of the 
butcher by piece-meal Now, it is just as easy 
to have beef tender and juicy a year old, as to 
have it hard and dry. And for the benefit of 
those who desire it, I will give my mode of 
management. In the first place I get good 
beef— such as will leave a good thickness of 
"skiinmiugg" on the pot after boiling; or in 
other words, beef that will "pay for cooking," 
as my belter half says. I take some pains to 
have my barrel properly washed, after turning 
out my last year's brine, and when thoroughly 
dry, I sprinkle in nbout two or three quarts of 
clean, coarse salt, and then pack down a lying 
of beef, covering it completely with salt, and 
so on, till tho barrel is full. I strain my old 
brine through a sieve, and let it stand till well 
settled, then turn on till the beef is covered. — 
In two or three weeks I add a quarter of a 
pound of saltpetre. This is my rulo for two 
hundred pounds of meat 

I know it is the practice with many to scald 
their brine, but this I seldom do, for il has a 
tendency to harden the beef. Some, I am told, 
never uso briue a second time, but throw it 
away as worthless. If the old brine is sweet, 
il is preferable to new, but if in the least taint- 
ed, the quicker it is poured away the better. 

In salting down beef, where a new brine is 
necessary, salt should be used as I have men- 
tioned, and then lake as much water us is re- 
quired to cover the meat, and add us much salt 
us this quantity of water will dissolve. Some 
are in the habit of filling their barrel with wa- 
ter (after packing down tho beef,) and not con- 
verting it into brine. Those who adopt this 
method, may expect "spoiled beef" before the 
ending of dog-days. 

I have no particular rule as to the amount 
of salt for a barrel, but I put in enough, and 
what will not dissolve will be found in the bot- 
tom, and may be used the next year. 

Albert Todd. 

Smilliuold, H. r, 12tb mo., 1S53. 

* ■ ♦ ■ i 


G. P. Holcomd, Estj., of Deleware who has 
recently returned from a tour in Europe, says : 

As showing the interest Euglish ladies take- 
in Agriculture, I cannot but relate a casual in- 
terview I chanced to have with an English la- 
dy in going up in the Express train from Lon- 
don to York. Her husband had bought a 
book at the stand as we were about sturting, 
and remarked to her that " it was one of her 
favorite American authors — Hawthorn." I 
casually observed, " I was pleased to sec young 
American authors found admirers with English 
ladies;" when the conversation turned on books 
and authors. But I said to myself pretty 
soon, '-this is a literary lady — probably her 
husband is an Edtior or Reviewer, and she 
handles the "scissors" for him: at all events 1 
must retreat from this discussion about authors, 
modem poets, and poetry. Whatshould a far- 
mer know critically about such things. If I 
was only in those fields — if the conversation 
could be made to turn on crops, or cattle, then 
I should feel quite ut home." I finally pointed 
out a field of wheat, and remarked it was very 
line. The lady carefully observing it, said: — 
"Sir, I think it is too thii: — a common fault 
this season, us the seeding was late." "Those 
drills," she added, turning to her husbuud for 
his confirmation, "cannot be more thnn teu 
inches apart, nnd you sec sir, the ground is not 
completely covered — twelve,, and even fifteen 
inches is now preferred for the width of drills, 
and two bushels of seed to the acre will then 
entirely cover the ground, on good lnnd, so 
you can hardly distinguish the drills." 

If the Goddess of Ceres had appeared with 
her sheaf, or her cornucopia, I could not have 
been taken more by surprise. A lndy descant- 
ing on the width of wheal drills, and the 
quantity of seed. 

" I will try her again," said I, " tliis may be 
a chance shot," and remarked in reference to n 
field of plowed ground wo were passing, 
that it broke up in great lumps, nna could 
hardly be put in good tilth. " We have much 
clay land like this," she replied, " and formerly 
it was difficult to cultivate it in a tillage crop, 
but since the introduction of Croskill's Patent 
Clod Crusher, they will make the most beauti- 
ful tilth on these lauds, which are now re- 
garded as among our best wheat land ." 

The conversation turned on cattle; she spoke 
of the best breeds of Cows for the pail, [thu 
Ayrshires and Devon.?,) told me where the best 
Cheese was niado — Cheshire — the best butter 
— Ireland — where the best milk-maids were 
found— Wales. "Oh!" said I, "I was mista- 
ken; this charming intelligent woman, acting so 
natural and unaffected, dressed so neat and so 
very plain, must be a farmer's wife, and what n 
help-mate he has in her? She is not an ex- 
travagant wife either, not on ornament about 
her — yes, a single bracelet clasps a fair rounded 
arm — that's nil" The train stopped at York; 
uo sooner had my traveling companions step- 
ped upon the platform, than I noticed they 
were surrounded by half n dozen sen-ants — 
men and maids— the men in full livery. It 
turned out lo be Sir John and Lady H. This 
gentleman I learned was one of the largest 
landed proprietors in Berkshire, and his lady 
the daughter of a Nobleman, a Peeress in her 
own right; but her title added nothing to her; 
she was a noble woman without it. 
— » ■ ♦ ■ » 

Dr. J. H. Salisbury found in the ashes of 
the grain of maize 20.73 per. cent of potash, 
and iu the grain of wheat 10.83 per. cent In 
the stalks of mob.e he found 7.33 per cent of 
potash, and in the straw of wheat 7.20 per. cent 


The annual meeting of the New York 
State Agricultural Society, takes place at 
Albany, on the 7th, 8th and 9th of February, 
1854. Tho first day will bo devoted to the 
entering and arranging of cnttle, products, &c. 
The exhibition will be open to tho public on 
Wednesday, the 8th, and continue open two 
days. Admission, 25 cents. There will be nn 
address on Wednesday evening, by Prof. Carr, 
of the Albany University, and on Thursday 
evening, by L. G. Morris, Presidcut of the 
Society. Wc subjoin the premiums to be 
awarded, and the regulations to bo complied 
with by competitors: — 


nest Tat ox, 4 yean oM nnd upward*, £30; 3d do. 25 ; 3d 
do. 20, 

II. II fat ulcer, 3 years old, $25 ; 2d do. 20 ; 3d do 16. 

Iiv.-I fit coir, I jis nnd unwiu-uj, J20; 2d do 16; 3d do 10. 

II. .1 f.ii li.-if.-r, ;l yours old, 316; 2d do 10 ; 3d do 6. 

lint ipajri I in ii. r, B yean old, S1&; 2d do 10; M do 6. 

Time tx'.«l loii'»-wookd sheen, 2 years nnd upward*, $10 
2d do 8; 3d do 6. 

Threo bolt long-tr oolcd sheep, under 2 years, $S ; 2d do 
5; 3d do 3. 

Threo beat middlc-w oolcd oliccp, 2 rra. old and upward*, 
jio; 2d do 8; 3d do 6. 

Thrvo Ix-st mlddlo-n oolcd ahecp, under 2 yearn, S8 ; 2d 
do 6 ; 3d do 3. 

Thr»-e beat crosa-brccd abcep, 2 yoara and uprrards, $10 ; 
2d .lo 8 ; 3d do 6. 

Three best crow-brecd sbeep, onder i years, $8; 2d do Ir, 
3d do 3. 


Heat 6 bushels winter wheat, $8 ; 2d do 6 ; 3d do 3. 

Best 6 bushrl* spring whoat, $S ; 2d do ■'■ ; 3d do 3. 

Beat 6 bushels rye, 85; 2d .lo 3; 3d do 2. 

Rest 6 bushels four-rowed barley. So; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

nest S bushels two-rowed bsUrlsr, $6; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

Best 6 bushel* oal*, $o; 2d do 3; 3d do -'. 

Best 5 bushels yellow corn, $S ; 2d do 3 ; 3d do 2. 

Best 6 Lo.-IhU white com, $6; 2d do 3; 3d dn 2. 

Best 5 bushels peas, $5; 2d do 3 ; 3d do 2. 

Best 6 bushels white beans, So; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

Best 5 bushel* hrrge clover seed, $-1 ; 2d do 3 ; 3d do 2. 

Best 6 bushels small doecr seed, £5; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

Best 5 bushels timothy seed, (5; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

Best 6 bushels lias sued, $5; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 

Boat 5 bale* of hops, $6; 2d do 3; 3d do 2. 


Beat cfirci&s of long-woolcd ahceD, - $5; 2d do 3. 

Best carcass of iniddlc-wooled sheep, $S; 2d do 3. 

Best carcass of csoss-brecd, $6 ; 2d do 3. 

Best dressed hog, rcvlglilng OTer 360 Ibf., 55; 2d do 3. 

Beat dressed hog, lias Uian 360 lb*, 85; 2d do 3. 

Best pair of drcs3cd turkeys* $2 ; 2d do 1. 

Beat pair of dressed ceeso, S- ; 2d do 1. 

Best |ialr of dressed duck*, $2; 2d do 1. 

Best pair of dressed capons, $2; 2d do 1. 

BoJt pair of dressed fowl*, $2; 2d do 1, 

•To mutton and poultry, when dressed, to have head and 
feet left 00. 


liuUer— Best 3 tubs or firkin* of butter, cup, valuo $16; 
2d do, cup, valuo 10; 3d do 5 ; Jlti do, TiansacUons. 

Chute— Best 3 cheese, cup, value $i&; 2d do, cup, value 
10; 3d do 5; 4th do, Trans. 

To bo accompanied with a particular statement of tho 
manufacture, and prcscrvaUon of tho Butter or Cheese. 

A statement of the mannor of cultivating the 
crops of grain, the manures used, and tho vari- 
ety nl l In' grain on exhibition, should accompa- 
ny the samples offered for premiums ; and sam- 
ples of corn in the ear should be presented. 

Persons competing for premiums on Live 
Stock, must givo a full and detailed statement 
of the time and manner of feeding the animal ; 
the materials of food consumed, in quality, 
quantity, and value ; the breed of the animal, if 
Known ; the weight, if practicable, when the 
feeding was commenced, and the weight at tho 
time of the exhibition. In tho caso of Dead 
Meats statements must also be furnished. — 
Blank forms will bo furnished at Agricultural 

Persons intending to compete for tho premi- 
ums on Fat Stock and Grain, should give notice 
to the Secretary by tho 1st of February. 

The exhibition of Fruits and samples nf Field 
Crops, will he held, as usual, at the Society's 
Hoouis, in thu Old State Hall. 

Persons intending to exhibit Stock, will find 
tho most extensive accommodations at Mr. Wool- 
ford's, large additions having been mnde to his 
yard and sheds since last year, with warm sta- 
bles, good water in tho yard, aud attendants 
ready to give ovory necessary assistance; charges 

It is expected that there will be in attendanco 

Sersons from tho New York, Boston nnd Phila- 
• ■! I .Iii.i mnrkcts, desirous of purchasing fat cat- 
tle ; nnd it is hoped the show of Live Stock, as 
well as of Dressed Meat and Poultry, will be 
such as to do credit to tho State. 

There will be nit opportunity of disposing of 
the Grain on exhibition ; and the occasion will 
be improved, undoubtedly, by Farmers to make 
exchanges of Seed, which is so desirable. 

Persons exhibiting must become members of 
tho Society. Pamphlets, containing tho List of 
Premiums and Regulations, will bo furnished 
by the Secretary, B. P. Johnson, on application 
at the Agricultural Rooms, Albany. 


We condense the following hints on the 
management of poultry, from a recent English 
article on the subject: — The floor of the poul- 
try house should be cleaned at least once n 
week. It should bo sprinkled- with ashes (coal 
ashes we presume,) sawdust, peat, or best of nil, 
peat charcoal. Tho yard should contain a 
gross plot, some fine gravel, slnkcd lime, dry 
ashes, and pure water. Tho nests should be 
lined with moss heath, or short straw. Evi- 
dently the Dorkings are the best breed; ihey 
will lay an average of 185 eggs each, per an- 
num. Fowls with black legs are best for roast- 
ing, while those with white legs are best for 
boiling. If you want them to sit early, leave 
tho eggs under them. Fowls in their native 
habits, never lay more eggs than they can 
hatch. Remember that no success can be ex- 
pected front poultry keeping, if their houses be 
damp, cold, unclean, or badly ventilated; if 
their food does not approximate to that which 
they get in a state of nature, viz., a mixture 
of animal and vegetable food; if the water they 
drink bo stagnant, the drainage of the manure 
heap, &c, or if the strongest and handsomest 
be not bred from. 

« o . . 

PnoFKSsoa Wat finds that some soils when 
added to fresh urine accelerate fermentation, 
wliilo clay retards, or prevents it altogether. — 
This fact opens a new and a most interesting 
field for future investigation. 


Strange lo say, the census docs not give any 
statistics respecting broom com, and though it 
thus ignores the crop, yet it is of great value, 
occupying much land, labor and capital. — 
Broom Corn is a native of India, and is said to 
have been first introduced by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, who saw n wisp of it in the hands of a 
lady in Philadelphia, lie examined it with 
the curiosity and attention of a philosopher, 
and discovered on it a single seed which ho 
planted, and from this is derived nil the broom 
corn of the continent. Had Franklin done 
nothing else, this single fact would huve been 
sufficient to emblazon his name on tho annuls 
of all coming time. The value of the broom 
for sweeping purposes is here well known, and 
in Europe ils advantages over every other sub- 
stance used for this purpose are admitted 
wherever it is tried. At present we believe 
there is a large export trade lo England, which 
cannot but increase, though tho bulk renders 
freight rather expensive. Our climate is well 
adapted to the cultivation of broom corn, and 
wc have abundance of land that will pay bel- 
ter with this crop thnn any other. 


Sbweraob. — We observe by the lute En- 
glish papers that much discussion is slill going 
on as to how the offal of large cities can be 
converted into a portable manure. Anticipa- 
ting the "good lime" somewhat, a writer pro- 
poses the following alteration in the nomencla- 
ture. LTe does not consider the terms " night- 
soil" aud "water-closet" as at all appropriate; 
he would therefore substitute the soft mono- 
syllable co, for the meaning-less compound 
"night-soil." The little word gu, coming in 
the wake of its foreign friend guano, would 
sound well; and might be of service in a varie- 
ty of combinations, such as gu-jars, gu-depots, 
gu-cars, gu-merchnuts, gu-compauies, gu-lrains, 
gu-troflic, gu-dribblcs ; London-gu, Li vcrpool-gu, 
Lecds-gu; and if at some future time any fur- 
ther designations should be needed, the terms 
shamble-gu, sty-gu, &c, might be used. 

UnrNE. — Sink an oil cask, in nn out of the 
way corner, and preserve all the urine of the 
house. In every 100 lbs. there is 72 per cent, 
of nitrogen, and many other valuable snlU be- 
sides. Dilute before using, with an equal 
quantity of water. 

We find the above in one of onr best ex- 
changes — the Farm Journal. What profound 
and careful chemist originated it, we do not 
know. He must have been a genius. 

'• In every hundred pounds there is 72 per 
cent, of nitrogen. Urine usually contains about 
37 per cent of water. When evaporated with 
an acid, the dry matter contains about 18 per 
cent, of nitrogen; 1000 lbs of fresh urine, there- 
fore, contains nbout five lbs. of nitrogen, or 
about the same as common barn-yard dun". 
■ » ■ » 

Reaping Machines. — Thanks to the "Worlds 
Fair," and Hussey and McCormick, tho British 
agricultural implement makers are waking up. 
During the first six months of 1852, npwards 
of thirty patents were taken ont, either for 
original renping and mowing machines or im- 
provements on the old ones. 

Preserving Grain and Vegetables. — A 
patent has been taken out in England for pre- 
serving grain or vegetables as follows:— Tho 
substances to be preserved are placed iu nir 
tight boxes or India rubber bags, nnd chlorine 
and sulphurous acid gas ore introduced by 
means of a tube. 


Wiikn sod ground is plowed in the Fall 
or Winter, we do not expect to plow it oguiu 
in the Spring, nnd therefore, as a BOeurity 
against worms, the latter part of November, or 
in December, January or February, if the grouud 
is not frozen, is as good a time as Autumn. In 
December, 1852, I plowed a field for corn, with 
round furrow slice, and to the depth of ten to 
fourteen inches: and although snow covered 
the ground of most of it to the depth of threo 
or four inches while I was plowing, the opera- 
tion was so well performed, that n friend of 
niine, one week after the work was done, tho't 
it appeared more like a summer fallow that had 
just been cross-plowed than like sod. Altho' 
the worms were numerous in the soil, thousand! 
were seen perished in the cold. Their winter 
retreat was broken up, and I lost but u few 
hills of corn by them. — Country Gentleman. 
« » ■ . 

Great Corn — Pickaway vs. Ross. — We are 
informed by Mr. Robert H. Lansing, Secretary 
of the Ross County Agricultural Society, that 
Mr. John P. Barger raised on a field of eighty 
ueres an average of one hundred and tweuty 
bushels of corn to tho acre, and sold to Mr. 
Enos Prather at that average. Can any body 
beat that?— Sciota Gazette. 

Yes-sir-ec! Old Pickaway can beat it all to 
pieces! Dr. P. K. Hull raised one hundred acres 
of corn on Mr. Ezra Florence's furm, on tho 
Darby bottoms, in this county, which averaged 
one hundred and thirty-six bushels to the ucre, 
and G. B. Dresbach, Esq., of this city, took it 
at that average.— Circleville Watchman. 
» • * ■ « 

Goon Pigs.— Mr. T. H. Austin, of New 
Haven, Oswego Co., recently slaughtered seven 
pigs of one litter, 1C months old, which weigh- 
ed as follows— 100,404,404,416,476, 511, aud 
557 pounds— total 3,168 lbs. This shows that 
Mr. A. knows how to make pork. 



(Drcjjarfc ani §mk\i 


Tub Royul Botanical Garden atKew, (Eng.) 
probably contnins the greatest variety of trees 
mill plants ever collected together, and below 
we have gleaued from an article in the Quar- 
terly Review, a Tew items relative to sever.d 
curious specimens, which will amuse and in- 
struct our readers: 

The Moving-plant, Desmodium gyrans, 
should have been dedicated to St. Vitus. It 
has got the fidgets incurably. Night and day, 
from its seed-bed to its repose in the compost 
heap, il twitches aud twists the two little leaf- 
lets that grow out on each side of the larger 
oval leaf. Without perceptible cause or mo- 
tive — except the indulgence of its own caprice 
— its nntics go on unceasingly. 

The IIumiii.k Plant, Mimosa pudica, with 
other beauties in this boudoir (the forcing 
house or stove) have taken lessons of the pos- 
ture-inastcr. The Director snips with his 
scissors the tip of a pretty loaf, whoso divisions 
seem made up of scores of little leaflets — and 
mark!— each leaflet folds itself close to the mid- 
rib, like the slicks of a shut fan, the footstalk 
ftself of the leaf has a joint at the axilla, by 
which it drops and stands at eusc. This Ls 
very different from the Sensitive Plant, M. sen- 
sitive; — and though both are so curious, and 
one so pretty here nt home, in Brazil and the 
W. i Indies they are nuisances to be exter- 
minated by fire. Their prickly stems choke 
the growth of sweeter herbage; — neither is it 
clear that the cattle like to huve their noses 
tickled by the motions of liviug plants that 
writhe when they begin to be cateu. 

The American Fly-trap, Dionced muscipa- 
ld, has as its name implies, a veritable living 
trap al the end of its leaves. A small bell- 
glass is lifted; the scissors touch a pair of sca- 
ly leaves fringed with green bristles, and they 
close. It is thus remarked upon: — "The mo- 
ment nn insect (or any extraneous bod)') touch- 
es the hairs on the disc, the two lobes close 
firmly and press the luckless intruder to death ; 
— the struggles of the victim indocd, occasion- 
ing the lobes to shut more firmly, hasten its 
own destruction. As soon as the insect ceasC3 
to struggle, and dies, the trap opens, reudy to 
continue the work of destruction; bul there is 
no reason whatever to suppose that the deud 
insects in any way nourish the plant" What, 
then, (adds the reviewer,) can be the object of 
the contrivance, unless the checking of a supera- 
bundance of insect life? The facts are not 
novel, but are too wonderful ever to become 
stale. Gigantic plants existed in pre- Adamite 
times, and there was then, perhaps, a fly-trap 
large enough to catch a man! 

The Caricature Plant is another wonder. 
Observe this specimen, with bright green leaves 
something like those of the Bay-tree, but mark- 
ed down the middle with yellow blotches, the 
outline of many of which bears a very accu- 
rate resemblance to the human face, more or 
less divine. Here is the Duke of Wellington 
and Lord Brougham, dos a dos, on the same 
leaf; there is Pitt, and Punch and Judy seem 
the principal characters on the next 

The Dorslcnia, a little pot-plunt, shows a 
curious fructification. It is something like a 
flat piece of green leather growing at the end 
of a flower-stalk, and is, in fuct, a flat, open re- 
ceptacle or minute flowers visible with a mag- 
nifier. It is a strange, intermediate form; for 
roll it up with the flowers outside, and it is a 
bread-fruit; with them inside, and it is a fig. — 
Were the ripened receptacle large and juicy 
enough to bo eaten, it would be literally a 

The Dumb Cane, caladium scquinem, is 
among the " banes and poysons of pernitious 
and malignant temperature," and had better 
not be bitten, or it will bite in return, depriv- 
ing lips and tongue of all power of speech. — 
Instances of its virulence have occurred nt 

The Scythian Laud, or vegetable lamb of 
Turtnry, the Cibatium Iiaromety, is a plant of 
some notoriety, which — according to writers of 
the olden time— ate up nil the herbage within 
its reach, but, being itself rooted to the ground, 
eventually perished of hunger. The proof of 
the story was the presence of this lamb in the 
cabinets of the curious. Seeing, it was tho't, 
roust be believing. Our plant reveals the 
mystery. The , wooly rhizoma (of which the 
hare's-foot fern is an analogous example,) is of 
considerable substance, and grows into curious 
contortions nnd nodosities. Four shortened 
frond-stalks left for the dried specimen to stand 
on when turned upside down, completed the 
vrity of a vegetable lamb! — n. 

— ■ • i ■ 

A Crrrtox Melon. — A correspoudeut of the 
Boston Cultivator tells a large story of a single 
melon vine which sprang up spontaneously in ,i 
carrot bed late in June. The vino was 2,370 
feet in length; and spread over three rods 
square. It hud on il 48 large melons, besides 
innumerable little ones which the shortness of 
the season prevented coming to maturity. The 
aggregate weight of the fruit was 307 lbs. 


When it is considered that " the grnpo vino 
bears its fruit on shoots of the current year, 
produced from eyes on the previous year's 
wood," the necessity is nt once apparent, of 
keeping up a supply of young wood in all parts 
of the vine where wo desire the production of 
grapes. This is done by winter pruning and 
summer pinching. The first of these is now in 
season — as it is during the three winter montlis 
that il is best performed. 

In the opening number of the last volume, 
we gave particular and illustrated instructions 
for the pruning and training of hurdy grape 
vines, to which we would now refer our readers 
Bul for the benefit of many new subscribers 
we will here present the general principles of 
the " renewal system," — that usually practised 
by our most successful gardeners. All standard 
Horticultural works describe the process, — our 
engraving is from Thomas' " Fruit Culturist" — 
It represents a vine trained for three years upon 
a trellis, on this system. 


: ' < 

About three years from the planting of the 
vine is necessary to produce the horizontal 
shoots shown at the bottom of the trellis — 
Then two upright shoots may be allowed to 
grow nnd produce grapes. Other horizontal 
branches should be encouraged until the width 
of the trellis is covered — keeping them in their 
proper places by cutting buck iu winter, or bet- 
ter by pinching the ends of the vines iu Sep- 
tember should they reach too far. The fourth 
year from planting, four shoots should be train- 
ed upright — the filth year, six, and so on, — hav- 
ing them about two feet apart, and cutting back 
to three buds, (ullowiug only the stoutest one 
to grow,) every alternate upright shoot aflcr 
it has borne fruit. These buds will produce 
the dotted shoots b, b, b, b, which should not be 
ullowed to bear the first season, but their 
'strength reserved for the next, when, becoming 
like a, a, a, a, they will produce an abundant 
crop. The shoots a, a, a, a, having been cut 
back, will be producing new branches like 6, b. 
b, b, and so on alternately. 

Various plans of training may bo followed, 
suited to the situation of the vines and the taste 
of the gardener, but the main principles are 
ever the same ; — to encourage the renewal of 
tin- vine so as to keep a good supply of fruit- 
bearing wood in all parts of it ; and to pro- 
vide for the foliage and the fruit plenty of 
room, light and air for their perfect develop- 
ment. And " it must never be forgotten," says 
Thomas, " that the full growth and perfect 
ripening of the fruit, depends wholly on heal- 
thy, well developed leaves, to furnish food for 
the forming berries." Every owner of a grape 
vine should now attend to its proper pruning, 
keeping in view these facts, and remembering 
to remember the frequent attentiou needed us 
the season advances. The fruit will repay by 
excellence in quality, and increase in quantity 
all the properly directed care which may be 
given it, and no one shall fail of a satisfactory 
reward who rears a grape vine of a good va- 
riety — n. 

« ■ m ■ • 


I was presented by Wellington Rose, of 
the United Society at Hancock, with a speci- 
men of wine manufactured from the juice ol to- 
matoes, which so closely resembled old Madc- 
ria that it would have troubled nn umatenr to 
detect the difference. This wine was of the 
manufacture of 1851 — so it was two years oid. 
I low fur greater age would uflect il we can not 
say; but asitisnow we think it must be a valua- 
ble article for invalids, if we take into uecountits 
agreeable flavor and the undeniably grout med- 
ical qualities of the fruit from whose juice it 
was manufactured. 

The precise process of making this wine we 
have not fully learned, as the manufacturer 
claims he shall probably make improvements 
in the business. When this Ls done, from his 
known philanthropy, we have no doubt he will 
communicate to the public all the facts in the 
cuse, and become a greater benefactor to the 
sick and infirm, not only by furnishing the arti- 
cle ready made, but by telling others how to 
manufacture their own. — W. Bacon, Richmond, 
Mass., in Horticulturist. 

■ ■ ♦ ■ 

Prince Albert Grape, — This new grape 
which, with many cultivators around Boston, 
has not proved a very abundant bearer, seems 
to succeed better in Western New York. Mr. 
J. W. BisscH, of Rochester, writes: "With me 
such is not the case. The bunches on mj 
vines have always been large and loose, und 
would average at least three pounds; some of 
the largest would reach nearly five. 1 Hunk 
the variety inferior in fluvor to the Victoria or 
Black Hamburg." — Hovcy's Magazine. 

Spadino, or turning up the earth by some 
instrument resembling, in some measure, the 
present spade, was probably the original meth- 
od or preparing the soil for the seed; and this 
implement, properly directed, will still perform 
the work most thoroughly and perfectly. — 
There is, therefore, a Philosophy of Spading — 
a best way of doing it, founded on scientific 
principles. The best way is described, atsome 
length, in a report on the subject, by n com- 
mittee of the Norfolk', (Mass.) Ag. Society, 
published in their Transactions for 1852. We 
gather therefrom the following paragraphs: 

There arc two ways of commencing the 
operation ol digging u plot of ground — the 
parallel and the diagonal. In the first, a trench 
is opened along the side of the piece, and the 
earth carried to the opposite side of the same, 
so that the earth from the second row or 
trench dug, may be inverted in the first; that 
taken from the first serving to fill the last row 
of the plot. In the second method, the gar- 
dener commences at a comer nnd 
digs alongin diogonul lines, by which 
the labor of carrying the earth from 
the first trench is avoided. The 
f^~~ spade should be pushed into the 
-^J ground nearly perpendicularly, in 

parallel rows; their distance from 
each other depeuding on the nature 
of the soil, but never in any case ex- 
ceeding eight inches. It should be 
carefully lifted, and the load turned 
over, so that the earth from below 
may lie on top; the large clods 
should be coarsely broken. 

In careless or imperfect spading, the spade 
is pushed down at an angle, say of forty-live 
degrees; doing tho work iu much less time, but 
stirring the earth only half as deep, aud leaving 
a greater portion of the upper surface, exhaust- 
ed by the previous crop, at or near the top. 

Sometimes the spade is only inserted half way 
down, and after giving it a knowing twist, to 
loosen the soil so that it muy be raked even, il 
is ngaiu withdrawn. Another error is breaking 
Ihe clods too line. This beautiful dressing, 
which makes the surface look so handsome and 
even, is by no means desirable; the earth should 
be left as open nnd light as possible, so that air 
und moisture may have free access. 

The advantages of spading are, that it turns 
the soil upside down much more completely 
than by any other process. The grass anil 
other vegetation is thus so completely covered, 
that its decay is certain, and it serves to 
feed the plants instead of sprouting und feed- 
ing upon the nutriment prepnrcd for them. — 
The soil nt about eight or nine iuches below 
the surface is always the richest in light lands, 
as the pieces of manure, leached down by 
rains are generally retained there; and hence 
the value of having it brought near the sur- 
face. The soil is more completely pulverised 
and broken up by spading, than it can be by 
plowing or nuy other process, and the cost, 
compared with the benefits, isnot at all excessive. 
For gardens, and most root crops, it is the best 
and cheapest mode of cultivation. — n. 

ethnic %x\$ i &t. 

»'v^«.»* u -«.'-.i-,.'. J 


Issuod'from tho United States Patent Office, 
For Uio week cmlinp Ooccmlicr 'JO, 1S63. 

Tarring Fruit Trees. — Having seen an in- 
quiry in a recent number of the Rural, iu re- 
gard to tarring fruit trees, I would state that a 
few years since, a neighbor of mine, wishing to 
put sheep into a field in which there were sev- 
eral young peach trees, covered the body of 
the trees with tar to prevent the sheep from 
gnawing the bark. This was done, I think 
about the first of September. The next spring 
those trees were all dead; and they presented 
the appearance of the tar having penetrated 
the wood. I mention this to prevent losses 
from a Eimilar causa j. g. B. 

PcrinUm, Due. IS, 1843. 

■ • ■ 

Peach Trees for Fuel and Dried Peach- 
es. — The Now York Tribune states that H. L. 
Ellsworth, ex-Patent Commissioner, is gather- 
ing [>each stones for which he is paying fifty 
cents per bushel, and will plant fifty bushels of 
them in the centre of a great prairie which he 
Ls breaking up. There they will grow luxu- 
riantly and soon bear, when he will have the 
peaches gathered and dried by women on 
shores ;'nnd so for four or live years, growing 
corn or some other crop among them, und thus 
keeping the land in good condition. Then he 
wilfcut down the trees for fuel and hnve :i new 
growth from the roots. This he believes the 
cheapest and quickest way to get fuel where it 
is 1 most needed, besides producing mi abun- 
dance of dried fruit, of which there has never 
been half enough in the country. 

Another Rare Plant. — Wo saw on Satur- 
day, in the green-house of 0. F. Winchester, 
Esq., Court, street, the most beautiful flower 
that has ever come under our observation. It 
is a tropical plant, called by the natives " Es- 
piritu Santo' (or Holy Ghost,) was sent to Dr. 
Totten, of this city, by his brother, Col. Tottcn, 
of tho Panama Railroad — u duplicate of which 
was also given Dr. Cope, of Philadelphia, last 
spring. It is a most remurkuble exotic. The 
blossom is of a delicate waxy appearance, the 
interior of which represents a pure white dove, 
with outstretched wings beautifully mottled. — 
Its delicious fragrance, and long period of re- 
maining in blossom, combine to render it a 
most desirable plant. — jYeu Haven Register. 

J. E. Brown and S. L. Bartlett, of Wonngocket, 
R. J., for improvement in grain and grata har- 

Win. G. Creamer, of New Raven Co., Conn., 
for improvement in operating bra);.:, by signal 

B. H. Franklin, of Worcester, Mass., for im- 
provement in manure and other forks. 

Uriah H. Goble, of Springfield, Ohio, for im- 
provement in grain ami grass harvesters. 

Joseph <fc .lame.; Montgomery, ol Lancaster, 
Pa., for improvement in shoes to winnowers. 

T. K. Nelson, of Clark Co., Vn., for improve- 
ment in manure crushers anil sowers. 

Win. and TI109. Sohnebly, of New York city, 
for improvement in grain nnd grass harvesters. 

U. N. Tripp, of Alfred, Me., for improvement 
in power rates. 

ft. 1'. Walker, of Now York citv, for improve- 
ment in hulling and scouring coffee. 

J. B. Armstrong, of Barnwell, S. C, for im- 
provement in ctton presses. 

Chas. Atwood, of Birmingham ( Derby.) Conn., 
for improvement in nttoching hooks nnd eyes to 

D. E. <fc Af. Bnltersholl, of Troy, N. Y., for im- 
provement in candle mould machines. 

James Haxendale, of Providence, ft. I., for im- 
provement in stamping patterns on rollers. 

James Bolton, Al. D., of Richmond, Vn., for 
improvement in hot-air furnaces. 

La/.are Cantcl, of Now Fork city, for improve- 
ment in metallic trunk frames. 

David Carrol], of Baltimore, Aid., for improve- 
ment in shuttli . 

John D'horuergue, of New York city, for im- 
provement in car brakes. 

Alex. Frankcnberg, of Columbus, Ohio, for im- 
provement in sodn water fountains. 

W. J. Uatfield, of Dayton, Ohio, for improve- 
in. -ol in jointing table tops. 

L. O. P. Meyer, of Newtown, Ct, for improve- 
ment in vulcanizing caoutchouc compounds. 

J. A. ililclicll, of Hinggold, Ga., lor improve- 
ment m kand looms. 

Ephrniin Parker, of Bock Island, Illinois, for 
improvement in sawing nnd planing clapboards. 

Godfrey Simon, of Beading, Pa., for improve- 
ment in carriages with shifting seats. 

Solon Staples, of Topsham, Ale., for improve- 
ment iu screw for planking shins. 

H. L. Sweet, of Foxborough, Afass., for im- 
provement in guides for sewing on binding. 

Wm. H. Towers, of Philadelphia, Pa., fur im- 
provement in horse-shoes. 

Elias Unger, of Dayton, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in polygonal surfaces in timber. 

Win. Wisdom, of Cleveland, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in cleaning hair and feathers from insects, 

E. H. Bard and H. H. Wilson, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., for improvement in gold pens. 

B. F. Greenough, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for im- 
provement in separating alcohol from water and 
other heavier fluids. 

B. F. Stevens and Walter Kidder, of Lowell, 
Mass., for improvement in shingle machines. 

A. E. Botter, of New York city, for improve- 
ment in folding bureau or wardrobe bedstead! 

I. D. Garlick, of Lyons, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in self-acting machines for weighing grain. 

0. F. Sibbald, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in steam boilers. 

S. C. Blodgetl, of Georgetown, Mass.. assignor 
to Chos. Mnrcy, of Boston, Afass., and Morey, as- 
signor to Nehemiah Hunt, of Boston, AIoss., for 
improvement in sewing machines. 

Wm. H. Akins, (assignor to W. T. Huntington,) 
of Ithaca, N. Y„ for improvement in time regis- 
ters for shewing tho day of the week aud mouth. 

J. C. Conklin, of Pe'ekskill, N. Y., (assignor 
to D. Tompkins, of North Harvest! aw, N. Y., 
and D. F. Tompkins, of New York city,) for im- 
provement in pick axes. 

Win. A. Martin, of Brooklyn, N. Y., (assignor 
to W. Watson and Peter Van Zandt, of New 
York city,) for improvement in folding seidlitz 

« ■ • . t 


row of huge stone doric columns, which, with 
their nitiiblnturc, are twenty feet bight., tho 
spring of the arches resting on them, which, in 
1 hi 11. reach in height to the coiling of tho cham- 
ber, umi then form a beautiful piutform. 

Precisely in the centre of the grand gallery, 
a cylindrical arch or dome, of forty feet 
span, rises above the rM. of tho chamber, 
from the top of which the light of heavi n is 
admitted by an aperture thirteen feet in diame- 
ter. Besides the contents of this hull men- 
tioned above, it is the repository of much val- 
uable property belonging to the several depart- 
ments of the government — treaties jewels, 
military and naval relies, .tc, — which, with the 
rest of its treasures, arc arranged in glass-cases, 
for the inspection of the curious. Recently the 
coal wing of the edifice has been erected! nnd 
it is just being finished. It is also 270 feet 
long, by t'.-I deep, and ill" the bight of the front 
described above; being divided into as many 
itorics, each of which ore again divider] and 
finished as are the stories of the building we 
have explained in detail. The grand gullei-v of 
the liighc.,1 story of this building connect uith 
thut of the other by a lofty archway. As this 
wing is constructed entirely of whi'le marble, 
(the other being built ofgmnitc nnd sandstone,) 
its appearance is much mine pleasing. It is be- 
ing devoted, also, to the accommodation of the 
but im s of the Potent Office, which is so rapid- 
ly increasing its legitimate demands for Bpai • •. 
\ n efforl was made at the lust session of 1 lot - 
gross to have it permanently appropriated for 
the accommodation of tho Department of the 
Interior, which, fortunately failed, though, 
unfortunately, the department named was 
permitted temporary occupation ; and as 
" possession is nine points of the law, " it 
will probably not be removed for a long time. 
The foundations of the west wing have been 
commenced, nnd its erection, on a plau similar 
to thai of the others, will be completed in a 
few years, when the grand gallery iu the upper- 
most story will extend quite a quarter of a mile 
in length, forming an architectural promenade 
such as is to be found nowhere else on* this side 
of the Atlantic. When completed, the Patcut 
Office edifice will entirely cover the double 
block bounded by F, 7th, G, and Olh streets. 

■ ' » ■ ■ 

Phairie Plow. — Gardner A Bruce, of 
Mechunicsburg, Illinois, has invented an im- 
proved Prairie Plow, on which he has applied 
for a patent. His improvement consists in 
connecting the axles of the wheels upon the 
beams, loosely with it nnd the adjusting lover, 
by means of a jointed revolving rod, over which 
the beam can be adjusted freely, and upon 
which the adjusting lever is sustained. This 
rod pusses loosely up through the beam, being 
connected to the adjusting lever by a loose 
joint, which allows the axle to have the neces- 
sary movements in the path of a horizontal cir- 
cle, independent of the beam and lever while 
changing the line of draught or turning curves. 
— Sci. Jim. 

We give in this number (see next page,) a 
very truthful and fine illustration of the Pat- 
ent Office building at Washington, — which 
will be, when completed, one of the most snperb 
architectural monuments in this country. The 
People's Journal, in describing this edifice, 
among other things, says : 

" The principal (south) front extends, on F 
street, 270 feet, aud is 70 feet deep. Vertical- 
ly, it is divided into a high basement and two 
stories above. The municipal portico of this 
front faces down Eighth street, and is in all re- 
spects, a fac simile of the celebrated portico 
of the Pantheon at Rome, forming the most 
striking feature of the edifice, as seen on that 
side. The grand entrance to the building is ol" 
course, that through this portico, which is 
rouched by a flight of granite steps. The visi- 
tor passes from the portico into a large hull, 
from whence, in the rear, by a splendid flight of 
marble steps on each side, he may ascend into 
the grand galleries above, which occupy the 
whole of the upper story. Midway of the 
depth of the building, ere reaching those steps, 
doors lead into spacious passage-ways, running 
east and west The chambers communicating 
directly with the eastern passage-way have long 
beeu occupied as business offices of the Com- 
missioner of Patents, and his various assistants; 
and tho passages to the west communicate with 
the large and main model room, wherein some 
of the specimens of American mechanical 
geuius which have been patented, are stored in 
ranges of glass cases, with passage-ways be- 
tween them. 

The basement is designed precisely after the 
story above, and is used for business offices of 
the establishment, and of the National Insti- 
tute, which is afforded a place there by order 
of the Government. Tho uppermost story of 
the north wing is thrown into one grand saloon, 
and, being used for the safe keeping of various 
specimens of home manufactures, subjects of 
natural history, and works of art, brought 
hither by the lute American exploring expedi- 
tion, commanded by Captain Wilkes ol the 
United States Navy, is very properly styli d the 
National Gallery. Tliis magnificent hall is 294 
feet long aud 64 wide, with a general height of 
30 feet. For ornaments, this boll has a double 

Improved Car Seat. — John II. Bloomficld, 
of Albany, N. Y., has invented an improved 
car seat, which has a peculiar manner of attach- 
ing the backs of the scats to tho arms, whereby 
they may be made to revolve or turn over the 
seut, and may also be placed at any desired an- 
gle with it. A segmental slide is placed un- 
derneath, capable of being shoved out when 
desired on cither side of the seat to serve as a 
support for the l&wer extremities of the per- 
son occupying it A patent has been applied 
for. — lb. 

\q\m$\k fl£c0Mmg> 


"How shall I dress and pick my turkeys, 
geese, ducks andchickens for market?" 

That question is easily auswerod. 

TJang your turkeys up by the heels and cut 
the jugular vein. Pick them dry, remove the 
intestines and wipe inside dry. If you use 
wnter at all, do it by holding the bird by the 
legs and letting an assistant pour the water 
through them. Wipe and hang them up iu a 
cool place twelve hours, or till thoroughly dry 
Serve geese, ducks and chickens the same way. 
Do not scald them, unless you would like to 
have them spoiled. Take a box that will hold 
250 chickens close packed. Put only 200 in 
it. Tho remainder fill with Rye straw— clean 
rye straw — no chufE Do not use wheat straw, 
or oat straw, if you can avoid it. You may 
nso clean, marsh hay. A wisp of straw in 
each bird would be advantageous. Nail up 
your box tight, and hoop strong and mart 
plainly what is in it, and to whom it i3 seut 
Send only in cold weather. 
. . • ■ 

Parsnip Stew. — Cut a half pound of fat 
salt pork in slices, ond a pound of beef or veal 
in bits; put them in a dinner pot, with very 
little water. Scrape some parsnips, and cut 
them iu slices an inch thick; and put them to 
tho meat; pure and cut six small sized potatoes 
in halves. Cover the pot close and set it over 
a bright fire for about half nn hour; then 
dredge in a table spoonful of wheal flour, add 
a small bit of butter, and a small tea spoonful 
of pepper, stir it in, und set it over the lire to 
brown for fifteen minutes. Take tkc stew into 
a dish and serve. 

. ■ ♦ . . 

Recipe for Out-door Whitewash. — Make 
a barrel of whitewash in tlio ordinary manner, 
and while hot dissolve ten pounds of salt and 
ten pounds of sugar, or mi equivalent quantity 
of molasses, nnd stir il with your whitewash — 
some ndd also an equal quantity of glue. This 
can be colored by ochre, umber, 4c., to any 
desirable tint; i*»i3 belter if applied hot — Sci. 

. ♦ » 

A Goon Famtlt Oil- — Melt together over 
the fire a pint of oil of sweet almonds; nnd an 
ounce of spermaceti; the latter should be bro- 
ken into little bits. When cold, stir in a table- 
spoonful of oil of bcrgamot rubbed with tivo 
grains of civet 





mh\) $Uabing. 


•**.' *»*-».•*.*-*.'»..».* 



[For tho Raral] 


One of (lie principal obstacles to a prosper- 
ous conduct of business, is the difficulty many 
pontons experience in finding their true places 
in life. Whether the cause of this cmbarruss- 
ment lies chiefly in a falsa construction of so- 
ciety, whereby oue seeking the field of labor too 
often finds closed against him the avenues to 
I hat for which both taste and aptitude peculiarly 
qualify him, or whether in a mischievous 
eagerness to enter upon whatever vocation 
promises to yield the quickest retnm, regard- 
less of its comparative usefulness, or his own 
fitness for it, the result is the same; and the 
world presents tho sad spectacle of vast ener- 
gies wasted for want of congenial employment, 
or rendered inefficient by perverse misapplica- 
tion. Groat as is the evil resultiug from the 
above causes, that arising from .sloth nnd va- 
cillation, (defects not of society but of the in- 
dividual,) perhaps equals, some might say over- 
shadows it; for, though circumstances arc im- 
portant in so far ns opportunity is depeudenl 
on them, yet the latter, when afforded, avails 
little in the hands of the. indolent or the infirm 
of purpose. Evidences of the truth of this in 
active life arc so abundant as to mukc illustra- 
tion unnecessary, nnd it is perhaps equally su- 
perfluous in the life of study or preparation for 

Thcscholnrwhosighsforcasytuv-l.-s, and is care 
ful never to go beyond those assigned him; who 
shrinks from the toil Science imposes on those 
who would win her treasures, nnd who would 
sooner abandon the pursuit of knowledge than 
cope with its difficulties, must come to naught; 
for, though he manage to pass muster among 
his fellows, and perhaps gain with superficial 
observers the reputation of gcujue, which is 
considered excusable for its impatience of slow 
and laborious processes, yet any occasion that 
thoroughly tests him will prove a woful lack 
of the most necessary requisite to excellence, 
namely, volnntary and steadfast application. — 
Commend mo to tho student whose ambition 
spurns a task-master, and with whom ability 
alone sefs the limit to performance. Such an 
one, with an eye single to the end in view, will 
regard with comparative indifference, the mi- 
nor nppliances; content if only the essentials to 
a prosecution of his studies arc furnished to 
forego those little niceties nnd daintinesses 
which so far from aiding, form many limes a 
hindrance to profound acquirements. 

Nature knows no proxies — no "changing 
work." Not an atom waits in expectations 
another's effort may be substituted for its own; 
but each, after having performed full duty to- 
ward bringing to completion the ta><k in hnnd, 
quietly enters the list of rccrnits for another 
service Its course is, therefore, a succession 
of glad but modest triumphs. Each agent 
executes its own office, and the result is prog- 
ress. So, to decide whether an individual has 
been successful or otherwise, needs not that we 
compare him with others; the measure of suc- 
cess which one gains is no guide in our de- 

mands of another, either as to the kind or de- 
gree qf excellence we may expect him to at- 
tain; we have oidy to know whether he has 
been all that nature meant him to be — all she 
made him capable of being; she loves that all 
men be great, but not oil in the same way nor 
in the same degree; though it is not proper to 
introduce terms of comparison, where cadi an- 
swers fully the design of his existence. The 

friends of the Rev. Mr. M . say he is an 

excellent good man nnd a good preacher; hut, 
they add, as if the fact were a disparagement 
to him, not aTiiKonor.B Parker nor nil i:\uv 
Ward Beechbr. To be sure ho is not; tho' 
he is entitled to equal credit with them if bo 
lives out as truly his own life. Perhaps he 
made as much effort to become what he is, as 
they did to make themselves what they are. — 
Ls it not as easy for a mountain to be large as 
for a molehill to be small? And could either 
answer the purpose of the other? Nature is 
jealous of substitution in her intellectual no less 
than in her physical domain. An instructor 
of youth tells me, in effect, that his enthusiasm 
is much abated since he commenced teaching, 
and that ho has learned to be content with more 
moderate success than he at first anticipated. 
His discovery of the rationale of many things 
whereof only the processes were taught him, 
had led him to believe that if he could impart 
to others what he had gaiucd by earnest study 
and with little outward aid, he might reasona- 
bly look for extraordinary progress from them. 
By this system he would have made each pupil 
a dull repetition of himself, instead of help- 
ing him develop his own capacities. An in- 
stitution of learning is not to be regarded as a 
furnishing establishment where the case of ob- 
taining articles ready made precludes tho ne- 
cessity of applicants performing any other la- 
bor than that of recoiving them. 

Men are too often dazzled and deceived by 
artilkial results. A pine in America would 
have been nothing essentially different in 
Prance, though from it might have been fabri- 
cated more elegant articles than will be made 
of one cut down yesterday in the foresls of 
Steuben. An ambitious youth leaves Boston 
or New York for the west, and by and by we 
hear of him as a governor, or perhaps a mem- 
ber of Congress. No\t\ it Ls of course impossi- 
ble to determine whether hod lie remained in 
his native place he would have been called to 
high official statiou or not, but it is quite safe 
to declare that whatever elevation ho has 
gained beyond his desert is only a factitious 
success; and if he has won it by treachery or 
indirection it is a thorough and most disgrace- 
ful failure. Again, it is well known that in n 
political contest, other things being equal, u 
new man excites more enthusiasm than an old- 
tried candidate; but shall we account him, if 
elected, really more successful, since ho owes 
his good fortune to the charm of novelty rather 
than to superior merit? Tho mere achieve- 
ment is not success, neither is it praise inerely 
to have escaped censure; but not to have 
merited reproach constitutes the highest claim 
to commendation, and to have deserved suc- 
cess Ls to have been eminently successful 

There is a feeling hardly dcscribable, expe- 
rienced by earnest souls, even in the hour of 

exultation and acknowledged triumph, awaken- 
ing them to a consciousness of having still 
come short of their ideal, and rousing them to 
renewed and more vigorous efforts. It is this 
consciousness that makes an author the most 
unsparing critic of his own work — thus con- 
trasting the embodiment before him with the 
idea of which it is an expression, that enables 
the sculptor to see defects where others are 
content to admire. The performance of the 
true artist never equals his conception of his 
subject. I doubt whether Suausi'Basb was 
satisfied with his Hamlet — the prince of sculp- 
tors with his master-piece of statuary, or Ka- 
I'IIaei. and Anoki.o with their greatest crea- 
tions ou canvass. Let ambitious youth reflect 
on this, and not suflur aspiration (which is one 
of the best indications of ability,) to be quench- 
ed in their bosoms by those seasons of de- 
pression and discouragement to which even 
the strongest souls are subject The mere 
fact that a beginner detects the presence of 
blemishes in his work, though he may not be 
nble to specify them, is, in some sort, an augury 
of future success; for it is an indispensable con- 
dition to the ultimate attainment of excellence 
in any pursuit, that one be dissatisfied with his 
own linst efforts. Nor need repeated failures, 
or, more truly, short-comings, beget despair of 
final success; for though the hand be unable 
to portray with entire faithfulness such glimp- 
ses of beauty us the spirit catches from afar, 
the hints and suggestions of completeness with 
which the earth abounds, whisper that they 
are a prophecy whose fulfilment shall yet be 
realized. a. 

So. Livonia, Jan. 3, ISM. 

(ForMooro'B Hunt Non-Yorki-r.) 


Waiting "Letters from Home."— Friends, 
dear friends, you scarcely know how prized and 
valued are " Home Letters," by the far-away 
and lono one. You do not — or the heart of 
the absent would not so often be made "sick" 
by tho "hoi>e deferred." 

Oh, wo long for frequent tokens to prove we 
arc remembered, and when afar from friends, 
ask many messages of love. And when they 
come not — we know not why — the disappoint- 
ment is hard to bear. The mind busies itself 
to frame excuses for the delay — to fancy the 
mischunces which have prevented the reception 
of the expected letter. Many and kind are its 
thoughts of home. And it clings to Hope, who 
whispers soothingly, "To-morrow, and sweet 
words, warm from friendly hearts, shall greet 
thee, and cheer and gladden thy loneliness." 

And so the heart soothes itself with the 
thought of words of cheer, to-morrow 1 

To-morrow has hecome to-day, and as tho 
hour which shull decide for us hastens on — the 
heart throbs anxiously — doubtingly — but the 
hope yet lives. The mail has come, and we 
find — no lctterl and disappointment lifted yes- 
terday, settles back with double weight upon 
us. We seem paralyzed for the moment — we 
turn away from all employment — and tho 
thought will come up, that a thousand other 
interests occupy our friends — that they do not 
remember our loneliness and longiug for then- 

words of sympathy — words which prove to us 
the place — the precious place — we yet hold in 
their hearts. 

But we love them too well to doubt their 
affection, and anew, seek reasons for the delay. 
So pas-en d iy after day, until we almost dread 
the hour which decides so often against our 
hopes— decides that we must still wait. 

— Ah, how few are brave to bear anything 
which proves that they are forgotten by friends 
they love I 

Writing Real Letters. — It is much of an 
accomplishment, ami oue which can give great 
pleas-ure — to bo able to write a true letter — in- 
teresting, graceful and gossiping — touching on 
the topics of the times and the occasion, with an 
easy, off-hand style, just suited to the subject. 
The ladies are said to succeed best in this, — 
and one reason, aside from aptness of mind for 
this species of writing, is, jierhaps, that they 
take more care to do it properly, and set a 
higher value upon friendly correspondence. — 
There are few who do not like to read good 
letters, but there nre many who, possessing the 
ability to write them, think it too much of a 
task to exercise it. 

Answering Letters. — Letters ore generally 
best answered when replied to immediately. — 
At their first reading, one usually has some dis- 
tinct thought of what they will say in reply, 
which, if not then written is lost in the multi- 
plied cares of daily life. It takes less time too, 
and unless something important causes it, WO 
arc almost certain to lose by delay. 

Letters ok Priendsiiip. — A friendly letter is 
valuable in proportion to the picture it fur- 
nishes of the thoughts auJ employments of the 
writer. Here one is scarcely allowed to take a 
grave subject behind which to hide, but the 
familiar hand must appear and the feelings flow 
from the heart to the pen and speak along the 
page, or the great end of social correspondence 
is forgotten. — a 

Tub Teacher's Auxiliaries. — Unless pa- 
renls lend their influence as auxiliary to the 
teacher, much of the labors and earnest efforts 
of the latter will be paralyzed and rendered ol 
no avaiL Gaurifj, powerful as he was in over- 
throwing the rebellious hosts in heaven, was as- 
sisted by legions of other sinless spirits in vin- 
dicating the majesty of Omnipotence. United 
action Ls potent in doiug good, as it is also 
pregnant of evil consequences when perverted 
to the aid of a wrong cause. 
» ■ • ■ » 

Early Training. — People must be educa- 
ted while they are children, or generally speak- 
ing, they will not be cducutcd at nil. The first 
things, too, that children should be taught, are 
industry and perseverance ; they should also be 
made to know that their happiness, influence, 
and respectability in life, depend upon these 
things. Children do not understand the value 
of intelligence and industry, and therefore (hey 
should in early life be stimulated by every 
proper means; and we may regard it as the 
worst feature of our existing institutions of ed- 
ucation, that they offer no stimulants to excite 
or encourage industry, energy, nnd improve- 
ment in nrtistic skilL The young find every- 
where temptations to do evil, and nowhere tempt- 
ations to do good. 

[Written for tho Rural Now- Yorker.] 


nr j. t'. hillei:. 

Tun nhadows gloom darkly, vmI deep !« the drew] 
wiiiri, o'oi Hi'' pooi mother i.« creeping 

An the nratchn ,,i midnight, alone bj the bed, 
H in re hnr deatii-strickeu daughter i •! 

Not a (agent hurn» bright on IIh- deaolatc hearth, 
And i»" tiiri|. on tin- darkne*, lr> winning; 

For fjlcndli-5\ forsaken, and poor upon earth, 
I- rtie, ou In r death-bed reclining, 

Her father, her hujbaniL and broUil r .-ire fono — 

Ihej ••! lo ii,.. jrart b •>•■ i i urted, 
And noir, love her mother, nhe din all alone, 

That moUii r to leave broken-hearted. 

Oh roe lor Uu doom of the earijp dead, 
Aud >roe for those daily dj Ii , 

'"i thai mother, ate '■> U 

Wlicro Ijit d..iiii-5'.roieii daughter la Ijln^. 

The /mi.--, of her kindred ftro green fa tfie rale, 

And the irlllomare now I ndln o'er 
Ilul ''- owed deeper, all j lire and pale, 

On ■ .ii", v» ill iw longer di plorc Uii m. 

Tie- ■uadca an- retiring, and bright through the gloom 

The grey light of morning b i ,. iking, 
Dnt dawneth ao da) on thi nl hi ol iio-tomb, 

The dead f thi n- slumber! .making. 

Chore di i p Uiej together and ,;. • p o, , nione. 

No Kiblii-clod mournon ground thi m, 
nut > banner ol glory l» over Ihi m thrown, 

And I, iv. -musloned spirits surround them. 

They vnko not to suffer, they irake not In ,., n, 
They have done with all Borrow ..,. 

FOI iftl till ;• lumber, and lire., oil iideep, 

When the loved and the lu3t,ai\- all lyingl 
CI i ei md, Ohio, i :■!. 

. • ♦ , . 


In order to try to form some conception of 
the influence of the Scriptures upon the minds 
of the millions who have read them, lot our 
readers oak each of himselfthc question, "What 
have 1 gained from their perusal ■" And if he 
has read them for himself, and with an or- 
dinary degree of intelligence, there must arise 
before his memory "n great multitude which 
no man can number" of lofty conception! of 
God, of glimpses into human nature, of pic- 
tures, still or stormy, passing from that page to 
the canvas of imagination, to remain for ever; 
of emotions, causing the heart to vibrate with 
a strange joy, " which one may recognize in 
more exalted stage* of his being; inspirations, 
raising for a season the reader to the levi I of 
his author; and of perpetual whispered impress- 
ions, "This is the highest thought and lan- 
guage I ever encountered; I am on the pinna- 
cle of literature." And then, besides, he will 
remember how often he returned "to this vol- 
ume and found the charm remaining, and tho 
fire still burning, and the fountain of 1 bought 
aud feeling (thought suggestive, feeling crea- 
tive) still flowing; how every sentence was 
found a text, aud how many texts resem- 
bled deep and deepening eyes, "orb within orb," 
deeper than sleep or death; how each new pe- 
rusal showed firmament above firmament, ris- 
ing in the book as in the night sky, till at last 
he fell on his knees, and forgetting to read, be- 
gjn to wonder and adore; how, after this trance 
was over, he took up the book again, and 
found that it was not only a telescope to show 
him things above, but also a microscope to 
show him things below, and a mirror to reflect 
his own heart, and a magic gluss to bring tho 
future near: and how, ut last, he was compelled 
to exclaim, " How dreadful is this bookl It Ls 
none other than the book of Cod; it is the gate 
or heaven." Multiply tliis experience of one, 
by an unknown number of millions, aud you 
have the answer to the question as to the" di- 
rect intellectual influence of the Scriptures up- 
on those who have really read them. — Univer- 
sal Magazine 


Tiik editor of the Albany Register has boon 
to New York. Here is oue of his descriptions 
of character: "Let us pause here for a moment 
and look upon the faces of some of these peo- 
ple who never seem to stop, by the bright light 
of a ' corner lamp.' Here comes one with a 
queenly step in a robe of costly silk. There is 
bloom upon her check, but her eye looks bold* 
ly into those of all she meets. Look not upon 
herl Lost! lost! The bloom on her cheek Ls 
a lie. The smile on her lip is a falsehood. — 
Lostl lostl A mother's tears have blotted her 
name from the book of life, and angels wept 
over the sentence of her condemnation. Lostl 
lostl was whispered in heaven, when the plead- 
ing spirit turned sadly away from her, mid hopo 
closed the volume of heretcrnuldestiny. Lostl 
lostl And yet here in this city, within the 
sound of these church bells, under the very 
droppings of the sanctuary, are ten, some tell 
us twenty thousand like her, all hurrying down- 
ward, with an ever occellerating velocity, sink- 
ing lower nnd lower, plunging deeper nnd deep- 
er into the abyss of shame and vice, and crime, 
to find graves at last in the Porter's field, and 
beyond that grave of infamy, — what then? — 
Who in the judgment of God, in the retribu- 
tions of eternity, shall be held responsible for 
the destruction of these twenty thousand souls? 
Man of the world, man of pleasure, sensualist, 
beware 1 At whose hands will Heaven require 
nn account of these twenty thousand lost souls? 
Mothers, whose duty it is to watch over the 
opening intellect, the expanding mind, to guide 
the children God ha3 given you in the right 
way; fathers, to whom your little ones look for 
example in that which is right; brothers, on 
whom younger sisters have a right to lean, sL"*- 
tcrs to whom is entrusted the care of the weak 
and inexperienced, the confiding, beware!— 
There is a record above that cannot lie, where 
hidden things, every secret transgression is 
written, and God who looks upon it, will meas- 
ure out a just and holy retribution.'' 

, ^ 





Tim . i Urodan honest tWiorman, 

I know ii.m puslng woU; 
IU dwell l, .r.i bj | i, hi,. [(t ,nd, 

w.tiMMn nut..- .1,-u. 

A I raroond rmiet i»ud **.w h<\ 
Who loved hlfl book and rod; 
K" iMfl nui hl» Unc» »<( life, 

hUnelgUbori Uiought it odd. 

Fur science and for book.*, hu said 

i.i aover had u nisb; 

tiool i«» iiftn w « worth I n& 

pi a "tchool of Jan." 

Th li ririglo-mlnded ibhcrmnn 

A double calling bad; 
I . (end ill Dock4 i» winter litue — 

In summer, 0«h for sluid. 

In short, ii .man 

/ UoUii f loUa foroook, 
^n> , Ihui ■ ml man wno ha, 

hi Lis vd by "Aowfc and crook." 

A\\ dajr thai flflhi nnan would tit 

I pon -»!i 'in ten I i<»k*, 
An ' ■" in tbfi valor, like 

tome B6(k lit UJ h",;. 

A running ll-lit'rraan was be, 

l.lp«n^7« wi?ro all ri"ht; 
Ami whvu lio scratched hi* aged poll, 

\ ou <i knoti he'd got ^ fti/e. 

To charm IhO li: It I'" never «poke, 
And thougli iii» vnii -.• Has Qno, 

Ho round Uio '""I it ' onvenJcnt vnj 
v, • |uBt (r» "dr<v» « tore.*' 

And Him. b "gu Jgi on'* of the pond, 

n made to speak to-day, 

Uould own Willi -Ti' i Mm angler had 
A mighty "taking ifdy." 

One day, while fishing no n log, 
Hi moumod bis want «<i lofek; 
(VUcd in leni) bo fcHauUc, 
And jerking— caught a "duck.'* 

Abu* I day, the Qpherurin 

I I-i*l Likirn too much grog-, 
And being but a laudxnan, too, 

He couldn't "keep the toff." 

In vain be strove with all hi* might, 

And (ried to gain the slmrc.; 
Down, down bo went lo f.-.d the fish 

llu'd bailed oft U-forcl 
Thi; moral to thw mournful talo 

Tu all is plain and dear ; 
A single "drop loo much" of rum. 

May make a watery bier. 

And bo who Kill not "m~n the pledge," 

And k< -r[» (ho prOmuK fast, 
May bo, In spile of (ate, a *iijf 

Cold-tcater mm at Lurtl 


Tun time-honored custom of making New- 
Year's calls is highly commendable when prop 
erly observed. It is especially pleasant to meet 
uml congratulate neighbors and friends, " for 
nuld acquaintance sake," but wc submit that 
the thing is being overdone in this and some 
other cities by the representatives of Young 
America. On the recent anniversary of New- 
Year, the juvenile generation of this city — the 
voung gentlemen from sis to early tecuhood — 
were the most numerous nnd active partici- 
pants in what has heretofore wry appropriate- 
ly been performed and enjoyed by those who 
hud at least arrived ol the ngc qt discretion; 
while the " grave and reverend seiguors" — the 
" governors," par excellence — were exceedingly 
" few and far between." The latter probably 
considered their former occupation gone — the 
rapid progress, not to say audacity, of the 
juniors rendering a good old custom "more 
honored in the breach than in the observance." 
The custom is also being brought into disre- 
pute by many older " young men about town" 
— including sundry clerks, apprentices, &c — 
who seem bent on making the greatest possible 
number of" calls," not so much to sec friends 
or make valuuble acquaintances, as to accom- 
plish a glorious achievement in traveling nnd 
registering. The manner in which this is " done 
uyi.l jierformed" is cleverly hit off in the follow- 
ing brief extract from a New York paper: 

Mrs. Pegu, and drawing-room, are all laid 
out in state to receive calls. Thirty-two young 
gentlemen make u brief nppcarunrc at the door 
and recite the following shibboleth: — "Now 
dye do, Mrs. Pegu, Happy New-Year. Can't 
stay a minute; made seventy-six calls this mor- 
ning; got thirty more to uuikc. ,9doo! .QdouT 
But the custom is outrageously abused, of 
late years, by the manner in wliich the Mayor, 
nnd other city dignitaries are made to suffer 
martyrdom for position's sake. We understand, 
for wc were not " there to eee," that the domi- 
cil of our Mayor was so besieged ou Monday 
week that the assistance of the police was ne- 
cessary to preserve order, and check the hun- 
dreds of hungry expectants, nearly every one 
of whom seemed determined to personate the 
Russian boar and carry the devouring war into 
Turkey. This must not only be excessively au- 
noying, but a positive uuisauce, and one which 
should be abated. It's uone of our business, 
perchance, but for the credit of the city, arid 
his own protection, we trust the next Mayor or 
Rochester will take some action iu the premis- 
es — -reform it altogether." Iu our humble 
opinion, it would be far preferable for the 
Mayor to discontinue th.' practice altogether — 
donating a port or all the usual expense to our 
charitable institutions. This course would 
avoid a vast deal of vexation and abuse, and 
be the means of accomplishing some good, — 
and certainly no well disposed citizen would 
object to its adoption. 

[Translated from Ific French for the Rami New- Yorker.) 


Wno does not admire the majesty, the dig- 
nity, and the enthusiasm of Bossuet? His 
genius was vast iu extent, impetuous, imugina- 
tive, sublime. Who can consider without os- 
tonishmeut Uie incredible sublimity of Pascal, 
bis invincible reasoning, his extraordinary memo- 
ry, his universal mid promuturo knowledge? 

Tin- first elevates the soul; the other con- 
founds and (roubles it. The one launches forth 
like a thunderbolt in u tempestuous whirlwind, 
and by his sudden boldness overwhelms the 
timid; the other astonishes, illumines and en- 
forces conviction ofthe ascendency of truth. — 
Liken being "I" superior nature, his lively in- 
telligence unfolds all the conditions, all the af- 
fections, and all the thoughts of men. His 
conceptions ever appear superior to those of 
ordiuury minds. His genius, simple and power- 
ful, combined in itself qualities apparently in- 
I'lingruiius: vehemence and moderation, enthu- 
siasm and calmness, brilliance and sublimity. 

Bossuef had more of fertility; Pascal more 
of invention. Bossnel U more impetuous; Pas- 
cal more ascendant. The one excites the im- 
oginaliou by frequent sallies of wit; the other, 
always full mid solid, represses and checks it by 
a character more concise and sustained. 

Fcnelon, illustrious mid amiable gonitis, sur- 
passed them both in sweetness and grace. His 
piety caused virtue to triumph. 11b expres- 
sion was eloquent and charmiug. Bora to enl- 
tivute wisdom and humanity in kings, his in- 
genuous voice re-echoed at the foot of the 
throne the misfortunes of the human race op- 
pressed by tyrants, and defended against the 
:i. uf (lattery the despoiling cause of the 
people. What goodness of heart, whnt sincer- 
ity do his words express 1 What a brilliancy 
of images adorns his discourses! Who ever 
scattered so mauy Dowers in a style so natural, 
so tender, so melodious? Who ever arrayed 
reason in so pleasing and chaste an attire? Ah, 
what treasures of love, truth mid goodness iu 
his rich simplicity! Names consecrated by 
the love nnd respect of all who cherished the 
honor of letters: restorers of the arts, fathers 
of eloquence, lights of the human mind I had 
we but one ray of the spirit and enthusiasm 
which animated your sublime discourses, then 
wo might presume to speak of your virtues and 
twine the sacred garland of holy remembrance 
around your venerated numes. a. j. f. 

Uolnmity of Rochester, Nov. 20, 1S43. 



The celebrated philanthropist, was born in 
172G, at Hackney, and was bound apprentice 
to a grocer by his gunrdiuns; but, being pos- 
sessed of a fortune, he purchased his indentures, 
and made two tours on the continent; one of 
them for the purpose of viewing the ruins of 
Lisbon. Having lost his first wife, who was 
much older than himself, and whom he married 
out of gratitude for her attention during sick- 
ness, he mode a second choice iu 175b. For 
several years he resided ou his estate at Cod- 
ington, near Bedford, occupied in educating his 
son, and iu executing plans to render comforta- 
ble the situation of his tenants and laborers. — 
Nor was his kindness limited to worldly bene- 
fits; it extended to eternity; watching over 
their morals, and iuculcatiug the principles of 
vital Christianity in their hearts; in short, he 
was a universal "blessing. He had already ob- 
tained experimentally some knowledge of a 
trisou, having becu captured on his return to 
lisbon, and confined in Prance; but his ap- 
pointment, in 1773, to the office of high sheriff 
of Bedford, induced him to look more narrow- 
ly into the subject, with the hope of ameliora- 
ting the condition ofthe captive. Here, then, 
commenced that philanthropic career which 
closed but with his life. Not only were all the 
prisons of his country repeatedly visited, but, 
in several journeys, he examined minutely those 
of the continent, "to remember (us Mr. Burke 
beautifully expresses it) the forgotten, to at- 
tend to the neglected, to visit the forsaken, mid 
to compare mid collate the distresses of all men 
in all countries." His glorious course was ter- 
minated by fever, at Cherson, in Russia, Jan 
20, 17U0. 

The humanity and the benevolence of a 
man who, at the expense of thirty thousand 
pounds, travelled between fifty mid sixty thous- 
and miles, enduring the fatigue, mid dangers, 
und chiuiges of heat and cold, rain and snow, 
is indeed above all praise. Yet it was un- 
stained by pride. The love of God, the love 
of Christ which ruled his heart in life, led him 
to request that no other inscription might be 
ut on his gravo than this: — "Christ is my 

Ttik following affecting story was related by 
Mr. Iiii.lley, an agent of the British and For- 
eign Bible Society, at the anniversary ofthe 
Birmingham Sunday-School Union: 

In the county of Kent lives, or lived, n cler- 
gyman mid his lady who took a vi-iy active 
part in the Sunday-school connected with his 
church. They had in the school a boy, !!.>■ 
only sou of a widow, who was notoriously wick- 
ed, despising all the earnest prayers and ad- 

nitions of the clergyman, win., out of pity 

lor his poor widowed mother, kepi him in the 
school eighteen months; :it length he found it 
absolutely necessary to dismiss the lad, as a 
warning to others. Uesooti uTter enlisted as 
a soldier in a regiment thai was soon ordered 
to America, it being during the lasl American 

war. Some time after, the ] r widow i died 

upon the clergyman to beg a Bible of the 
smallest gusts. Surprised at such a request from 
:;n individual who was on the ra ge .>i eternity, 
and who he knew had one or (wo Bibles of 

large print, which she had long used log I 

purpose, l"' inquired what she wanted ii for. 
She answered, "A regiment is going out in 
America, and I want to send il to my poor 
boy; and oh! sir, who kuows what il maj doT 

She sent the Bible which the clergyman 
gave her, by a pious soldier, who, upon his ar- 
rival at their destination, found the widow's 
sou the very ringleader of thoregimeul in every 
description of vice. After the Boldier had 
made himself known, he said, "James, your 
mother has sent yon her last present" 

"Ah!" he replied in a careless manner, "is 
she gone ut last'/ I hope she sent me some 

The pious soldier told him he believed the 
poor widow was dead; •' but," said he, " she has 
sent you something of more value thou gold 
or silver, (presenting him the Bible,) and, Jami 3, 
it was her dyinj; requi i ihat you would read 
one verse, at least, of this book every day; and 
can you refuse her dying charge?" 

" Well," said .lames "it is not too much to 
ask, (o|iening the Bible.) so here goes." 

He opened the Bible at the words; " Come 
unto me, all ye that are weary and heavy la- 
den, and I will give you rest." 

" Well," said he, " this is very odd. I have 
opeued to the only verse in the Bible that I 
could ever learn by heart when I was in the 
Sunday-school; I never could for the life of me 
commit another. It is very strange! but who 
is this ' me' that is mentioned in the verse? 

The pious soldier asked if he did not know. 

He replied that he did not. 

The good man then explained it to him; 
spoke to him of Jesus, mid exhibited the truth 
and iuvitatious ofthe gospeL They walked lo 
the house of the chaplain, where they had fur- 
ther conversation; the result was, that from 
that honr he became a changed man, nnd was 
as noted for exemplary conduct as before he 
hud been for his wickedness. 

Some time after this conversation, the regi- 
ment in wliich he was, engaged the enemy; nt 
the close of wliich the pious soldier, in walk- 
ing through the field of blood, beheld, under a 
large spreading oak, the dead body of James, 
his bend reclining on his Bible, which was 
opened at the passage, " Come unto me, all ye 
that ure weary, ' &C Poor James had gone 
to his eternal n^t. 

Mr. Dudley said he had frequently held the 
Bible in Ins hand; there were no less than fifty 

Eages stained with the blood of poor James. — 
low encouraging, suid Mr. Dudley, is this for 
Sabbaih-.-chool teachers to persevere! forshould 
there be but one wed sown, it might, as in the 
case of the widow's son, produce a plentiful 
harvest. The only verse he ever committed 
to memory was the means, iu the hand of the 
Holy Spirit, of bringing him out of darkness 
into marvellous light; and James is now, we 
trust, joining the song of the redeemed in 


jfor % y aim 



t. '*-•-.. •*. '-./■>•». •-**«-» 


llc wrote the Slate of the Prisons in En- 
gland and Wales: and an account of the prin- 
cipal Lazarettos in Europa 

■ • i i 

Good Counsel. — Might I give counsel to 
any young hearer, I would say to him, try to 
frequent the company of your betters. In 
books mid life is the most wholesome society; 
learn to admire rightly; the great pleasure of 
life is that Note whut the great men admired 
— they admired great things: narrow spirits ad- 
mire busely, and worship ineuuly. 

■ • ■ 

Act Right. — Would you be exempt from 
uneasiness, do nothing you know or suspect to 
be wrong ; and if you wish to enjoy the purest 
pleasure, do everything in your power, that you 
ure convinced is right 

» ■ ♦ . » 

Matches differ. The sort that is got up 
at the parson's is apt to have the most (lame 
before it is struck; while those made at the 
fucton-, the most after it 

Horace Greeley, while on his visit to the 
I in liana State Fair, was obbged lo travel over 
forty miles on a linud-car, in order to be in 
tima Read what he says about it: 

The full moon rose bright over the eastern 
woods, as with the north star straight ahead, 
we bid adieu to the embryo city of Brookton. 
We were seven of us in a bond car, four pro- 
pelbug by twos, us if turning a two-handled 
griudstoue; but we left oil' one passenger after 
traveling a few miles. The engineer und I 
made up the party; nnd the cor, about equal 
In size to a wheelbarrow and a half, just man- 
aged to hold us mid give the propellers work- 
ing room. To cconouu>.e space, 1 sot a good 
Earl of the time facing backward, with my feet 
angiug over the rear of the car, knocking 
here and there on n tic or bridge timber, mid 
often tickled through my boots by the coarse, 
nuik weeds growing at intervals between the 
tics, and recently- stiffened by the hard October 
frosts. As u constant effort to hold on was 
required, the position was not favorable to 
slumber, however it might be to cogitation. — 
Our Irish steam was developed from Yankee 
muscles, mid proved of capital quality. We 
made our first five miles, heavily laden as we 
were, in twenty-five minutes; our first ten miles 
in mi hour; but our propellers grew gradually 
weary; wc stopped twice or thrice for oil, wa- 
ter, nud perhaps some other liquid, so that wo 
were five hours in making forty-three miles 01 
from 7 o'clock to midnight I only tried my 
hand at propelling for one short mile, nnd thai 
experience sufficed to conviuce me that, how- 
ever it may be us a business, this species of ex- 
ercise cannot be conscientiously commended as 
an amusement 


A cabin boy on board a ship, die captain c 
which was a religious man, was called up to l» 
whipped for some misdemeanor. Little Jact 
w.ut crying mid trembling, and said to the 
captain : 

" Pray, sir, will you wait until I can say my 
prayers ?" 

■ 1 08," was the stem reply. 

" Well, then," replied Jack, looklug up ant: 
smiling triumphantly, " 111 never say them!" 


Dctk«t ilbiwuhie. Itvraembtr *tix your part, 
By gentle foodoen, tu n-tnlo tbc bOM I ■ 
l^'i duly, prudonce, virtue, taki Lb< Ii uL 
To fix your choice, but from it m*'or recede. 
Abhor coquetry. Spurn tlio MiaIIow fool. 

Who nx.v-iin - but dull compliment* by rule: 
And, without mean In p, like a chnlteringjuj, 

Repeat* the moo dull ?lmln throughout the dft/. 

Arc men of *'iw attracted by your tat 

Your well-torn. .1 HgnTB, 01 till lr conjuoond gmco; 

It.' mild and equal, moderately pny, 

Your judgment, rather than your wit diiplar : 

Ily .iiiuln« nt good breeding, ntrive lo pleuo; 

'Tut nothing mora than regulated cafe* 

id., ono dear youth among tbi tjlvim train. 

The tx*t affection*, of your hwul ol I to 

Receive hit* love, and, by a kind n-'u n, 

no aJTcelloD will Hi" brigtiter iiuro. 
DbxLun duplicity; from prldt- be '■• I ! 
What err-ry woman -Imuld— \ t.u then will bo. 

[Written for Mooro's Rural New-Yorker.] 


An! weep, innocent one; pour forth your 
tears in the fullness Of child-sorrow for her, 
your dearest and kiudest friend. You cannot 
now realize the loss yon sustain in being de- 
prived of a mother's .are nnd nffeetion. Bat 
when you hear no more that mother's kind 
words falling sweetly and softly on the cur; 
no more feel her warm caress as she presses 
,.ni (o her bosom, and imprints on V'.ur cheek 
the nfiectionatc kiss of devoted love ; when 
eolduess and scorn chill the tender feelings fos- 
tered by maternal regard, — (hen indeed, will 
you be desolate and realize in deep sadness of 
heart your indescribable loss. Often in the 
drear}' pathway of life, the form of that de- 
parted one, radiant in beauty and lovelim Ef, 
will appear, watching over the beloved of 
earth. As the star in the azure vault pours its 
light and mellow beams on the earth, so thy 
sainted mother, from the deep serenity and 
holy loveliness of celestial realms, will look 
down on her cherished ones left behind, and 
breathe over them n spell tranquil and sacred 
You will recall the fondness with which she 
ever greeted you, and contrast it with the cold 
reception of others. Those pure precepts im- 
pressed on your heart, purifying the fountain 
of child-feeling, and refreshing the fine tendrils 
und snowy blossoms of youthful love, as the 
soft dew falling on vernal flowers, will ever be 
enbalraed in sacred recollection. 

Leave for awhile the bright world — its gay 
and joyous scenes, and enter the chamber of 
death. Drive from your mind all thoughts of 
the busy world without, und realize the im- 
pressive solemnity of the scene. Hush that 
voice, and bo awed by the deep silence pervad- 
ing the room, and reflect it is as the stilluess of 
the grave. See Uio shadows on the wall, the 
fitful, glimmering rays weaving themselves into 
frightful shapes; these are death's symbols. — 
Listen to that ticking, heard ever and anon; it 
is the death-watch beating off the time of mor- 
tal existence. Look on that taper burning 
dimly with a faiut, boding light, slowly yet 
continually sinking in its socket; then turn 
your eye upon that couch and see the taper of 
life, flickering and burning still more dimly, 
even to expiring. 

Beside the couch of the dying one stands a 
boy thoughtful and silent Though of scarce 
ten summers, bis demeanor bespeaks intrepidi- 
ty, a flow of feeling, and an energetic emotion, 
beyond his years. The forehead high and pide, 
marbled with the animation of life, is shaded 
by locks of durk brown hair. Those grey 
eyes, full of expression, yet snd from weeping, 
iu their depth of reflection disclose tenderness 
nnd ardent passion. The countenance, the sent 
of thought where every impassioned feeling of 
the soul is traced in perceptible lines, reflects 
the intensity of anguish torturing the heart — 
And as the boy guzes upon that emaciated 
form, that pallid countenance, and listens to 
the fuiut breathings, now short nud quick, 
what must be the depth and keenness of his 
sorrow I None but those who have stood by 
a dying mother's bed, oud fell the silken tissue 
binding them to the best und dearest friend of 
life, break thread by thread, can realize the 
severity of his grief. 

Suddenly the invalid opens her eyes and 
looks upon the boy. How full of meaning is 
that look! How her thoughts run back and 
rest on the slopes of time! Busy memory colls 
up many a varying scene. The sweet associa- 
tions of curly life come thronging on her mind 
— happy days of blissful reality and delightful 
anticipations. But these arc gone, all vanished 
as a dream. The soft mellowing shadows of 
early affection and cherished hopes have fled. 
The sunshine of a golden period has departed, 
and dark clouds shrond the sky of existence — 
A ad now, as she gazes pensively on her only- 
child, how heart-rending the agony to think 
she most soon die and leave him to meet alone, 
the scorn and contempt of an unfeeling world. 

She motions him to her side and looks more 
stcadfasUy on his dejected counlcnanca She 
parts the fine locks from his pale brow, and 
impresses the last kiss of undying affection. — 
Placing in lus hand a Bible, the testimony of 
holy thoughts and desires, the pledge of anx- 

ious solicitndo for his eternal welfare, — then, 
turning her eyes to heaven sho offers in the ful- 
ness of her heart, a silent prayer, and breathing 
a parting blessing, sweetly sleeps in the em- 
brace of death. 

How slowly pass the remaining hours of the 
night to that boy; slowly — no, he heeds not 
the flight of time lie thinks not of the bright 
morning, the clear sunshine, the singiug of 
birds, the sports and joys of his childish hours. 
No, a deep gloom overwhelms his heart It is 
a keen pang and pierces deeply. Never before 
has he felt such sorrow. He had seen a loved 
mid gentle sister, whose countenance beamed 
with (he expression of gratitude, whose heart 
was warm und overflowed with affection for 
him, lorn away as the flower by the rude blast 
But n mother's consoling words supported him 
and told of a brighter land, where the afflic- 
tions of this life are not known. She pointed 
to a heaven above, where the pure and good-of 
earth live in denial happiness — where bunds 
of angels, clad in shilling robes, with golden 
haqis in their hands, tune celestial melody. — 
There his little sister was at home — and there 
too he longed once more to hear her silvery 
voice, feel the warm pressure of her soft hand, 
und see the smile beaming on her lovely coun- 

But no mother now,— she too is gone. No 
one was there to comfort him — no one to soothe 
his troubled feelings. Then did he wish that 
he too might die, und meet his little sister und 
beloved mother iu that bright heaven. 

The morning dawns The sunlight plays in 
mellow beams through the lattice. The soft 
rays dance on the glussy surface of a sylvan 
stream, and fall lightly on the rich foliage of 
the grove. The jweet carol of birds, piping 
Iheir melodious notes in choral symphonies, is 
heard in the leafy boughs. The mild breeze, 
cooled by the fresh dew, gently sweeps along. 
But these pleasures, this richness of early dawn, 
is enjoyed not by the mourning boy. He opens 
not his heart to these mild nnd tranquilizing 
influences. His is a severe grief, and he cher- 
ishes it in the depths of his bosom. 

Night again- shadows the earth, nnd the 
glorious beauties of the day are lost in the 
silent gloom. Melancholy thoughts creep into 
solitary meditations. It is the time for reflec- 
tion — the time for dwelling ou the post ond 
reviving the living remembrance of the depart- 
ed. The child longs to sec once more the face 
of his mother, though cold in death. Ho 
wonts to be alone with (he dead, to look on 
those placid features, with no human eye to 
observe him. He takes a lamp nnd approaches 
the door of the room in which she lies. Why 
does he pauso? Why does his little hand 
shake us if in fear? We all feel that dreatt — 
It creeps over us os we stand beside the re- 
mains of the dead, however dear they may have 
been. He hesitates, however, but a moment, 
and then enters the still room. A moment the 
door stands ajar, — his ear catches the souud of 
a hollow and solemn wind blowing mournfully 
and low. It is a- wind that has swept the 
fields of mortality for ages. Its moaning is 
ever henrd, sighing the requiem ofthe departed. 
In this world it is the one sole, audible symbol 
of eternity. 

He draws near that shrouded form and care- 
fully lay3 aside the coveriug from the face, and 
looks upon those calm, cold features — sweet 
and tranquil, even in death. Can it be that 
she is dead — that she lies before him? He 
shudders at the thought But it is so, for she 
is cold aud still, — the frozen eyelids the serene 
forehead, the marble lips, Uie stiffening hands, 
luid palm to palm, — how changed! He gazes 
thoughtfully, silently, and then turns away! 

He follows her to the grave, — the last sad 
rites of sepulture are performed. Ho hears the 
clods fall heavily on his mother's coffin, nnd 
fcel3 their pressure on his heart. No tear 
starts from his eye, — his sorrow is too deep for 
utterance Slowly he returns to his now deso- 
late home. In the silence of his chamber he 
sits in pensive mood, — mournful reflections are 
inwoven iu his thoughts. His eye, by chance, 
rests ou u sacred memento — Uie gift of his 
mother, ut her dying hour. Ho takes it in his 
hand, kisses it, mid presses it to his heart os a 
sacred relic — a sweet influence connecting him 
with other and holier scenes. In this exquis- 
itely illuminated book, is a letter attached, by 
some pretty silken artifice, to the blank leaf at 
the cud. It was composed when the con- 
sciousness of death had become fixed, mid was 
Uie means of a departed mother's communion 
with her child, when all things had faded from 
i l.e sight It was a simple tribute of kindness 
mid love, of maternal anxiety, burning strong 
in death. In it she besought, as a dying re- 
quest a diligent perusal of the sacred volume, 
mid a careful attention to its inspired pr. i ' 

Unlvcrellj- of iiochettcr, 1853. A. J. E. 

A Sistsr's Influence. — The influence of a 
kind mid gentle sister upon the associations and 
conduct of young men, is much more potent 
than is generally supposed. For himself Uie 
brother frequently cares much less than for his 
sister, and the thought that any disgrace re- 
sulting from his actions will inflict double pain 
upon her confiding spirit will frcquenUy deter 
him from evil when all other influences foil. 





Our Own Beport 

Over Seven Tlvnuand Sulicribers in one Week! 
Wiieiikas certain largely circulated eastern 
weeklies oxhibit of late a proclivity to enumer- 
ate and publish the increase of their respective 
subscription list* from -week -to week — and 
whereas we believe the recent additions to the 
subscription list of the RuaAL will compare fa- 
vorably with, if not considerably exceed, those 
of any other journal, not excepting tLe JV. Y. 
Weekly Tribune, or Phila. Saturday Post — there- 
fore we beg, with a heart overflowing with grat- 
itude, most respectfully to report, that — 

During the week ending on Thursday evening 
last, (as lute as we have counted ot the time of 
writing this,) we received Seven Thousand Tiro 
Hundred and Seventy-Four tubscribersl This is 
glory enough for one week — averaging over 1,200 
names for each business day — and far exceeds 
any estimate we have seen in other journals. — 
In this estimate we of course count new sub- 
scribers and renewals, — but our figures are ex- 
clusive of all subscriptions (several thousand) 
which did not expire with the last volume. 

— This mosi unexpected "rush" overworked 
and almost overwhelmed our entry and mailing 
clerks — and caused some detention in issuing 
and mailing our first number. This number 
will be mailed more promptly, if possible, and 
probably we shall be fully •• up to time" in n 
week or two. Meantime agents and friends will 
please exercise patience, if necessary, though we 
hope to give them little occasion for the practico 
of that cardinal virtue. We are so arranging 
our mailing books, and forces, that we shall be 
able to mail our whole edition — which is now 
just twice what it was lost year — in less time 
than formerly ; and hence, as soon as we get 
under headway, our subscribers will receive 
their papers more promptly than heretofore. 

To Correspondents. 

Ope acknowledgements arc due many former 
and several new correspondents for recent favors. 
Those written on practical anil useful subjects 
will receive early attention — such being always 
most acceptable 1 . We hope many of our thou- 
sands of new subscribers will become corres- 
pondents as well as readers of the Rural. Our 
desiro is to have practical and experienced men 
' teach one another" through these pages. Let 
that be rcmombercd. 

Those who send us articles on literary topics 
must exercise patience. Wo have such an effi- 
cient corps of editors and regular contributors, 
to whose articles preference is given, that we 
only insert a small portion of the many contri- 
butions on miscellaneous subjects. The conse- 
quence, is wo select those which (in our poor 
judgmont) possess the most merit, and are pro- 
perly written, punctuated, Ac. Articles con- 
taining very good thoughts an: often omitted or 
rejected, on account of tho carelessness of the 
authors — their neglect to write legibly, and non- 
attention to other important essentials iu news- 
paper composition. 

— Wo cannot become responsible for the safe- 
ty or return of communications intended fur the 
literary department 

Cheap Ocean Postage. 

A uKcruro was held in New York, Jan. Gth, 
for tho purpose of bringing about a reform in 
the matter of ocean pontage. The Evening Post 
Bays, if the governments of this country and Eu- 
rope had never meddled with the conveyance of 
letters ocross the Atlantic, we should have seen, 
before this time, letters earried from oue conti- 
nent to another for the smallest reasonable com- 
pensation. But for the governments, there would 
have been nothing for the post-office reformers 
to do ; no occasion for tho labors of Sir. Dates, 
or Mr. Spooner, or Mr. Buiiritt, who has now 
taken up the cause of ocean penny postage with 
n zeal which we hope will not be fruitless. In 
all those undertakings which oro within the com- 
pass of private enterprise, governments do not 
keep pace with the advancement of society, and 
require what « sometimes called a pressure from 
without; they require to be stimulated to their 
duty by importunities, complaints, nnd expres- 
sions of dissatisfaction and impatience, uttered 
by multitudes. 

« ■ ♦ i 

Legislative Proceedings. — Our Albany cor- 
respondent will furnish accurate and life-like 
sketches of the progress of Legislation at Alba- 
ny. His facilities for obtaining information arc 
unsurpassed, and they will be improved to tho 
best advantago for the benefit of our readers. — 
Should our Summary of Proceedings be omit- 
ted at any time, it will bo for the reason thnt the 
matter is embraced in the correspondence. 

CooBBOTio.v.-In our Special Notices, lost week, 
wo said, or the compositor made us say, that 
'• persons who have forwarded £15 for a club of 
ton, can extend the number to twenty-Jive for 
$10" — whereas wo of course intended to say, 
they could extend the number to twenty, which 
would moke tho whole number in accordance 
with our published terms. Please note. 
« ■ ♦ ■ . 

Deferred. — Several notices of books, Ac, are 
necessarily deferred. A number of books, mag- 
azines, Ac, yet unexamined for wont of time, 
wiU ere long receive attention. 

Oar Albany Correspondence. 

A r.« am, Jan. 0, l&M. 

" The people of the Stato of New York, repre- 
sented in Senate and Assembly," convened on 
Tuesday last, as per Constitution, nnd nfter per- 
fecting their organization, as indicated in my 
Inst, proceeded to hear tho Governor's Message, 
nnd to commence their winter's work. Both 
houses made a speedy and almost simultaneous 
movement to pass tho resolutions relative to the 
canals of the State, which resulted in their 
unanimous adoption, wanting one vote iu each 

Tho following is the proposed Constitutional 
Amendment : 

iVIiitima, Ihr follnn-ing amendment to the Constitution 
,.f tula Stale was proposed at the laal session of Hie Ix-gis- 
I von, . vie : 
.-nt 'i oilo for portion thrco of artlrle seven the rolloirinir : 

An, ii p ., In UlO I ml expenses of collection, supi'i int, ii- 
Ueuco and ropalni of tho canals, tn<l tho mm ■ appropriali -I 
by the first and lei dhd sections of this article, uicro shall 
tie appropriated and «jl opart In each fiscal year out of 
i!:, undue revenue* of tho can.iL*, as aninkini; fuiel, a 
sum sufficient I" iv the Interest u it f.ill« due, and extin- 
guish the principal within eighteen yean* of any loan made 
under this section, and If the said sinking fund ■Ball not 
Ik> roJUcleul I" redeem auy port of tho priiiripd at the 
stipulated tlmci of payment! or to pay any part of the lo- 
tereat of such loans as stipulated, tho means to Ktlisfy any 
such deflefcocj i-lmll be procured on the credit of the said 
-unking fund. After i-oroplyinir with the foregoing provis* 
linn, tln-rv pliall l,o paid annually out of said revenues Into 
the Treasury of Uie StahViwo hundred thousand dollars, 
to defray tho necosaajy expenses of government. Tho re- 
mainder shall, In cadi fiscal year, bo applied to meet ap- 
propriations for the (njlargoinent and couiptMlon of the 
canals mrulioui -1 in llii:- s. .-li.m until tho Mild caiiaet uhall 
I", completed. In each fiscal year thereafter the remainder 
shall bo disponed of in such manni r a the legislature may 
direct, but sludl at no time be anticipated or pled.-, it l",,t 
rooro than one yeai In advance. Tho legishturo cliall an- 
nually, during Ulfi next four years, appropriate tu (ho on- 
ni of the Erie, the Oawegn, the Cayuga ami Bent . 
canals, and to tho completion of the Block KlVer and Gen- 
, -■ i \ ill,, canals, ana for tho enlargement of the locks of 
in,- ' 'h imjilain canal, when, -\ or from diiapiilation or docay 
it shall be neeoM.iry to rebuild thorn, a «,utn nol exceeding 
two millions Iwo hundred and I i fly thousand dollars. The 
remainder of the revenues of the canals for the current 
fiscal year In which such appropriation is made, shall he 
applied to meet such appropriation; and If tho cuno • \ <j| 
tw <], , mod Inmffidonl, the legislature shall, at the sime 
session, provide for the deficiency by loan. Tho legislature 
Ii ill n I - ■ • borrow one million and five hundred thousand 
dollars to refund to tho holders of tho canal revenue cvr-,.- Lssucd under the provisions of chapter four bun- 
died and elgfaty-Dra of tho laws of the year one thousand 
eight hundred and lifty-one, tho amount recoil od into the 
ti, taury thereon. Bntno Interest toaccrueaftor Julylit, 

one thousand eight hundre 1 ! and Dfly-five, shall be jolil on 
such certificates. Tho provision* of section twelve of this 
article requiring every law for borrowing money to \*> sub- 
mit!. .il to Hi,, people, dhall not apply to the lonns aulhor- 
i'od by thLi Kctlou. No part of the revenues of the canal* 
or of tho funds borrowed under this section, shall bo paid 
or applied upon or In consequence of any alleged contract 
iiiol, r chapter four hundred and eighly-ilve or tho laws of 

the voar one thousand eight hundred and fiflv-one except 

shed - 
(red a 
persons and properly tnuuportcd on 

tho canals shall not be reduced below those for the year 

to pay for work doue or materials funds 

prior to the 
tii-t dai of June one thousand eight hundred and lifh -two. 
Tho rafes of toll on persons nnit properly trun-.i-ortcd on 

one :h nil , o-lit hundred and fifty-two, oxcont by tho 

canal board, with the concurrence of'lbe legislature." All 
contracts for work or materials on any canai, shall be made 
o iih th„ person who shall otfer to do or provide the same 
at the lowest price, with adequate security for their per- 

And whereaRj tho said proposed amendment was agreod 
to by a majority of the members elecled to the last two 
Hon;, , an, I entered ujion the journals with the av<» and 
noes taken thereon, and referred to the legislature to lie 
chow o ,,t ii a general election of Senator, then endu- 

And whereas, tho said proposed amendment has lioen 
duly published for ilm-e months previous to making aueh 
choice, in pursuance of the provisions of tho first section 
of tho thirteenth article of tho Constitution, 

Itnolrcd. (If the Assembly concur,) That tho Senate do 
agree to said proposed amendment. 

So this preliminary matter is disposed of. It 
now remains for tho Legislature to pass a law 
submitting this amendment to the people. This 
will probably be done immediately, and a spe- 
cial election called for that purpose. If the volo 
Ls favorable, which of course it will be, the pre- 
sent Legislature will buyable to pass a low for 
the execution of the work, and tho digging will 
commence early in the Spring. This is making 
quick work of it, aud it Ls just what might 
bo dono with other questions. Forty davs 
would be ample time to legislate for even the 
Empire State, if the servants of the peoplo 
would dnly be true to their trusts. 

The amendment to tho Constitution designed 
to prevent bribery at elections, which was pas- 
sed last session, has been re-passed with entire 
unanimity by the present Legislature, and will 
probably be submitted with tho Canal Amend- 
ment. The readers of the Rural will remem- 
ber that said amendment changes tho oath of 
office so that every candidate mustneear that he 
has paid nothing directly or indirectly to aid in 
his election. Should this proposition bo fully 
carried out, it would do much to purify tho gov- 

The Standing Committees have not yet been 
appointed. It is so difficult to keep the balanro 
of power nicely adjusted, that much time . 
consumed in tho preliminaries. The timo rn n y 
eome when committees shall be formed by so", 
lecting tho best men, instead of mere partisans. 
As the Lieut Gov. Ls opposed in politics to the 
Sonate, over which he presides, the Whig mn- 
orityj take the appointment of committees into 
thoirown hands. Speaker Pruyn, of tho Assem- 
bly, is hard at work arranging his programme, 
nnd the announcement is expected to-morrow 
morning. Ho has already appointed a select 
committee on tho Temperance question, as fol- 
lows : Messrs. Leigh, Harms, Mitchell, Hail, 
Qibbs, Dewey and Odell ; tho two latter being 
opposed to tho passago of tho Maine Low. It 
is supposed that the prohibitory law will be 
passed subject to the vote of tho people, perhaps 
at the next election. Tho Senate committee on 
tho Temperance question, consists of Messrs. 
II. M. Clarke, Crosby and Halsky. Most of 
the other business transacted during tho past 
week was of a local nature. The members took 
advantago of an adjournment on Saturday last 
to visit their homes, but were quite promptly on 
hand again this morning. 

It is a little instructive to sec how zealous the 
country members are on tho subject of useless 
expenditure. They protest stoutly against 
squandering the people's money, but a few gul- 
vanic pane* of the magician and astrologers of 
i liis corrupt capita],, generally render them pas- 
sive subjects for the remainder of their terms. — 
This should not be the ease. Tho people should 
send them plain and potent instructions on thnt 
point Why should men filling such important 
offices bo transformed into thieves and villains ? 

Some of the dissatisfied office-seekers say that 
Albany has tho lion's share of the offices, and 
so sho has ; but that is nothing new or strange. 
Keep still nnd look out for next time, is the ad- 
vice they will probably follow. 

Great complaints are mado against tho old 
State €>fficcrs. It Ls said that the Stato House 
was never so completely skinned as it was by 
I ho last administration. Tho marble walls and 
iron doors remain, and that is about olL This 
is made tho subject of general comment both in 
and out of the Legislature, and resolutions of 
inquiry have been passed to find out the num- 
ber of Documentary Histories distributed, tho 
number of acres of laud sold from tho school 
latids of the Stato to pets nnd favorites, die. I 
cannot say how far these charges may be true, 
but when one party gets so much outgeneralled 
in stealing from the public crib, as to tell of the 
other, something dreadful may bo reasonably 
Mispectcd. "Owe." 
» ■ ♦ ■ « 

Congressional Proceedings. 

In the House. — Mr. Hendricks, of la., pre- 
sented the proceedings and memorial of a large 
meeting held at Indianapolis relative to the ob- 
struction of travel and commerce by citizens of 
Erie. He said bo had not filed tho paper with 
tho Clerk of tho House, becauso of tho dLstiu- 
guished character of persons who took part in 
tho proceedings, and the importance of tho sub- 

Tho subject of tho memorial was discussed by 
various members and then referred to the Com- 
mittco on Military Affairs. 

Mr. Bennett, of N. Y., introduced a bill grant- 
ing land to the States to aid in the construction 
of railways, and for tho support of common 
schools. He moved that it bo referred to the 
committee on public lands. 

Mr. Cutting, of N. Y., offered resolutions call- 
ing for the correspondence between Mr. Guth- 
rie, Sec. of the Treasury, and Mr. Bronson, late 
Collector at New York. After being made the 
subject of n spirited debate, were laid on tho ta- 
ble, by a vote of 10-1 to 66. 

Mr. Washubrn, of Me., made a speech in favor 
of the annexation of the Sandwich Islands. Mr. 
Deax, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
reported a resolution of thanks aud a gold med- 
al to Capt. Ingroham. A communication was 
received from the Treasury Department, enclos- 
ing estimates for revenue cutters for the coast of 
South Carolina, Texas and California. Also 
asking an appropriation of §75,001) for tho erec- 
tion of Custom House buildings nt San Francisco. 
In the Senate. — Mr. Douglas, from Commit- 
tee on Territories, reported back tho bill pro- 
viding a territorial government for Nebraska, 
with u substitute for the same. The right of 
Mr. Foote, of Vt, to a 6oat in tho Senate, was 
discussed. He was appointed by the govrenor 
to fill a vacancy until the action of the legisla- 
ture thereon, but they foiled to elect during the 
recent session. Mr. Foote consequently holds 

Mr. ~ if 1 1. 1 i . -■ . from tho Committee on Mihtnry 
AITairS, reported back the House resolution giv- 
ing a sword and tho thanks of Congress to Gen. 
Wool. It was taken up nnd passed. 

Mr. Foote gave notice of bill for a Railroad 
to tho Pacific. 

Mr. Cass moved that tho messago of tho 
President relative to tho Clnyton and Bulwer 
treaty be made the order for Tuesday. Agreed 

Sir. Chase of Ohio, presented proceedings of 
tho public meetings at Cincinnati, relative to the 
interrupting of tho mails by the riotous proceed- 
ings at Erie. 

Mr. Badger introduced a bill allowing a cred- 
it on duties on R. R. iron. Referred to Finnnco 

Mr. Benjamin offered a resolution calling for 
correspondence with Mexico relative to the 
Tohnuntocpec right of way. Adopted and ad- 

Small Change.' 

Durino the past icason, the foreign demand 
for silver coin, and tho high premium thnt was 
paid for it to export, produced a great scarcity- 
of small coin. As a remedy for the difficulty in 
making change, individuals in this city and else- 
where, issued shin-plasters, irrcdcciiioble in coin, 
but redeemable in bank bills ; and based only 
on the personal responsibility of tho drawer. — 
The mint has now fully overcome the complaint 
among small dealers of a want of silver change. 
There is now lying at the mint in Philadelphia, 
subject to tho call of aU who may desiro it, over 
one million of dollars in silver coin! This coil) i- 
given out, not as formerly, only in exchange for 
bullion, but also in excliango for gold. 

Under this 6tatc of tho case, the shin-plaster 
currency ought to be driven from circulation 
forthwith ; nnd if it is not immediately called in, 
the legislature should pass against it a prohibi- 
tory law. It answers nt tho best, fl>r n local 
circulation only, and while allowed to pass, will 
in the very nature of tho case drive away small 
coin. A traveler will carry away the silver quar- 
ter, because it is current everywhere, and kuve 
the shin-plaster, because it is good nowhere ex- 
cept where it is issued, and too frequently not 

oven there. 

► 9 , I 

Another Great Fire in New York. 

TnE immense pile of buildings on Broadway, 
known as Metropolitan Hall, including thespleu- 
did Lafargc Hotel, was totally destroyed by 
fire on the 9th inst. Several adjoining buildings 
on Broadway and Mercer street, were also great- 
ly damaged. The hotel had a large frontage on 
Broadway, built in tho costliest style of marble, 
and extending back to Mercer street. Tho Me- 
tropolitan was formerly known as Triplcr HalL 

Tho fire commenced in tho HaB, at 1 o'clock, 
A. M., and in ubout two hours the whole edifice 
was in ruins. Tho loss must be very heavy, as 
next to the St Nicholas— Lhe Lafargc Hotel was 
the most costly iu the city. The Hotel was un- 
occupied, not being entirely finished. 

The weather was intensely cold, and the fire- 
men worked to much disadvantage. Nothing 
was left of the hotel and hall but the waUs, and 
they hove been entirely leveled by the firemen. 

Tho aggregate loss by tho fire at tho Lafargo 
House is estimated at §755,000. 

Great Fire at Portland. 

A kire broke out iu tho Custom House build- 
ing on Washington street, Portlaud, Me., Jan. 7, 
aud the ontiro edifice is in ruins. Besides the 
offices of the Customs, the building contained 
tho Post Office, Reading room, Atlantic Bonk, 
the IT. S. Court Rooms, tic. 

The contents of the custom offices, n splendid 
collection of the Natural History Society, Judge 
Ware's law library, reading rooms, court room.., 
and all the other offices, were entirely destroyed. 
Tho loss is very heavy, but will mostly fall on 

The cdifico was formerly a merchant's ex- 
change, but was some years since sold to the U. 
S. for §120,000. It will probably cost as much 
as $300,000 to rebuild ili 

The Cincinnati Riot. — The riot at Cincinnati, 
which was occasioned by the nttempt of a soci- 
ety of Germans to burn tho Pope's Nuncio, Be- 
dim, in effigy, in tho market place, and which 
resulted in tho death of one of the Germans, 
was an unfortunnte ullair. Sixty of their num- 
ber who were arrested by tho police, have all 
been discharged. They declare that no hostile 
demonstration was intended "on their part, the 
only object being to manifest their abhorrence 
nnd contempt of one, (Bf.dini) who assisted in 
strangling Liberty in Italy, nnd murdering her 
sons. They nppcal in n card to the public, and 
condemn tho police of the city for perpetrating 
upon them o high-handed outrage. They were 
marching through the street, they sny, molest- 
ing no one, when the police made a descent up- 
on their procession with deadly weapons, with- 
out rending tho riot act nor commanding them 
to disperse. 

Tho Cincinnati Enquirer states that a very 
large meeting of citizens was held I hero on the 
evening of tho 5th, to consider the Into disturb- 
ance in thnt city, growing out of the Bedini af- 
fair. Strong resolutions were passed by the 
meeting, declaring that tho attack by the police, 
on the Freemen was un unwarrantable assault ; 
that the. Mayor is censurable for absenting him- 
self nnd not directing the police to take milder 
measures beforo resorting to bloodshed ; that 
the Judge of tho Police Court is censurable for not 
using his influence to have the prisoners relieved 
from their suffering condition, while stifling in 
tho cells of the watch house, Ac 

One hundred and nine policemen have been 
arrested and hold to answer for an alleged 
assault upon tho Freeman's Society. 

Agents and other active friends of the Rural 
wiU plenso read Publishor'6 Notices, next page. 

Great Snow Storm. — Last week Friday, the 
New England coast was visited by one of the 
most severe snow storms lately experienced in 
thoso regions. Tho streets of Boston and other 
cities were rendered impassable, and tho Rail- 
roads in all directions completely blocked up. 
Trains on several of tho roads wero stopped on 
the way, and tho passengers compelled to re- 
main all night in the cars, almost buried in the 
drifts. One train with tivc'locomotivcs attached, 
could only proceed five miles out of the city. — 
Men who live a fow miles out aud do business 
in tho cities, were unable to get in, and stores 
remained closed, banks were left locked, aud 
street doors blockaded by tho riotous snow- 
drifts. Mnny shipwrecks and other disasters 
occurred on tho coast 

» ■ m i ■ 

The Soulb Duels. — Our foreign advices state 
that the American Minister at tbc Court of 
Spain, Mr. Soule, nnd his son, have both been 
engaged in fighting duels, in consequence of the 
difficulties which arose between Soule, Jr., and 
tho Spanish Duke of Alva, as heretofore related. 
Various nnd contradictory accounts of the com- 
bats are abroad, but none reliable. They agree, 
however, on tho main point, that not much dam- 
age was done to any. of the parties. If a little 
very bad blood had been let out all round, it 
would undoubtedly have cooled the fovcr in 
their veins. 

■ • ■ 

Ambiouity. — A- correspondent of tho Lotion 
Journal informs thnt paper, that Walter Man- 
ning, of Wilmington, Mass., recently cut nine 
cords of wood, from tho stump, into four foot 
lengths, between the hours of sunrise and sun- 
set of a short winter day. '• Bent that who can!" 
says the Journal man. Does ho menn, beat Wal- 
ter Manxing cutting wood, or beat the Journal's 
correspondeid in telling a story''. In either case 
there will probably bo no competition. 

« ■ ♦ ■ » 

Lahgb Steameb. — The steamship Persia, to In- 
built by Robert Napier, of Glasgow, for the Cu- 
nard Company, to ply between Liverpool and 
New York, will be about '15 feet wide in the 
beam, ami extend in length to 360 feet; and the 
uige wiB be 3060. Tho engines will be hun- 
dred inch cylinders with n ten feet sir,, I., . Al- 
though no part of this immense vessel has yet 
been Bet up. the frame work is in rapid progress, 
and it is believed that sho will be ready t 
months hence. 

J5y~ The Femalo College at Albion, Mich,, 
was burned Jnn. 4th, while the students were at 
breakfast The ladies and most of their prop- 
erty wero saved. Loss $15,000, no insurance. 

Sfhtos Uteijiik5. 

In Wisconsin, a homestead worth §1,000 

is exempted from execution. 

Apples arc selling in Washington at for- 
ty to seventy-five cents per peck. 

Firs! Assistant I'l^tniastcr-Gcneral Hob- 
bio is severely ill. 

Rev. Lewis Weld. Principal of tho Deaf 

and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, died at his res- 
idence in that city, on the 30th ult 

The ship England, at New Orleans, from 

Bremerhaven, lost 70 out of 500 emigrants by 

In ten counties of Pennsylvania there arc 

263 iron works, and over §11 [000,000 of fixed 
capital employed in tho manufacture. 

By order of tho Secretary of the Treasu- 
ry, tho new custom-house at St Louis is to be 
built of marble. 

The ladies of Rush county. Texas, have 

sent a petition praying the prohibition of intoxi- 
cating drinks. 

There ore indications thai the copyright 

question will receive considerable attention dur- 
ing the present Congress. 

Apples in Texas sell at prices ranging 

from four to six shillings pcrdozon. They come 
mostly from Arkansas. 

In the Tenucssce Legislature, Mr. Thomp- 
son has inlroduced n resolution nominating tho 
Hon. John Bell for the Presidency. 

A. proposition is beforo the Legislature of 

Tennessee, to add to the common school fund 
seventy-live thousand dollars annually. 

Iu ono day; a week or two since, more 

than four hundred thousand letters and | apcra 
passed through the New York Post Office. 

An enterprising man from the West, late- 
ly brought into Milwaukic four elks, which ho 
has trained for harness, and offers them for sale. 

Advices from Paris stato thnt another 

plot against the life of the Emperor had been 
discovered, and a large number of arrests made. 

It is stated in tho Philadelphia Ledger 

that General Foote is about to leave the State of 
Mississippi, to settle in New York! 

Accounts from Michigan represent that 

the liquor low is working admirably, in ihesup- 
I ri ssion of grog-shojs and tippling-houscs. 

Mr. Bates, of Bellingbam, Mass., ha. suc- 
ceeded in cultivating tho Cranberry on upland 

The Cars on the Buffalo, Coming and 

N ew York Railroad now ruu from Coming to 

The Tribune says it is settled that tho 

Crystal Palace in New York Ls to be a perma- 
nent institution. 

The Louisville and Nashvillo Railroad 

Con.] auy is cutting a tunnel 2,100 feet in length 
in solid limestone rock. 

; — —The Legislatures of California, Michigan, 
Mis.-iss.ippi ana Wisconsin met on Monday. — 
Those of Delaware and Pennsylvania, and New 
York met on Tuesday. 

During tho year just closed, there wero 

forty-three sailing vessels and thirty-seven 
steamers built nt the several ship yards of N ■ w 
Vork. of an aggregate of 56.6-M tons. 

Win. Hendry. Iried in Providence, last 

week, for kissing three ladies in the street, against 
their consent, was fined §5 and costs on each 
complaint, amounting to §7,99 per kiss. 

The Montreal Harbor Commissioners re- 

command that a new harbor, deep enough to ac- 
commodate sea-going vessels, aud of IB to 'JO 
acres superficies, be constructed. 

- — Washington grows steadily, though not 
rapidly. Having no irade or manufacture a of its 
own to build it up, it increases just in propor- 
tion to the increase of the Central Government. 

Tho now ocean steamer Nashville, will 

lake the place of tho Humbolt, and leave for 
Havre via. Southampton, on Saturday of this 

It is announced that rich gold placers have 

recently been discovered in the mountains skirt- 
ing tho Colorado river, and lying contiguous to 
Fort Yuma. 

The Legislature of Maine organized at 

Augusta on the dth inst by the election of Dem- 
ocratic Officers in the Senate, and Whig and 
Maine Law men in the Assembly. 

The Fremont claim to ten leagues of land 

in Mnriposn County. Cal., appealed from the 
Board oi Land Commissioners, is under argu- 
ment before the IT. S. District Court 

The number of Indians in tho U. S. is 

slated iu the Report of the Secretary of the In- 
terior, to be -100,000, of which 18,000" are cast of 
the Mississippi. 

A fino of §100 has been imposed bj tile 

U. S. Courtof Boston, upon a man who inscribed 
the word "patent" upon an article that was not 
patented. . 

The Rev. Dr. McLean, President of the 

Lnfaycttc College, has received a donation of 
§1UU,0U0 towards the endowment of that insti- 

Mr. Edwin Croswell, senior editor of the. 

Albany Argus, has been prostrated by uu attack 
of paralysis, and but faint hopes are entertained 
of his recovery. 

The editor of the Albany Journal, (Mr. 

Wenl) having traced his descent to the Grass 
family, tho Atlas christuus him "Old Pepper- 

The .lournnl of Commerce states thai the 

proceeds of the U. S. stocks received from Eu- 
ropo for redemption, have mostly been re-in- 
vested in firet-cluss RR. bonds. 

A proposition has been made to consoli- 
date all the railroads on the line from Pittsburgh 
to Chicago, through Ohio'nnd Indiann, a distance 
of 170 nides. 

The value of tho articles which have 

passed over the Erie canal tho present year. Ls 
estimated at §39,626,362— being $5,342,<I 13 more 
than the value of tho freights last year. 

_ The exports of specie from tho port .,( 

New York in 1853, were— §26,635 837 

1" 1853, 25,096,255 

In 1Q51, 43/M3,2«) 

Preparations are making for the raising 

of tho huU of the ship Great Republic Tho 
bows, tor some distance back, scarcely bear the 
murks of tire, us viewed from the exterior. 

Ninety-three suits were brought in on© 

Court in New York last week, against iiersons 
tor encumbering the sidewalks, and some oi 
them fined to the extent of the law. 

A company of five men shot 900 pigeons 

in ono evening at the great roost in Tishomingo 
county, Mississippi; aud John Roesand William 
Duncan shot and killed each other in a fight on 
tho occasion. 



do-nip Intel li (pre. 

Arrival of the Canada. 

Tin: Btcamahip Canada, from Liverpool, Dec. 
2-1 lb, arrived at Halifax, Jan. Ilk 

Slu' bad GO passengers fur Boston. 

The political and gciH ial news by the Canada 
has no feature <ii marked importance. 

Ii is assorted that the British, French and Tur- 
kish fli ela entered the Black Sea the 10th ult— 
sunpusi'd destination Scbastnpol. 

1 hreo vessels of each squadron were left to 
pnard Ciin.slaiilinople. 

The having frequently declared this en- 
try into the Black Sea, would be considered by 
dim, equivalent to a declaration of war; the with- 
drawn] nf the Russian Ministers (mm Pm-is ami 
London was lookod fur. 

Bi VOTal skirmishes on the Danube had token 

The Russians attacked Kalafal on the -llli of 
December, but were repulsed with great carn- 
age on both sides. 

On the lIUli, two Russian Kteainers with gun- 
lioaln, innile an abortive attack on Mali-bin. 

There is nothing really later from Asia. 

The general tenor of the advices indicate that 
the operations during November, were unfavor- 
able i.. the Turks. 

Ii is said t Imt Persia's declaration against 
Turkey was caused by a direr! promise from the 
Czjir to remit the debt and disputed territory to 

The Shah had placed 30,000 troops at the 
Czar's disposal. 

The relations between tho Austrian Minister 
and tho Divan were daily becoming colder, on 
various pretexts. 

Enolanp. — The vacancy in the Cabinet, caus- 
ed by the resignation of Lord Paliuerstou, re- 
mains open. 

Ii i- said that Lord Palinerston, was invited to 
resume office — the reason being (hat Lord Olar- 
enili'ii would resign if PaliucniUm was ejected 
frmii the Cabinet 

The people seem anxious that Lord Aberdeen 
should resign, and that Parliament should bo 

SrAiN. — Mr. Sonic, the United States Minister, 
bad fought a duel with the Marquis De Turgot, 
tho French Minister, owing to certain remarks 
of the latter, on Mrs. Soule's dress before re- 
feiu (I (o. 

Lord Howden acted as tho second of the 
Marquis l'e Turgot. 

A duel hail also been fought between young 
Smile and the Duke of Alba — growing out of 
the same affair. In neither case liad any harm 
been done. 

Incua airo CniXA. — The overland India mail 
Was telegraphed via Trieste, on the '23d ult. 

The accounts from Burnioli arc more satis- 

In Begu tranquillity is established, and (amine 
no longer prevails. 

The Peshawar force has been strengthened. 

The Chinese insurgents keep firm possession 
of Shanghai, but, bad been defeated by tho Im- 
perialists at Amoy. 

California l $trtos. 

Arrival of the Illinois. 

The steamer Illinois arrived at New York, 
January 5, with California dates to December 8. 

One million in gold on freight, and §200,000 
in the bands of the passengers. 

We notice in the California papers an account 
of llie murder of Reuj. S. Twilrliell, of Chenan- 
go county, N. V., by Samuel Gilmorc 

The British steamer Lima arrived at Panama 
from Valparaiso. Business there was very dull, 
and prices tending downward. Flour $1 12^ 
per cwt. 

Pacific dates from Melbourne are to the 17th 
of October. Trade dull. Flour quoted at 30 a 
33s per ton. 

The mines yield favorably. A nugget weigh- 
ing 130 pounds had been taken out at Sailor's 
in. Hey — 12G pounds larger than the monster 
nut | et 

It is reported that the steamship Empire City 
from -New Orleans via. Havana for this port, is 
ashore off Barnegat. 

Tho Panama Railroad was completed to Gor- 
gona, and the river boating is now done away 
with. For the present, passengers leave in the 
cars at Gorgona, and from thence have about 
^11 miles travel to Panama. 

The transit from ocean to ocean is now ac- 
complished in about 12 hours. Tho company 
have commenced operations in Panama with a 
force of 2,000 men, who are enjoying cxccBcnt 

A bill was before tho Council of San Francis- 
co, to prohibit gambling in the city. 

The U. S. Land Commissioner had decided a 
number of claims lately — in all <I9 cases, con- 
firming 2-1 containing 267,000 acres, and reject- 
ing 20 containing 291,000 acres. 

The Supreme Court, had decided flint the 
Stutc cannot force gamblers to pay a license for 

Among tho deaths in California, wo notice 
that of .lames C. Ireland, aged 16, son of John 
Ireland, of Rochester. 

■ ♦ ' i 

Arrival of the George Law and Star of 
the West 

The steamship George Law, from Aspinwall, 
and the Star of tho West from San Juan, ar- 
rived at New York, Jan. 9, tho latter with 450 
passengers and $1,300,000 in gold, tho former, 
250 passengers and $510,000 in gold. 

Numeiuoal Laws op the Sexes. — The lsst 
census develops some curious facts. It fixes the 
numerical laws of the sexes thus : 

1. There are more males than females born by 
about -I per cent 

2. At 20 years of age. this preponderance in 
entirely lost, and there arc inure females than 

3. At -10 years tho balanco is again tho other 
"■■■;.. and Uioro are more males than females. 

4. At 70 (he sexes are about even, and the ul- 
timate age of the human being is reached with- 
out any decided advantage to eitlier sex 

; «•«>.. 

Pbzsext toom Boston to California.— The 
First Orthodox Church in San Francisco has re- 
cently received from Mends in Boston, n large 
and very superior organ, which is now put in 
order in then- church, comer California and Du- 
pont streets. It was generously presented to 
tho society by Messrs. John Bertram of Salem, 
and Messrs. Twombly <fc Lamson, and Messrs. 
Glidden & Williams, of Boston. 

jgrf&t i^migrajiljs. 

tyTbe Woodstock (Vl.) Standard savs. a 

Kior follow has been lying in jail in that village 
r three bs and a half, us a witness on we 

part of tho government, in a case of theft. " Be- 
ing poor and a stranger, he was unable to pro- 
cure the required bail, and was accordingly 
ciimmitied (n jail, (o remain in close confinomenl 
three morlal long months and a half, simply for 
being a witness, destitute of friends and money!" 

|SJ" In Pittsburgh, on Weduesdav, of last 
week, Kirkland, the street preacher, field forth 
i" a numerous auditory, on Catholicism. Du- 
ring his remarks, several Irishmen assembled 
armed with bricks and boulders, and commenc- 
ed an assault on Kirkland, who retreated with- 
out receiving any injury. 

t37" A late arrival from Cuba brings intelli- 
gence that i In- new ( lover hit General bas a deter- 
mination to do ull in his power I" prevent the 
Iniiiling of slaves, and also to capluro slavers 
approaching the island ; but he says he can lake 
no action after slaves have been placed upon the 
estate of their owner. 

JSgr 1 The Attorney General has commenced, 
before the U. S. Supremo Court, tho great law 
case of Choteau against Blank, involving the 
litlo to tho city ol Dubuque and neighboring 
lands. The Court allows four days for the ar- 
gument. Tho United Sta(cs defends its title as 
original grantor of tho lands. 

J^" A California paper gives the following 
as i ne bill of fare at a Chinese reslaurant in that 
ci(y : — 

•' Cat Cutlet, 25 cents ; Griddled Rats. G cents ; 
Dog soup, 12 cents; Roast Dog, 18 cents; Dog 
Pie, G cents. 

J^y" Tho three sons of tho Rev. Mr. Lindsay, 
of Cornwall, Cauada, aged 15, 1-1 and 12, broke 
through (ho ice whilo crossing Ihe canal at that 
place a few days since. Tho eldest could have 
escaped ; but in trying to save his younger 
brothers ho went down with them. 

J3^~ The Marchioness Wcllesley died on the 
17th ult., at Hampton Court, after a short illness. 
She was a daughter of the lato Richard Caton, 
Esq., of Maryland, mid grand-daughter of the 
celebrated Charles Corrolltun, one of the signers 
of tho Declaration of Independence, 

I'W By a now law of Vermont, all baggage 
masters and station agents, on the Railroads of 
the Slate, ore required to give "checks" to the 
owners of baggage, when delivered to their keep- 
ing for transportation, under a penalty of §10 lor 
each neglect to do so. 

•^" Eighty millions of dollars are invested 
in tho sugar business in Florida, Louisiana ami 
Texas, the only States where sugar is made from 
cane. The production is over 300,000 hhds. an- 
nually. The importation of foreign sugar amounts 
to 350.000 hhds. 

J2T" Tho American clipper ship Staffordshire, 
bound from Liverpool to Boston, was wrecked 
on I, Ion, I Rock, Cape Sable, on the 3Ulh nit., 
and the captain, first, second and third mates, 
the boat, wain, 2:i seamen, and 1-1(3 passengers 

£39" The Buffalo Republic says— A citizen of 
Harbor Creek was in town lately, purchasing 
goods. Among other articles be purchased ten 
pair of double barreled pistols, which he staled 
were for sundry citizens of Harbor Creek. 

J§9" The Albany Journal stales that the lum- 
ber trade in that city during the past year, has 
amounted to no less than $3,000,000. Business 
has advauccd within the tame period. $1,000,- 

*5J~ Workmen aro now generally engaged in 
Westminster Abbey in taking a plaster cast of 
tho tomb of Mary, Queen of Scots, to be place. 1 
among tho statues at the new Crystal Palace at 

£39" The New York Herald has a rumor from 
Washington that n challenge lias been sent by 
Col. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, to Mr. 
Toombs, United States Senator from Georgia, 
and has been accepted. 

£39" The Boston Times, having tho largest 
circulation of any paper published in New En- 
gland, refuses to publish the Boston list of un- 
called-for letters at the present low rate, the 
price being only ono cent a name 

£39" Tho ship Sea Serpent, in which Bayard 
Taylor came back from China, experienced a 
violent shock of a submarine earthquake, when 
in tho Indian Ocean, about 200 miles west of 

fg- Miss Elizabeth Blackwcll. M. D., is to 
have charge of a dispensary and infirmary at 
New York, now going up in tho eleventh ward. 
Tho recipients of the charities of the new medi- 
cal dispensary will be women and children. 

£39" Tho Buffalo Republic says that a dele- 
gation of over fifty Indians from the Onondaga, 
Oneida and Tonawanda Reservations were iu 
Buffalo, on Wednesday, on their way to visit 
their brethren in Cattaraugus. 

►y The American says, good ice, clear and 
clean, Ls oblniucd from the river above (he dam, 
and ninny loads of it are being slowed nway for 
use next summer. Tho crop bids fair to bo 

Eg- The Pennsylvania Central Road was 
completed throughout the 5th of January, and 
the planes on the mountain avoided. The time 
from Pittsburgh lo Philadelphia will be but 12 

£59" Each of the four steamers of the Collins' 
line have crossed the Atlantic about forty times, 
conveying in tho aggregate, from fifty to sixty 
thousand persons, and not a life has been lost by 
neglect, carelessness or accident 

jg" Mr. George N. Sanders, U. S. Consul at 
London, writes to tho New York Herald, that 
upon an invitation from the Porle, Kossuth was 
immediately to leave London in a steamer for 

Eg" Three of the defendants in tho Mnrthn 
Washington conspiracy case have brought suits 
against the proprietors of the Cincinnati Gazette 
ami the Commercial for libel — tho damages laid 
in each case at $G0,000. 


In Carlton, on the I8U1 IniL, by tho Rct. J. McCrecry, 
Sir. K. S. Sllll-SON and mIm SIAHY A. THOMPSON, tld- 
est daughter of Cynis Thompson, Esq., all of Carlton. 

Lv Val.ii, Orlrana Co., .V. Y., Doc 23d, by Elder Stephen 
SaliUiurv, >Ir. CI1A8. WARD, of Yates, and" MIm HANNAH 
DYUALL, of Carlton. 

D.i tbo nam*, at th« aamo place, Jan. 2, 1844, Mr. BEN J. 
WEST, of Yatrt, and Utss MARA XI) A LEWIS, of Kldgo- 

Is Hornby, Dec 30th, by Rot. Jaa. Parker. Mr. JCTSON 
STANTON and alias MARY aIILLER, all of Uombj. 



A* unusually largo amount of gold has boon brought 
fonvmil by tho (ill California steamers, three of a-hlcll 

havo arrived during (he Interval, sine* the publleall il 

our but financial article. Tbo Illinois had on toard 81,- 
200,000, aii'i IhoGt orgc 1. 1. , and (ha Star oT Uio W«t had 
togethl r, a couple of millions more. After doducllng llio 
amount which haa movi •! Euro) i ■» Oil, lh« X. Y. Km nlug 
I'oil estimates that there ha» gone into general circulation 
I'.v lln- Into u-rivals, and by itlsbunwuieaU from Ihi 

.'., i rum mil lin llun $6,000,000. Tho bolanci 
remaining In (ho Sub-Trcaaurj il NY. Vork, in now re- 
duced (o but little over {2,000,000. 

The nmountof (J. S. Government tndcblcdnetn on Uio 
DM of December, was S4»,l 4a ,07".31. The canal debt of 
(lila Stale, according to tho Auditor'- report (mounts In 
thoaggregato to 817,001,205 10. Canal reo., • . 
M; KipcnKK, $1,098,470.02. Amount not apart by Article 
7 of the Constitution, to pay (hit Intern! and redd m the 
principal of llie State debt, and for the tup\ orl el Govern- 
ment, 81,M0,000.G0. The "Remain.], r or (be Revenue*" 
.if lie- Ii:.\il year, applicable lo the completion uf the i ..- 
uals, $220,069.60. 

Tho director! "f (he New York Central railroad aro 
about declaring n dividend out of Ihe earnings of tbo rood 
for tbo last nine months; but oro divided whether lo make 
it 4 or 8 per cent. The advocates of llie former rata think- 
ing that the extraordinary nxpcElcsortho road, r. ,r <- ijnip- 
monls, repair), and enlargement, kc -- "Well followed the 
consolidation ought lo curtail tho dividend to tho niiuiinum 
limit. When furly under why, the annual dividends ought 
lo be 8 or 10 per cent- and pcliaMy will I .-, to warrant Hie 
price at which (he Stock has been selling. 

Stocks have declined since last quotations. N. Y. Cen- 
tral lilt. Brio 78, Ulclilgin Central 03, Southern 118. The 
Xew York and New Itaven road have ajrain decided to pass 
llieir January dividend, not having yet sufficiently reenv- 
cr..| Hi. ni- lv, faun Hi,, .vtraonlinary expenses allendanl 
on Uio Xonvalk tragedy. It will bo hereafter as heretofore 
I paying mail, and the director!! do right in repressing 
dividend* until such time as (he; an be made out of the 
furplu* earnings. 

Ruiut Nkw-Yoiuckb Office, 1 
Rochester, Jon, nih, ISM. J 

FLOru, Wlieat nnd Ihe other grains, remain Iho same as 
List week, very little being done in Wheat, but prices aro 
stilT at quotations. 

I'ork Is u quarler of a dollar higher and tending upward. 
Quoted lo-dny at S5,60®5,7», l^inl Ls lower and sells at 
0c for tried, and 10c for leaf. Tallow lie. Eggs ore higher 
and Bell at 18^20c. Other things remain nearly unchang- 
ed iu prices. 

Rochester Wholesale Prices, 
Flour and Goaix, 

Flour, bbl S7,Mi*J7,"6 

IVhi it, bo 1,6301,70 

Corn 7" 1 76 

(lata Ji)s|J42c 

K ye uogoo 

Rurley i.:',«Wic 

lliirkwheal GO«Ju6 

Uiuos 76cO$l 

Pork, mess bbl $16,00 

Do. c.vt 6.60C6.76 

II. .1, mesa bbl . .10,00@10,60 

Do. cwt .4,000.6,00 

Mutton carcass, 3,60(14 

Hams, smoked lb U'nilOe 

Shoulder* os .7.. 

Chickens cg:7c 

Turkeys 7ig»c 

DAllir, Ac. 

Ruttar 16-@16c 

Cheese SQOc, tried ©0c 

Do. leaf 10c 

Tallow lie 

Eggs, dor. 18820c 

Caudles, box It', 

I m its a.\d Roots. 
Apple*, faush; . . .37."ii7i75c 

II... dried el,00 

Potatoes 07)it36Oc 

Hides a.vdSkisn. 

SLiugktor 4!ie6c 

Calf. 9c 

Sheen poll* Sls}l,02 

Lamb uo. . 76ei($;l 

Si i:h... 

Clover, bu $0,0007,00 

Kmothj 2,60t^i,oo 

••'tax 1,26 

Wood, hard 4,qo.$<i,60 

Do. sort 2,6063,00 

Coal, Lehigh, (on. ..0,60:^10 

Do. Scnui ton 0,25 

Rlouburg 0.00 

Do. Char 8«S10c 


SMt.bbl 81,02), 

II '>, Inu 9013 

Wool, lb ttSJSe 

While 0«h, bbl. .$8,6069,60 

CodOsh, W quintal 4,60 

Trout, bbl 8,00 


Floors-Fair demand for W extern and Stale, and prices 
..'.,- litter, with llllli- arriving. Dcellno In rrolghta in- 
ducej Bnnnea*. Better grades morw saleable for the BMI 
and linmo trade, at improv..] j»ri..e.. Canadian qui,. . n.i 
held wilh more firmness at $7,8207,O8;i. Sides West- 
ern caiiol al $7,6S}it87 1 76 common to straight Sun , mi - 
<■.! it. fancy luealgui and common to i:.."il Ohio, Some 
State, dcltri r.d tatter p;u-t or this monlh at $7,76. 

Corn meal linn. Inquirj fair; nles Joney $3,75. 

Grain — Wheat better — demand quite active for export. — 
-:il. !-, ,„i ivlnii. s.oiiheni J1.00; good Jcnu'y $1,79; 
good white Genesee $2. 

Rye firm. Large parcel* in demand for export. Sales 
river $1,16©1,10 at depot; 81,23, 

Oats plenty and dull al 49®63c. Stale and Weslcrn. 

Barley very firm witn little here Be . We, 

Corn scarce and market 2c. better for new; old not of- 
fered. Sales at SO^j£r,S2c new Southern white and yellow 
in store ; 62c old do, 83c Western In store ; (iv^Wc 
round vellow; 80o new ilamp Jenwyj closing firmer. 

Pravlilons— Our pork market heavy and rather lower 
for mess, but buoyant for prime. This Is very sear. • : 
at S13.25@13,37,S' for old mi ! SUJtlft new do; •I2,37j( 
6}12,60 old primt — 812,84013 new do; tattor nominal.— 
Included In the sales oro 1,000 bbls. new mess for March 
dolirorj nt «1J. 

Dressed hog»dull ot $CQ0,26. 

IatiI without cbnoge. 

Ilutter in fair demand and plenty, al 10QI3c Ohio ; 16(3 
19c Stale. 

Chceso saleablo at 9@ll'»c 


Flour rcmaius steady, with a moderate homo and East- 
ern demand, but mainly for the better pnuli'S ol State 
The market for all kinds of Grain Is decidedly better, but 
tLi. tr.utsacUons are confined to street lots." Sale* Rye 
1" I j 104. Oats 47Q49. Corn. TSfll I i..r uiw, and 82 for 
old with but UtUe of llie kilter ottering. Uartey, 80@S7, 
ns fu quality. 

Dreand Hogs aro slcaily, but not active. Salestoamod- 
. rate extent havo been made at Gigfl,44, but mainly at 
0,26g0,.'t7. Some holders are asklng0,50, which. lias' not 
yet bceu realized. 

Buckwheat Hour has further Improved In value. Sale* 


At Washington Drove Yard— Offered Ibis day 1,710 Beef 
Cattle; offered during the week 1,721. Prices 7 to OJic pVr 
lb., wilh M.iu.' ,'xtr.i at a higher figur,'. 

At Browning'*— (Lower Bull's Iliad)— 171 beef rattle, at 
I.oin 7 !'',.-. 

70 Cows and Calves al from $30 to $65. 

Shi -|. and Lamt« — 2,141 al market — sales at from $2 to 
$8 t.,r Sheep; Lambs al $J|$5. 

> • i liai . I. Jn's— (Hudson River Bull's Head.)— Al 
market 300 beef calUe, 30 cows and calves, and 2,800 sheep 
and lambs. 

Prices— Beef cattle ranged from 7JJ10o 

Cows and Calvos— $25, 40@S5. Calves, 5@7c V lb. 

Sheep. $2,76, 4«>,7. taimK $2,50@3,&0 ; ull sold. 

At O'Brien's— (No. 9 Slslli slrvvl)— <lu s;d,- ion i 
tie, and 30 Cows. Sold al $009; as in quality; and the 
taller at from $30046. 


At W. Woolford's Dull's Head, Washington street.— Beef 
Cattle — 700 at market. Prices are as follows :— Extra 97,- 
50 ; first quality $7 ; 2d do, 0,60 ; 3d do «A,6Oa0. 

Cows and Calves— 12 in market. Prices at from $25, 30 

Sheen and Lambs— 1,240 in market. Prices at from 82,- 
50, .'..'.'.. 

Swine— 0M in market. Prices at from 8600,67. 

Cattle and Sheep are felling very readily at the above 
prices, but five left over unsold. 


At market 775 Cattle — all Beerre, no Stores— con sis tin «■ 
of Working Oxen, Cows and Cdves, ycarllugs, two and 
three years old. 

Prices— Market Beef. — Extra 87,2507,60; first quality 
$7; do, 8o,250n,oO; 3d do, $0; ordinary $6466.60. 

Hides— $0,60 V cwt. Tallow, $8,5009. 

Pelts 8101,37. Calf skins l'Je f lb. 

Veal Calves— $6, 708. 

Barreling Cattle— $6,2500. 

Stores— Working Oxeu— $02, 112, 124, 1SH01OO. 

Cows and Calve*— $24, 26, 30, 41, 45, 62008. 

Yearlings — None. 

Two years old— 822, 24041. 

Three years old— $32, lo, W0O1. 

Sheep nnd Lambs— 2,335 al market, nerd of 600 ordin- 
ary lift over tail wrek. Extra $6!(, 6k, 0, 7, 8«9. By 
lot— 82V, ... i UK. 

Swine — 32U nret, fat hogs lo A. lHcrce, Esq., at 6c, and 
4Ji T lb. wholesale. 


At market TOO Beef CalUe, 126 Stores, 2,660 Sheep, and 
690 Swim . 

Prices— Reef Cattle; extra caltlo arc scarce. Extra 87,- 
600$; Hist quality $0,7607,24; 2d do, 8000,60; 3d do. 
84 2605 25. 

IVorl log "Mil- Sal.-s al 800, 75, 88,02,1100116. 

1 and Cnlvi — vi| ( ,„ llt s^ , 25, 27, 38012. 

Sheep— Son r which en Ii n ..vertasl week, 81,750 

- i I Itffl no .lni.-., 2,78, 3.26, 6,6000.26. 

-S n 1 ol lots at 4c; Klccted InjTtiws at £}£0Oc; 
11 lot -i'j. , nttail 6 ■.'•';■■ 


Beef I llOe— Tl if. rin t- (ho poal week rliowaa nui. 

falling off, amounting lo over 1,200 bead of Beef CalUe, ol 
wbi.-li 1111ml.1T, .ii ...ii 000 wero driven to Sow York. Price? 
r.mi.-.' from $7,60 lo 88 per 100 lbs., bul ns usual daring 
the lii.liiLiy*, the d. tnand lias bei-n limited, and a number 
si . 1. 11 aver unsold, 

Com range ,,; 'ft" ^'2 (0 SCO each. 

[Jo 1 are arriving freely; about 1,600 sold at 80,26.,w,8S, 
whbh l» n sliglit iuiproMiueuL Prices of killed ! 
also looking up. 

Sheep and taints come In slowly, and command $3 to 6,. 
60 ooch, ocOOrdlDg t., quality. 

InMisfjer'B |loticcs. 


03"* To CAVAnis-rs.— As wo nre obllgod lo pre-pay Ihe 
American postage on paper* rent lo Oie British Provinces, 
our . ■ 11 -.:. ... agents and friends muni add 26 cents per copy 
to tho club rales of the Rural,— making tho lowest |,rice 
to Canadian subscribere $1,60 per year. 

lijr AoevTS.— Any person so disposed can act as agent 
for the IU111AL Nkw-Y.hikkii,— and nU who remit accord- 
ing lo lormi will be enlillcl to premiums, ie. 

OTTuoke who oro forming dubs, (20 io 100 copies,) 
can send on Ihe uames and money of such persons as do 
not « i-li to ivult, ,111,1 complete their lists afterwards. 

fijr"Tire rioRAL Is published strictly upon Iho capo 
■Ytmof— seat no longer tlian paid for — and aU orders 
should bo In accordance wilh terms. 

OT for. total club prico Is 81,26 for any numlier of 
...1 1. - over 20 — and 81,60 under that number, unless s 
full club of twenty Ls obtain, d. 

tLi^*I* making up dubs for Iho Ri'Kal, the Woo 
Grower and Slock RegLslor can be added al 35 eta. a copr, 
which is tho lowest club price. 

Bgr I.v remitting for clubs, please send Bank Bills, or 
Drafts on Now York (deducting tho cxcltange,) Instead of 
Checks or Certiorate* of Deposit on local bunks. 

OTIS writing us, please bo particular to give yuurP. 
O. address correclly — the name of your Post Offlco (nol 
Town,) Connty, and Stale. Writo all names plainly. 

Hjr Those wishlog tlieir papers changed from one ad- 
.li. i...iiintliir,.liouM give Uio namesof both PostOfllcos 
— the farmer address, as well as the ono desired, 

TUT *'r. C. MoonE, is duly aulhoriied to act as Agent 
forlhcRrRAL NtTV-YoaKKii In iho counties ofChnotaa- 
quo and Cattaraugus, N. Y, and Worron, Pa. 

IC^* Pctwins who have forwarded $16 for a dub of tan, 
can extend Ihe number lo rw>_vry for $10, bul all Uio 
subscribers must begin at ono dale. 

f£jT It i» not necessary that all members of a dub re- 
ceive their papers al ono post onlco. Wo send to as many 
offices as necessary to accommodate tho subscribers. 

SjT The postage on Uio Rural Is bat 3>4 centa per 
quarter, payablo in advance, to any part of Uio Stall? — and 
OS cents lo any part of tho United Slates,— except klonroc 
County, where it goes free. 

titp" Persons untitled to cash premiums, will please 
retain tho same in rcmitUng for dubs— thus maklug sure 
of ihe premium, saving as Iho troubla of re-malling. 

h**/"" AnniTioxa lo dubs may he made al any Ume, at 
tho prico per copy paid for the original dub. 

Cy Extra numbers of Uie Kit ai. will bo forwarded to 
all disposed to aid In augmenliug its dreutaUon. 

ujr* All business letters, communications, &c, should 
be addressed to D.*D. T. Moore, Rochester, N. Y. 

THE RU RAL F OR 1854. 
Rare Inducements to Agents and Others. 

As hereloforo juioounccil, the Fifth Volume of tbo 
Roilal Xnw-YonRKn, for 1*&4, will bo materially Improved, 
the Proprietor having determined that It nhall in nil rc- 
ftpcctiie.xcel either of its predec*TSsorB,and allcontenipurarj- 
Jounials. Ho ,01*0 ofTi-ra greater Induccmonta tiuui ever 
iN'foro to each and all dUpoaed to act an ag-enta or form 
cluU. The attention of all lu.cmttcd U refpcctfully Invl- 
tod to the folloirlng list of very liberal 


1. SF.VKNTY.KIYE HOLLARS, in Cash, to tho person 
sending us the greatest uiiiiiber of yearly sulacriU . - (-ix 
monUi suliscriplions to bo counted proportionally ) l.. UlO 
RURAL New-Yohki.i^— r,-niiUlnff payment according to our 
dub terms— previous to the 16lh of April, IBM. 

2. KI KTY DOLLARS. LV Cash, lo tho person sending us 
Uie second largest number, as above. 

3. THIRTY DOLLARS, i.v Csan, to tho person sending 
us Iho next (third) greatest number. 

t. TWENTY DOLLARS, a Caun, to the person sending 
us Uio nesl (fourth) greatest number. 

8. FIFTEEN HOLLARS, in Plate on Rooks, to Ihe 
person sending the m-vl (fifth) greatest number. 

0. TWELVE DOLLARS, Is l'i IM .": Rooxs, to the 
person sending the neat (siilh) greatest number, 

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A K.1RU, conliiininj; 1-15 acrc-n, t\\ niili.-* from tbc CooH 
Houiv, on tho Chili road. Tlirn* la on the pn<mU<« a frame 
dwelling houw, two barrua, and otlior aetx-n^uy outbuild- 
inffft, acailx DOW— fruit ln^ -if nil kind*, and thn.- in \. r 
falling ni lb*, ono of which diKbarpc* In a trough in tho 
harn-yiud. For particulars, intjuin ioi UlO suUcrlbvr, uu 
tho promlJW. ( JlO-Jl] A. MrsrATlT, Chili, N*. Y. 


Co.ytaw.vo 200 ncre* of Rood bind, «tuot<Hl in tho town 
of 1' .niii/l"!!, tvilhin «x iuilu> of iVnn Ynn, and on tho 
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in a Rood i-Lit.' of cultlVDtlou, ««.'ll watered, admirably 
.i'li|i1t-.l (n i^razinii or prAln crowing; about ISO icrM of 
cleared Ijdu\ and ittofh^ivy timber. The houM wmoitly 
DOW, J KOOd u.roA gxjod «hc*Li and out-building"^ allmfu- 
t'ii:ntly largo for tho farm. A laxvv orchard of fruit trees 
bearing a great variety of choice fruit. It U conveniently 
^Iluatt-d lo bo divided Into two funw, each • -mi-niflngnn 
nverago proportion of cleared and Umbend land. TOnBI 
eiwy. Po*st*ion given at any time to -'iii tin- |iureha*cr. 
Tho pricv U 550 per acre. For further narUCTilarii, inquiro 
of the fluh*cribcr on tho premise*. 

rj09-3t-j DELIA HATHAWAY. 

barrin R ton, Ynt« Co., N. Y., DOC. 21. 1853. 


Noa. 11 k 1.1 West Suckca STrtEKT, Bcffalo. — Hiram 
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Fruit ami Onuuncntai Frees, ShlUbl and Flower*; Oriental 
roultry, t&c. AL«n, AgcnU for Uie Dorton Hilling Com- 
pany's Vulcanixed India rubber Rood.-, Belting, Hose Pack- 
ing, fcc. fe. 

Ordoni •olicited, all of which rtall receive prompt atten- 
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represented. IIIKAM C. WHITE k CO. 

HllUM C. WitlTK. [195lf.] AMA8A MaBOX. 

For Ship ftailder>\ Bool Btrildcr^ J.uwber Merdianl$, 
Farmer* and Mechanic*. Being a cotToct mouureoHuit -<i 
i i'i>-.i I ! uik. Cubical Contents of iypuare and 

Round Timber, Saw log*, Wood, etc., compri*c*l In a num- 
>« r of Tables: (0 which an- added Ttthles -i Wd*m b» tho 
Dionth, Ilti>nl or Rent, by Ihe Week <»r Buy, and Bailroad 
Uurtanoos. Also Int. n -i" rabies, ul seven per eenL 

By J. M. Scribnor, 

Author of "Engineer'* and Mechanic"* Companion,'* En- 

gCocer'a l'oekvt Table Book, etc^ etc. 

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in revising and enlarging this edition, to moko it in every 
reancct convenient and accurate. 

Tho I^ig Table was computed bv drawing diagrams for 
each and every log. from VI to 4-1 Inches in dutineler, and 
the width of each board Liken, after Likina; off thd warn- 
edge. The sum total of each board constitute* the amount 
each log will give, and if there can bo any dependence 
placed upon such strictly mathematical accuracy, no one 
w'll hesitate for a moment to abide the results here given, 
as Uie method adopted by the author can result in nothing 
el<* tlian strict honesty and mathematical accuracy, to Lhu 
parties interested. 

The best evidence nf tho ojefulne**- and popularity of 
this book is tho rnUd and extensive sale of nearly one 
hnndred thousand, since it* publication. We do not hesi- 
tate to say that no book of its aiie and price contains mors 
useful or correct tables. 

In all new and lurmVr countries the book will be fonnd 
very convenient aj it comprises much that is useful for the 
farmer, mechanic, and business man. 

Or-'.'n- p-'ilicltc'l, aiid a liberal discount made to wholrsoJo 

I*riee, 25 cts. at retail, S copies for one dollar, sent post, 
age paid, on receipt of the ninount. 

Addrwa OHO. W. FISHER, Pohllsher. 

Rochester, S. Y., 1854. 1 3UU-lteow] 

I BAtl for uio, by the pair, young Cochiu China fowl*. 
warranted genuine, and desirable for UieirKymr.etry, great 
siw and beauty of plumage. They ore of the Ul.-st, largeet 
and U-st imporUlions in tbo United States. The geunime 
Cochin Chinas havo no superior*. Circulars, with a Urge 
illn .h..! i. , . ,.. r.'Mn,-. tent to applicants- Lyons bebu >"» 
Uie N'ew York Central Itoilroad, fowls can be forwarded ly 
Express, daily, to ail pork* of tho country. Address, |-ost 
paid, RODN'KY L. ADAalS, Lyons, K. Y. 


|p tt x t a I ♦ 

.»•>.,-,•'./-. .'•.'■ 

[Prom Pnlnam'a Monthly Mngaiino.) 


All houses, whereto men haVa liv« .1 and 'Hod, 
Ant haunted Iioo>vk. Through Iht open doom 

The lurmlcH phantoms on their i rrandi g|Idi , 
With feet tluit make no U "I "J "" ""-' loon. 

Wo meet tli.™ nl I lie doorway, °" 'he stair, 
Along tho passages they como find go. 

Impalpable linpn nion on the air, 
A eonso of something moving lo and fro. 

There aro more guests at tabic, than tlio lioata 
Invito'!; — tlie illumiti it.-il li .11 

U thronged 1 irlUi unlet, InoOoniiTC ghost*. 
As silent as ti:- pictures on the Hull. 

The stranger at my fireside cannot m 
Tho forma I see, nor hear the Bounds I hear; 

He but pem-lvc-a what If; while unto mo 
All that has been In visible uud clear. 

We have no Utie-doous to house or lands; 

Owners and occupants of earlier dates 
From groves forgotten Stretch their dusty hands, 

And hold In mortmain still their old estates. 

Tho spirit-world around this world of sonso 
Floats like on atmosphere, and everywhere 

Wafts through these earthly mints and vapors dense 
A vital breath of moro ethereal air. 

Our little lives ore kept in cquipolso 

By opposite attractions and desires; 
Tho slrugglo of the Instinct that enjoys, 

And the moro noblo instinct that aspires. 

Tho perturbation", the perpetual Jar 
Of earthly wants and aspirations high. 

Come from the inllueuco of that unseen star, 
That undiscovered planet in our sky. 

And as tho moon from some dark gate of cloud, 
Throws o'er tho sea a Mooting bridgo of light, 

Across whose trembling planks our fancies crowd, 
Into tho realm of mystery and night; 

So from tho world of spirits there descends 
A bridgo of light, connecting It with this 

O'er who.-.- un.'iUrvU door, that sways and bends, 
Wonder our thoughts abovo tho dark abyss. 

'Written for Mooro's Rural New-Yorker.) 




"Witkn yrjung Asui.ey left his mother's 
dwelling, iu the maimer previously related, he 
hurried on, hour ufter hour, without pausing to 
take breath, in the direction of the company's 
previous march ; nor did he once ubato the 
rapidity of his movements until almost the 
dawn of day. At length, exhausted by the 
intensity of his passions, and the over exertion 
of his physical powers, he sat down by the 
waysido to rest und to collect his scattered 
thoughts. The cool night air, as it funned his 
burning temples, quieted the fiery tide that was 
rushing through his veins, und his anger, rarely 
excited in one of his nntiindly quiet and peace- 
ful temper, gradually subsided somewhat to its 
uormal tone. He reflected upon the exciting 
scene that had lately passed between him and 
the girl of his heart, and the conviction, which 
came stealing over him in spite of himself, that 
after nil he was really dear to her, crcutcd such 
soothing and pleasurable emotions that a half 
regretful feeling arose in his mind for having 
given such loose reins to his passions, and 
treated her so rudely; but then he felt that the 
provocation was beyond mortal endurance, and 
ho justified himself in the course which he had 
taken. Still, the expression, " Daniel — dear 
DaniklP rung iu his cars like a chime of silver 
bells, and before ho was aware of it, tho image 
of her ho loved stole back again to the secret 
nil le from which it had been so redely torn, 
and was again enshrined in the rcceaBCa of his 
inmost heart. " She shall never again reproach 
mo with cowardice, at all events," he said with 
energy. " I have sworn to it, and I will redeem 
.the oath. May God watch over and protect 
my poor mother and Jenny," he added af- 
ter a pause; ° and if I full, may she feel that I 
have not altogether merited her contempt." 

So saying, he resumed his journey more 
calmly, and arrived by early morning ut n small 
village on the wayside. It was nearly deserted 
of its male inhabitants, for they had gone for- 
ward to join the army of Gen. Starke, which 
was nt this time concentrating near Bennington. 
A few superannuated old men, and a few boys 
wore left behind, some of whom, early as it 
was, were already astir. The pedestrian stop- 
ped at a small house in which there lived an 
aged man whom ho hud known for many years, 
for he had been an old acquaintance and fellow 
soldier of the grandfather; bul he had, in con- 
sequence of a wound received in some early 
skirmish with tho Indians, been reudercd n 
cripple for life. The veteran greeted tho youth 
joyfully, but with some surprise, for his grand- 
father had called the day before on his way 
through the town, and had hastily related the 
circumstances of tho substitution. Daniel 
told tho old man tho whole story, not even 
reserving tho scene of the previous evening ; 
but he resisted all persuasions to turn back. — 
It would not answer to do bo now, even if he 
desired it, which he did not. Such an act 
would be, an endorsement of his own infamy, 
and what before could only be charged upon 

him by implication, would thenceforth bornani- 
i, I and undeniable. ETo would like, however, 
he said, if possible, to remain undiscovered by 
his comrades, at least for a time. 

The old man therefore culled into requisition 
some half forgotten means of disguise, tit \\ liich 
be had been skilled in his early days. He gave 
the young man's unusually light complexion a 
dark, halt Indian tinge, by means ol a decoc- 
tion of bark which he hastily prepared, ami 
then, with another preparation as efficient an 
the mosl potent of our modem whisker and 
moustache elixirs, l!i- thick brown huirand eyci 
brows became as black asnight Then dn - 
iug him ti|i in a hunting Bhirl and moccasins, 
and giving him some instructions as to his 
manner and carriage, the young man was trans- 
formed into as good fi specimen of a half-breed, 
as ever traced one branch of his ancestry to an 
Indian king. Having then accouterod himself 
with an old shattered lire-hick to be used until 
he could Bud a belter, and a few rounds of ball 
cartridge, he set forward with the good wishes 
and prudent cautions of his aged and gcuorous 

He approached the field of Bennington, on 
which two successive and desperate engage- 
ments were about to be fought, just after I la- 
army had been drawn Up in battle array, and 
was awaiting the order of Gen. Stark, to storm 
the entrenchments, which the Hessians under 
Bauu, had hastily constructed for a partial de- 
fence, when they found themselves threatened 
with an attack from the American forces. As 
he nenred the ranks, a young Aid-de-rump of 
the commanding General came galloping across 
tho field towards him, and demanded of him 
why he loitered behind the column. "I lane 
just arrived," he answered; "mid urn hastening to 
join my company, the t'lnremont Volunteers." 

"You are just in time," replied the other, 
"for a battle ! Yonder stands the Gluivmoiit 
squad," (for they were too few to be called a 
company,) " in the frout rank, and the post of 
Sanger. See to it that you do not deem your 
black skin so precious as to make you leave 
the rank as much too early, as you are too late 
to join it!'' 

Young Ashley's eye flashed fire, and he 
looked as if half tempted to knock the pert 
aid-tie-camp out of his saddle, with the butt 
end of his gun. The same old implication ol 
cowardice seemed to be again east in his teeth, 
which he clenched convulsively, mid, without 
uttering another word, hastened to take post in 
the rantcs, where, with his comrades, he awaited 
breathlessly the order to move forward. 

During the awful pause which immediately 
precedes the conflict, at which momeut the lust 
involuntary prayer is mentally repeated — tin- 
last regrotlui thought of home and kindred is 
for a time banished from the mind — the bust 
wavering doubt and uncertainty are hastily dis- 
missed — and the last fearful looking forward 
to death aud destruction, is indulged in ami 
then excluded from the mind, — let us return 
again to the old homestead, and ascertain whut 
in the meantime has been going forward there. 
The wretched girl, half Stupefied with terror and 
self-reproach, was sitting by the fire rocking 
herself to and fro, aud wringing her hands, 
wheu the mother returned home. Surprised at 
the young girl's appearance of distress and her 
son's absence, she hastily demanded what had 
happened; and when she learned it, as nearly 
as she could from the htdf incoherent recital, 
she was herself completely overcome. 

" Oh I how could you be so unjust and cruel 
to the noble-hearted boy!" she cried. " li wj, 
the bravest deed of all for him to turn back, 
mid it was only at the most sacred call of duty. 
Driven on now by your unjust imputations up- 
on his honor, he will rush into the buttle reck- 
less of life, aud if he fall — Alas! Alas! his 
blood will be upon your head!" 

"Oh spare me! Sparc me!" cried the unhap- 
py girl, or I shall the! He must not — he shall 
not risk his life iu buttle; I will seek him out 
und bring him back, eveu from the cannon's 
mouth 1" 

She rose to go in tho height of her despera- 
tion, but the mother restrained her, saying — 

"That cannot be. Tliink of the conse- 
quences to yourself, a young, defenceless girl, 
if you should fall into the hands of tho merci- 
less savages or of the infuriated, mercenary 
forces. Besides, it is too late now; for before 
the swiftest courier could reach the army, the 
buttle will be over. Let us pray to Heaven to 
spare the dear boy's life, ami if it vouchsafe 
to hear our prayers, then all the past shall be 

"And you forgive me, then?* 1 exclaimed Jen- 
ny, sinking upon her knees and clasping her 

"1 do! I do," replied the mother, "for my 
dear boy's sake, who loves you with his whole 

"Oh! how I have wronged him; but I will 
wrong him no more! Good night; I cannot 
stay here longer, for the very walls become re- 
proachful at my presence," added the girl, as 
she hastened from the house — that house, in 
which age with its ripened joys, aud youth with 
its brightest promises, had so lately dwelt to- 
gether, making it a home of quiet and domestic 
peace, but now so lonely and desolate of both. 

The next morning, at an early hour, Jenny 
Hart, with a firm step, but with a check as 
nale as death, came into tho widow's house, 
having a sickle hanging upon her arm. " W here 
aro the little boys?' she inquired. 

" In the wheat field, reaping," was tho reply. 

"I have come to help them," and without 
another word uttered, she turned away toward 
the field. For three days thereafter they la- 
bored assiduously at the harvest; the wheat was 
all cut and secured, and they were intending 
the next morning to commence upon the outs, 
when, just at sunset, n courier was seen spurring 
up the road towards the village, the horse cov- 
ered with foam and dust, mid the rider waving 
above his head a small hand flag. 

"Victory! ViotobyF ho shouted; "we have 
broken the right arm of the invader, and driven 
him away from the Green Hills! Tho whole 
army of Bukuotnk is surroimded and cunnot 
escape 1" 

The news flew like lightning through tho set- 
tlement, mid women and children, as well u.s t la- 
few men left at home, hasteucd with anxious 
faces mid palpitating hearts to learn tho details 

of tho engagement. The despatch was a brief 
one from the commanding General himself, 
hastily prepared, and sent off immediately after 
ill • ofo of the battle. There was no time to 
prepare duplicates, bo the courier was instructed 
to read in each town the brief details of the 

■ in, and so much of the list ol killed 

and wounded as belonged i-i them, and then to 

speed on to the m-Nl town. The <• la em- 
bled in front of tho village inn, as the hoi- ■ man 
alightod, und after having given hasty directions 
for nil. bments to uimsoll and Bleed, he mount- 
ed the horseblock and read to them tho des- 
patch. It stated briefly, what all of us now 
well know, how the New England militiu de- 
feated the detachments of IJaidii mid liiu:v- 
uak in two suecessivo pitched buttles on the 
same Geld, and ruined thereby, the bright hopes 
and brilliant prospects of Burgoynks grand 
army. The courier, after he had stated this, 
tinned to the list of killed and wounded, and 
read among the former, with a solemn mid 
distinct voice, the names of Captain Ashley 
and two of his men. 

A wail arose upon the air from the unhappy 
mother, as the name struck upon her ear like 
the knell of death; but her voice was drowned 
by a quick, sharp cry of agony that arose by 
her side so shrill and piercing its to startle the 
whole throng; and Jane Hart fell to the earth 
like a fragile flower, broken from its parent 
stem by the blast of a tempest Ho long and 
■,0 denth-liko was the swoon which followed, 
that for a time it was doubtful if the fide of 
life would ever again flow back, and n few who 
were cognizant of the facts half hoped in mercy 
it would not; but she revived at last She did 
not give way to lamentations, but arose with 
tearless eyes, and returned to the home of the 
stricken widow, with whom for a few days past 
she had taken up her ubode. Asif nerved with 
unnatural energy, she set herself about making 
preparations for the funeral of the fallen heros, 
for the courier announced that in consideration 
of (he bravery of the volunteers, and at the 
earnest solicitation of their comrades, the com- 
manding ( Icncral had given to them a baggage 
wagon and horses captured from the enemy, 
and hud detailed a portion of the company to 
bear home the bodies of their dead companions 
for interment in their native village. The 
funeral cortege, the courier said, would arrive 
on the evening of the next day. 

Few and humble were the preparations to 
be made in that quiet and primitive communi- 
ty, but sorrow for the dead and sympathy for 
the living were none the less intense. The 
whole people felt on individual bereavement 
whenever any one of their little number was 
removed, and doubly so in a case and in a cause 
like this; all felt that they hud lost a protect- 
ing arm in each stalwart limb that had been 
paralyzed by Death. When the slow funeral 
escort was seen on the followiug afternoon 
winding afar off through the Connecticut Val- 
ley, the whole village went out in procession to 
mi 1 1 it; men, women und children, forgetful of 
victory, mid filled with feelings of grief mid 
sorrow for the slain. Tho bereaved mother, 
and the stricken maiden, walked arm in arm 
with bowed heads mid desolate hearts; and as 
(hey met the humble funeral car, decked in 
rustic simplicity with brunches of the Fir tree 
an* the Weeping Willow, and preceded by a 
short double tile of the Volunteers on foot and 
with trailing arms, the whole procession parted 
on each side of the way and knelt down. N i - 
salutations or signs of recognition passed be- 
tween the returning soldiers and their friends, 
but as the wagon approached the spot where 
the chief mourners were kneeling, it came to a 
halt, at which time the clergyman offered up a 
brief, but most fervent and affecting prayer. — 
The widow, who up to this moment had re- 
pressed her grief, or ut least indulged it in only 
.stilled nnd half audible sobs, unable to restrain 
herself longer, cried out, "Oh! let me see him 
— let me see him! Let me look upon his dear 
face once more!" and the maiden nt her side 
gns'c such a beseeching look of mute agony to 
those having tho corpses in charge, that unable 
td resist the touching appeal, they proceeded 
at once to uueover the hearse. The whole 

C recession gathered around us closely as possi- 
Ic, to catch a glimpse of the fallen heros, 
when, as the covering was removed, there np- 

peurcd lying beside the two privates not 

tho lifeless body of young Captain Asuley, 
but the pulseless form of the venerable old 

"Where is my boy? Oh! where is my dear 
boy?" cried the mother, "let me see him!" 
"Here, motllcr! here!" he exclaimed, step- 

Iing out of the rank; "did you not know that 
was here?" 

"Not dead! not dead! Oh God be thanked!" 
she cried, as she fell senseless into the young 
man's arms. 

"No, mother — no! there has been a mistake; 
it was poor grandfather instead of me who was 
slain. He fell fighting by my side, and breath- 
ed out his lust sigh in my arms." 

But there was another, although up to this 
time a sileut actress in these pathetic scenes — 
J enny Hart, nt the first moment of recogni- 
tion, had fallen upon her knees beside him, mid 
with her hands clasped, was gazing up into bis 
face, her checks as pale as ashes; and when 
the first joyful greeting between the son and 
mother was over, and tho young soldier looked 
around as if in search of some other dear ob- 
ject, she said in u voice half inaudible — "Dan- 
na, am I forgiven?" 

" Forgiven 1 Jenny, may God forgive us both I" 
and forgetful of all present, he pressed hor to 
his heart, 

At this juncture, tho clergyman, who had 
previously been made acquainted with the cir- 
cumstances of the young man's joining the 
army, came forward and said: " It is well thus 
far, but no farther. It is not meet to rejoice 
too mnch over the bier of the fallen soldiers. 
They have fought the good fight, and have 

Sone to their rest; two of them in the dew of 
leir youth, and the other in the ripeness of 
his old age. He was a valiant soldier of the 
Cross, as well as of the Republic, and he has 
entered at lost into the joys of his I/)rd. Lot 
us strive to imitate his virtues and do honor to 
his ashes." 

The fallen soldiers were consigned to their 
last resting place amid tho tears mid .heartfelt 

lamentations of their fellow townsmen; and 
their memory was most sacredly cherished by 
their surviving comrades, and grateful coun- 

After the denouement has token place, the 
patient listener is very apt to become restive 
if the narrator holds him longer by the ballon; 
but it is ueecs-ary in this instance, to ntutc in 
M- few words us possible, how ii happened that 
ihe mistake arose in regard to the report of 
Captain Asltli v's death. It appears that 

when the company liiul marched awaj fool 

for half a day from their native tillage, tin 
whole number, both of officers and men, thouglit 
it a shame that u man so much their senior a 
Grandfather Ashley, and one who had been a 
Captain years before some of them were born, 
and knew besides more of military tactic- than 
all of the officers put together, should march 
in the ranks, or even march on foot at all. .So 
he was unanimously installed captain, and tho 
horse of a man notorious for his sympathies 
with the royal cause was pressed into the ser- 
vice of tho veteran commander. When they 
arrived nt the camp of General Stark, the 
horse was piqueted to be scut back after the 
engagement in cose the, American forces wen- 
victorious; and in case of defeat, the owner was 
to seek his own nnimnls in the camp of his 
friends. After the line of battle had been 
formed, and young Ashley hod joined his com- 
rades, each was too anxious and too intent up- 
on the issue, to penetrato even n less successful 
disguise; so he posted himself in the ranks be- 
side his grandfather, undetected even by him. 
Both of them fought with cool desperation, 
and it was difficult to tell which of the two was 
tho bolter soldier. They passed unscathed 
through both engagements almost up to the 
very last, when, iu n rallying charge of Brev- 
man's cavalry, made for the purpose of cover- 
ing the retreat of u broken infantry column, the 
old niun received a mortal sabre cut from u 
Hessian trooper, who at that moment wheeled 
liis horse to fly. But he was too late, for a 
bullet from the young man's avenging weapon 
brought the retreating enemy headlong from 
his saddle; and then, throwing down his gun, 
for the field was already won, the youth caught 
the poor old man in his arms as he was about 
to full. The latter opened bis dying eyes at 
theory of "Grandfather! — Grandfather! and 
recognizing the voice, he bade the youth bear 
his lust blessing to his mother, and died frith 
the words of a prayer murmuring upon his lips. 
General Starke, who knew of n,o Captain 
Ashley, except the old man commanding, re- 
ported accordingly, and the error remained un- 
corrected until the urrivul of the funeral cor- 

A lady sitting at the writer's elbow, whose 
sympathies go strongly with the Benedictine 
order, aud to whom these manuscript pages are 
submitted for criticism before handing them to 
the compositor, says a very interesting and im- 
portant item of information has been omitted, 
to wit, whether or not the Young Volunteer 
and Jenny Hart were ever afterwards married. 
Married? — of course they were; for what mor- 
tal man ever escaped the matrimonial noose 
after a lovely woman had once set her heart 
upon his capture. They were married very 
soon after the period of the events narrated; 
were blessed iu basket and store, lived loug and 
happily together, fulfilled the Scripture injunc- 
tion in their duy and generation, uud their pos- 
terity, direct and collateral, are at ibis day scat- 
tered hero and there all the way from Massa- 
chusetts Bay to Council Bluffs. 


W&it nd Humor* 



'•.'N. •«.".'-..*'.'•%. •k.". 

A Candid Witness. — In the examination of 
an Irish case before the Court of Magistrates, 
in Providence, for assault aud battery, counsel, 
on cross-examining one of the witnesses, asked 
him what they had at the first place they Btop- 
pedf lie answered, "Four glasses of ale." — 
" What next?" "Two glasses of wine." — 
-•What next?" "One glass of brandy."— 
" What next?" " A fight, of course." 

Wuen Pat Hogan first arrived in tins coun- 
try, he was told by some Yankee that many 
things in this country were larger than iu Ire- 
land — the rivers, lakes, &c Soon after, Pat 
eame to a field where a donkey was feeding, 
and seeing the animal cock up a pair of loug 
ears, Put exclaimed to his companion, " Oeh, 
Teddy, my boy, look, look! — Oeh, jabers, what 
a rabbitl' 

A printer in setting up the line — 

"IleU has no fury like s woman scorned," 

by some oversight left out the *, and made it 
read — 

"DcU bail no fury ltko a woman comtd^' 

A slight departure from the text, but none 
whatever from the truth. 

1 ■ • ■ 

A Goon Hit. — Ono of the best " hits" ever 
made at an impropriety in a lady's dress, was 
made by TuUeynuid. Dining the revolution, 
when asked by a lady his opinion of her dress, 
ho replied, u it begun too late, and ended too 

. ■ ♦ . . 

"I believe," said a very tall representative, 
" that I am one of the tallest members of the 
House." " Yes," added n fellow-rcprescntutive, 
" and the slimmest, too." 

A Late religious writer stigmatizes tho 
authors of the yellow-covered novels as " litera- 
ry scorpions who sting virtuo to death with 
their tales." 

* ■ ♦ ■ » 

A man attempted to seize a " favorable op 
portunity," a few days ago, but his hold slip- 
ped, und be fell to the ground, considerably hurt. 

■ i « . 

Tub man who was "struck by a remark," 
had his skull fractured. It is his intentiou to 
bring nn action for assault and buttery. 

Foolisu. — Tospeud oightecn-penee for liquor 
when you arc uncertain of a nignt's lodging. 

85^" Answer in two weeks. 

We will forward the Rural throe months, froo 
of charge, to each of the first /our persons (resid- 
ing out of the city) who send correct answers 
to tin- above Rebus previous to the publication 
of the solution. 

| for the Rural New-Yorker. ] 


I am composed of 67 letters. 

My 32, 33, 29, 53. 61, GO, 55, 51, 8, 66. 5!l, Hi !» 
is a mechanical power. 

My 8, 7, 36, 15, 1°, 66.J2, 31, is tho means ol 
ascertaining the figure of tho eailh. 

My 41, 35, 50, 26, 12, 31, 8, testa the mechanical 
properties of air. 

My 51, 15, 24, 32; 39, 3, 16, 21, 66, 53. depends 
for ib* efficiency upon the impenetrability of air. 

My IG, 5, G, 2, 31, 7, 'M, 21, 22, enables us In 
study tho properties of the entire body of air. 

My 4,17,26, 17. 52, 30, is sometimes used in 
carrying water over a hilL 

Mr 64, 62, 65, 41, 31,14, 33, 31.6), 60, 55, i Lho 
must valuable present ever made by I'hLloso- 
phy to tho arts. 

My 55, 53. 7, 13, 20, 9, 45, 37,49, 57, 23. a is mo- 
live power. 

My 9, 19, 49, 39, 16, 27, 44, is one of the moat 
striking anil magnificent of Nture's woil 

My 31, 59, 3. 60, 11, 62, 61, 63, 31, is tho most 
recent of all tho physical sciences. 

My 31, 5, 29,47,45, 60, 65,56, 23, among the ao- 
i li nl.- was contincd chiefly to the purpose of 
architecture aud war. 

My 16, 19, 66, 41. 39, 51, 11, a lever with equal 

My 26, 33, 65, 12, 31, 59. 43, 35, 13, 64. treats of 
rest and motion of fluids. 

My 8, 12,53, 66, 14, 17. affords a means of chang- 
ing the direction of tho power. 

My 46, 47, 55, 1, 13, 6, 11, If, ia a nullification 
of the inclined plane. 

My 44. 61, 33, 11, 4, all produced by rarefaction 
and condensation. 

My 67, 38, 34, 64, are phenomena ol cold cli- 

My 58, 59, 61, 53, 4,^20, 2, 56, 31, 63. occur chief- 
ly in the temperate zones. 
My whole is an important proposition of 

Pneumatics. c. i.. o. 

Hunts Hollow, Dec, 1S53. 

Answer next week. 


Axsweb to Illustrated Rebus N'o.3.— Water in 
eonnedai vciielt ttandt on < level. 

Answer to Problem in last number, — 33 3-3/ 





ScBSOBrrriox— 92 a yoar— SI for ra montlu. To 
Clubs «nd AgonU m follows:— Thr«» Cc-plM out yr.v, for 
•S; Six Copies (nnd one to Accul or gsttsr ui> of dub,) 
for 810; Ten Copies (nnd one to Agent,) for 916; Twantr 
Copln for S25, nnd any additional number, directed in 
Individuals ft t the name rate. Six montlu lubacripUon* la 

tjrSiihwiption money, properly eoeloecd, may bo sent 
by mall at the ruk of tho Publi»bor. 

AoTinTI8i!io. — Brief and appropriate advertisement! 
will br Inserted at 81,00 per squire, (ten line*, or 100 
word*,) or IS ccnta per line — n adcanrt. The circulation 
of tho Rukai. Xrw-Yoiuekb ie several lh.ias.vid jrrevter 
than that of ony other Agricultural or aimUar journal in 
America. Pblcnt medicines, iic, will not be advertised In 
Uits paper on nuy terms. 

[y All communications, and hairiness letters, should 
Iw addressed to D. D. T. Moore, Rochester, X. Y. 

Tho Wool Grower and Stock Register 1" tho only 
American journal dovotcd to the Wool, and .Srn.?u Okow- 
ixo IsTrnKSTs. It contain* a vast amount of uxful and 
reliebU information not (riven In any other work, and 
(bsold 1* In the handt of i.'ecrjr Oicnrr of Doaatic Ami- 
aaU, whether located East or West, North or Sonth.— 
I'ubllshiil monthly in octavo form. Illustrated, nt halt 
Putt Cxsts a Thar— 6 copies for R; S for $3. Vol. S 
commenced July, 1853. Subscriptions con be*ln with tho 
July or January number. Back volumes fimi In I. 
Addrosa D. D. T. MOORK, Rochester, N. Y. 

Nox-SunsoRiinuL*. Into whoso hands this number of the 
Ritual may fall, aro requested to gtve it an examination, 
and, if approved, their support. S«* prospectus, l'nmiuia 
List, &:?., on preceding page. 



WHOLE NO. 211. 


Agricultural, Literary, and Family Newspaper. 


JOSEPH HARRIS, In tbo Practical Departments: 
EDWAIU) WEBSTER, Id tho Literary and S'OWB Dep'ts. 

Corrwpondlng Editor*: 

J. H. ButDv,— II. C. White,— T. E. Wetiiobe. 

Tdk RoiUL New-Yorkbk i- ill igui I to be unique and 
b.'-iuliful in appearance, and unsurpassed In VaIuo, Purity 
and Variety of Contents. It* ennductura caniettir labor 
tii ma lit- il o I t.-I i il.l .- fiulde on tlio important I'rarllml 
Sni.j". .-lit connected with tho baiiniwt of tho«o whoso In- 
terests It advocates. It embmewmoro Agricultural, llorli- 
rullumj, Scli-ntlfle, Ucchaincd, Literary and News Matter, 
hit»'n>in*rsod with many appropriate and hau'lsomc cngrar- 
inw, than any oilier paper published In this Country,— 
rendoriog It a complete AuiiicultubjlL, Litkkaiiy nnd 
I ■ i.i ii . 

Z3T Fob Terms, fcc, *kk last paob. .^flTJ 

$aral Ueto-jjorhtr. 

Progress and Improvement 

Tun necessity for n model fiirm is constantly 
asserted by many of lhc best nntl truest friends 
of Agricultural Improvement in this country; 
while, at the same time, many who look to it 
in the hope of obtaining good fa/, situations, 
ore equally urgent of its claims on the people. 
Willi the latter, we have no controversy; they 
arc beneath notice. With the former, we dis- 
agree, and will briefly give the reasons for our 
opinions. First, a model farm could be useful 
only in a certain district; for it is well known, 
that the same system which would desorvc tho 
name of model in one district, would be wholly 
unsuitcd to another, with different soil, climate 
nnd circumstances. In many of the Western 
States a model farm would be primarily a 
slock farm. Iu tho Southern States a cotton 
or tobacco farm; in New England, and the 
eastern counties of this State, a hay farm; in 
Western New York, Ohio, l'ennsylyaniu, &&, 
it would be a wheat furm; while in some dis- 
tricts it would be n dairy or sheep farm. Wo 
would not be understood to say that we recom- 
mend an exclusive system of farming; on the 
contrary, we believe, to make farming profit- 
able, you must have rotation, but in different 
districts the growth of different crops will be 
the main object of the farmer. There are, too, 
at present, model farms in every county of the 
Union, where as good systems of cultivation 
and management arc adopted as any associa- 
tion of savans could successfully carry out in 
practice. A model farm, in a restricted sense, 
would be one that yields the most profit; and, 
consequently, no system of management could 
be pursued but such as it was known would 
pay, — and the mauogcrs of such a farm would 
be no more likely to know what would pay 
than any of our intelligent fanners. It is plain 
then, to our minds, that a model farm, support- 
ed by the State, or an association, would be of 
little benefit to the cause of agricultural im- 

What, then, do we want? Certainly not the 
means of diffusing knowledge. We have al- 
ready more agricultural nnd horticultural pa- 
pers than all the rest of the world put together. 
If a man has a valuable idea, or adopts a suc- 
cessful practice, or discovers an improved 
method of tillage, &c, it is soon in the posses- 
sion of nil the intelligent agriculturists in the 
country. What we want, in our opinion, is a 
farm devoted to trying scientific and practical 
exporimonts; where theories could be tested; 
new manures tried, and, above nil, where new 
principles — principles which will be world-wido 
in their application — could be brought to light. 
How can such nn experimental farm be best 
carried on? Judging from the past, we should 
say, by private gentlemen of large fortune nnd 
great scientific attainments. There are many 
such in the country — men who could afford to 
spend $5,000 a yenr in such n cause, if they 
were only imbued with a love of it — such men 
us Boossinoaolt, in France, or Lawes, in En- 
gland — men who would immortalize them- 
selves and render infinite good to the science 
and tho art of agriculture. But if such men 
cannot be found, able and willing to devote 
themselves to this work, can we not associate 

together and employ scientific and practical 
men to do this work for us? Perhaps we may: 
we have no objection to seeing the experiment 
tried Nay, more, we will do nil wo can to 
make such an institution effective and prosper- 
ous. It is republican in its principle, and 
would be successfully curried out here, if any 
where. But we cannot close, our eyes to the 
fact that such associations have never yet done 
much for agricultural improvement. What 
has the Royal Agricultural Society of Englnnd, 
of Scotland, or of Ireland, done in this line? 
Certainly very little. What have the experi- 
ments made at the Royal Agricultural College 
at Cirencester, England, ever demonstrated, 
unless it be that such institutions cannot make 
'and successfully curry out, satisfactory field and 
laboratory experiments? The truth is, we ap- 
prehend, that the conductors of such institu- 
tions are obliged to do too much, in order to 
satisfy the public demand for something new 
and startling; and, instead of laboring and 
waiting year after year, till they have demon- 
strated, by induction, some new truth, they no 
sooner commence experimenting than they be- 
gin to theorize and proclaim (heir deductions 
to the world, with as much assurance ns if they 
were established truths. The consequence is, 
that practice, the best of all tests, soon shows 
their conclusion erroneous — faith in science is 
wenkend, and the institution does as much 
harm as good. 

We come to the conclusion, therefore, (rath- 
er n conservative one, perhaps,) that we have 
already model farms successfully managed, by 
practical aud scientific farmers, nnd therefore 
do not want one supported by the State, or any 
association; that we very much need an ex- 
pcri mental furm, but that there is little prob- 
ability that such an institution could be carried 
out, successfully, by shareholders and a board 
of directors. 


Souk time since, Mr. Buckmi.nster, the editor 
of the Massachusetts Ploughman, stated that 
he had Devon heifers which gave milk of such 
richness that one gallon yielded one pound 
of butter. Mauy have doubted the correct- 
ness of this statement, thinking there must be 
some mistake; so, at the lost meeting of the 
Agricultural Society at Framiugham, Mr. B. 
gave the particulars of lhc trial, which to our 
mind, are quite satisfactory. The heifers were 
three years old last spring, and had not pro- 
duced calves, before; one calved the 2'2d of 
April, and the other the 22d of June. On 
the 22d of October, he took the milk which 
these two heifers gave in twenty-four hours — 
not quite twelve qnarts — "which produced 
three pounds of sweet butter, and yellow as 
one could wish." "Several trinls were after- 
wards made of the milk of these heifers, and 
with like results. He also sent some of the 
milk to different friends, whose names are given, 
and they obtained at the rate of a pound of 
butter from ench four quarts of milk. Since 
these trials, Mr. B. had set apart the nlilk of 
all his full-blood cows that were in milk, and 
had churned the cream from each, except one 
whose milk he tested in a Inctomctcr — and in 
every instance the proportion of t]ic butter to 
the milk was the same as at the first trial. 

We have kept Aldcrncys whoso milk, we 
believe, would yield more than a pound of 
butter to the gallon, but the quantity of milk 
given was exceedingly small. " All the milk 
she gives is cream," was the warrantee given 
by a friend, on selling one of these cows. 
"That assertion is strictly correct," said the 
purchaser, a few days after, " but she does not 
give any milk.'' Six quarts of milk, or a 
pound and a half of butter por day, from a 
three year old heifer, is uot much to boast 
about We published a statement, n few 
weeks since, of a two year old heifer that gave 
eight pounds of butter per week; and the 
mother of this heifer, a cross between a Devon 
and native, gave eighteen pounds of butter 
per week. 


Vkrv many farms are disfigured by portions 
.if wet, swampy nnd unproductive land, of va- 
rious extent and characteristics, but alike in 
being nearly valueless, iu their present unim- 
proved condition, for all the purposes of ngri- 
cnltnre. They may afford a covert for tyirds, 
ond a haunt for reptiles, and, perhaps, somo 
wild berries and coarse grasses; but their 
growth, unlike that of the forest, deteriorates 
rather than increases in value with each suc- 
ceeding yenr. Yet, when drained and cleared, 
these wastes and eye-sores of the provident 
husbandman become the most easily cultivated 
nnd productive part of the furm. The process 
is an expensive one, perhaps, yet n very few 
years will repay the outlay, and bring iu a 
handsome profit in return. 

The Housotonic Ag. Society offered several 
premiums in 1850 for experiments in improv- 
ing such hinds, and nt their last Anniversary 
published a report thereon. It is interesting, 
as showing the cost of bringing boggy marsh- 
es into cultivation, and also, as the views of 
practical ond well informed men, upon the best 
means of accomplishing the same. There were 
eleven entries of lands, which were viewed by 
the Committee in 1850, und again in 1853, 
when three premiums were awarded for the 
most satisfactory experiments. 

After a careful examination of the different 
lands entered, the committee came to the con- 
clusion that th* most effectual and thorough 
process, on very wet soils with a vegetation of 
small bushes and coarse grasses, was 1st, to 
thoroughly drain the land as far as it could be 
done by frequent ditches; and 2d, to float or 
cut off the whole surface of the ground, aud, 
piling it in wiurows, let it dry, ond then burn 
the whole to ashes. This method, taking nil 
things into account, they believed to be more 
economical thou that generally practised, of 
cutting off the bogs nnd brush and then subdu- 
ing the coarse vegetation by frequent plowings 
and borrowings. It was found exceedingly 
difficult to reclaim tho soil from its origimd 
products by this latter process. By paring and 
burning, on the contrary, the coarser materials 
of the land were at once reduced by fire, and 
afforded a valuable aud much needed amend- 
ment in their abundant ashes. The surface 
with slightly plowing or thoroughly harrowing, 
was much curlier prepared for a crop than by 
tho other method, gaining one or two years 
out of three or four, in the use and production 
of the laud, over that of subduing by the plow. 
The first premium was awarded on 9 acres 
of reclaimed land. The cost of draining the 
land, cutliug off the brush nnd bogs, digging 
and carrying off the stumps and roots, plowing 
and harrowing, and the seeds sown during the 
time, amounted to about $25 per acre. The 
crops nlready produced loft about $15, yet to 
be repaid, wliich, as the land was well subdued 
and seeded to grass, would soon be effected. 
The second premium was awarded on three 
acres, part of a swamp of 30 acres, which the 
owner hud under process of reclaiming. This 
was performed in the same way as the first, but 
at a cost of $16,75 per acre, and the crops du- 
ring the time had repaid the outlay, and some 
if -1, 'M J per acre, over. 

The third premium was given on one and a 
half acres, winch had borne but one crop, and 
which was reclaimed by paring and burning, 
as heretofore described. It was a tlcep muck, 
thickly covered with white bush, coarse grass- 
es, and brakes, and wholly unproductive. Af- 
ter draining, the whole surface was pared and 
burned, and the ashes spread upon the land, 
which was plowed aud sown to grass seed. — 
The cost of doing this was $17 per acre, and 
the first crop of hay has returned $7,50 of tho 
outlay. Succeeding crops promise to be very 
heavy, aud the laud was more thoroughly sub- 
dued than any other visited by tho Committee. 

Mr. James Brick, of New Scotland, has a 
cow which yielded 46 lbs. 14 ounces of butter 
in the month ending December 19th The cow 
was four years old. 


The late King of Prussia, invited Timer, tho 
celebrated German agriculturist, to settle within 
his kingdom, nnd introduce agricultural schools. 
The other monarchs of Germany followed this 
example, nnd Germany had, in 1847, 62 large 
institutions. Austria then had 9; Prussia, 12; 
Saxony, 5: Bavaria, 16; Hanover, 2; Wurtcm- 
berg, 8; and other States, 10; in all 62. 

Of all modern agricultural inventions, we 
believe the Clod-Crusher, represented ubove, is 
the best It consists of some twenty cost-iron 
discs or wheels, about four inches thick and 
thirty inches in diameter, placed loosely on an 
iron axle, so ns to revolve independently of 
ench other. The outer edge of each disc is 
serrated or toothed like a saw. Each alter- 
nate disc is made lurger in the eye, so that in 
revolving, nn up and down motion is allowed 
which prevents clogging, while it increases the 
crushing or grinding power of the implement 
There nre two kinds, one with wheels attached 
which arc lowered when the roller has to be 
taken along a hard rond, or in moving it fioiu 
place to place. In the one represented by our 
engraving, wheels arc put on the projecting 
axles when required, and taken off when ut 
work. The lowest cost of the Clotl-Crushcr is 
$75, nnd some are as high us S150, according 
to size and fixings. 

Those who have never seen one at work, can 
form but a very inadequate idea of the effectual 
manner in which it breaks up the largest clods 
of the stiffest and hardest clay. But for it, 
many heavy land farmers would find it impos- 
sible to prepare their land for turnips or barley, 
requiring as they do. a very fine tilth. To such 
farmers, Crosskill's Clod-Crusher is nn indis- 
pensable implement To the light land farm- 
ers, it is also of great value. It is well known 
that the wheat plant delights in a hard, com- 
pact soil, and that many of onr sandy soils are 
so loose that wheat winter-kills, or is blown 
nway. Ou such soils, the Clod-Crusher is on 
invaluable implement for consolidating the 
wheat fields in spring. It leaves the land with 
the appearance of having been trodden with 
sheep. Certainly nothing except sheep will so 
consolidate sandy soils. We have seen wheat 
crops benefited nt least ten bushels per acre, by 
the use, in cnrly spring, of this implement 

One of the Clod-Crushers has been for some 
time on exhibition, nt the Crystal Palace, in 
New York; and wo were in hopes that somo 
of our spirited and wealthy farmers would have 
purchased it But they did not, and we be- 
lieve it has been re-shipped to England. What 
opinion Mr. Chosskiu, who himself attended 
the exhibition, will have of the intelligence and 
enterprise of American agriculturists, we leave 
our readers to judge. The implement on no 
account, should have been suffered to leave our 
shores. But we trust that some of the many 
intelligent mechanics, who visited the Crystal 
Palace, havo examined tho principles of the 
implement, so that they can, and will, set im- 
mediately to work and make one cheaper and 
more efficient than tho original. Wo should 
be disappointed if such does not prove to be 
the case. If such an implement couhl be made 
for $40 or $50, as we think it might, the sales 
would bo enormous, for there can bo no doubt 
that the Clod-Crusher will prove at least, as 
eqnally beneficial in our dry, hot, baking cli- 
mate, ns in the humid atmosphere of the Brit- 
ish Isles. 

■ ■ ♦ ■ ■ 

It has been said thut u good cow worthy of 
the name should yield, on un overage, for first 
100 days after calving, 7J quarts at a mess, or 
15 quarts per day, amounting to 1,500 ; for the 
next 100 days she should average 5 quarts at a 
mess, 1,000 quarts; for the succeeding 100 days 
she should average 4 quarts to a mess, 800. — 
Total number of (marts, 3,300. 


Ens. Rural; — Enclosed I send you a rode 
draft of my born. It is a hnnk-barn, on the 
level grouud. I dug down three feet below 
the surface for tho foundation, nnd in this way 
got earth for flic embankment. The barn is 
44 by 64 feet; entrance to both stories from 
the south. 

22 X 48 


16 X 22 

■ d \d ' J .1 d i 

c a i\ c e 




11 X 13 



14 X 16 

16 X 44 

10 X 44 



IB X 30 

6 X 30 

- J - 

f> * 


Fio. 1. — Basement. 
Fig. 1 is the basement; A, manure cellar; 
B, straw mow; C, entrance, open tho wholo 
width on the south side; D, stables, containing 
10 stalls; E, feeding room 8 ft. wide; aaaaa, 
horse-stalls; bbbbb, cow-stalls, with a door to 
each, opening back, as seen by dotted lines, 
ddddd; c, water trough und pump; e e e, 
stairs, and holes for throwing down provender; 
f narrow passage from feeding room to straw 
mow, with doors into cow-stalls nt i ; g, man- 
gers for feeding; h, corn crib, with trap-door 
above for throwing down com; k, door into 
manure cellar, for the entrance of hogs aud 

Fio. 2. — Second Story. 

Fig. 2 is the second story; A A, barn floors; 
B, straw mow, goes to the lower floor; C, hay 
bay; D, wheat bay; E, granary; a a a, places 
for throwing down provender; b b bb, are barn 

Tho basement story is eight feet high, sur- 
rounded by a stone wall, except sixteen feet at 
tho entrance. By taking away the partition 
between C and A, a wagon may be backed into 
the manure cellar. The upper part is sided up 
like a house, painted with a composition of 
one-fourth white lead and three-fourths water- 
lime, and has twenty Venetian blinds. Tho 
whole cost is about eight hundred dollars. 
Isaac Eaton. 

FaJrrtCTr, Erie Co., Pcnn. 

► . * ■ i 

At the late Smithfield cattle show, tho gold 
medal was awarded for a short horn ox. At 
tho Birmingham show, the week after, "it went 
honestly to a Hereford, while the Hcreforda 
generally were unquestionably the best lota of 
boasts in the yard." The Dorking and Span- 
ish wen.- the best closes of poultry. The 
Chinese varieties were as plentiful as ever, 
"but never did they appear to attract bo little 
notice, and never, certainly to commaudso little 




Mr. Editor : — I was surprised nt reading a 
statement relating to n crop of Indian corn 
raised by 0. K. W. nt the very low cost of 9 J 
ccnls per bushel of cars. I have raised a first 
rate crop the past year, but it cost me more 
than double this sum. Ho says the crop was 
manured with 20 double loads of manure from 
stables, &c. Now, friend C. K. W., was it 20 
per aire, or on the 18 acres? Did the manure 
cost anything, and if so, how ranch? and how 
much was the hauling worth? What is the 
u--e of land worth in Lc Roy? What is it 
worth to market the crop? If yon will answer 
the above and add the cost to I ho crop, it may 
increase the cost per bushel. I hope you will 
not accuse me of fault-finding. I deem it of 
great importance when statements arc made 
public, that they should be as exact as possible. 
I havo not the least doubt that your crop was 
good and paid well for the labor expended. I 
should be pleased if even - farmer would keep 
on exact account of the cost of nil his cro]is 
and make it known to the public. There cun 
be no better way to improve than by compar- 
ing our crops with those of others, raised un- 
der like circumstances. You say com requires 
no stimulants for its growth, except what 
amounts to a thorough manuring. There I 
agree with you exactly. The corn crop pre- 
pares the ground for wheat, if the land is rich 
and the com be well cultivated. The only 
objection is that much labor is required to re- 
move the com in time for the succeeding crop. 
I always sow wheat after other crops, and gen- 
erally have a good crop. I cunnot nfibrd to 
summer fallow. Some may think strange of 
that, but I believe it to be cheaper to keep 
the land in good condition by manuring. 1 
think our friend right in regard to planting 
com on sod If the soil is infested with the 
wire worm, the corn will most certainly be de- 
stroyed on any except sod laud. I think that 
the com crops under ordinary culture will pay 
as well as any other farm crop. The stalks 
are worth from 8 to 10 dollars per ncre. 

I think every farmer might raise a good 
supply of roots of the various kinds and feed 
them with stalks and keep the farm stock in 
first rate condition. I have had some experi- 
ence in raising all kinds of roots. I. W. 
Bmccs says, he never had but one good crop 
of parsnips, and those he sowed iu the falL I 
have invariably had good crops, sowing them 
iu the spring, and think it preferable to fall 
sowing for this reason; if sown early in the 
full, they will run to seed, and if late they will 
be small, the ground will be very hard, and 
the plants appear stunted in the spring. Sow 
as early as possible in the spring, say 1st of 
April, if the ground nnd weather will permit 
If the ground is light and dry, tread in the 
scod, or roll after sowing. I think friend 
Bricigs mistakcu in regard to sowing black 
radishes. They should be sown early iu July 
to be sure of a good crop. My experience is, 
they will not produce a good crop if sown la- 
ter than turnips. They do not muture as quick, 
but tlijy will stand the winter as well as the 
pan-nips. They make good feed for horses and 
cat lie. 

I think the most profitable root crop a far- 
mer can raise is carrots. A good yield is 8 
or 900 bushels per acre, and they arc univer- 
sally odmitloJ to be excellent food for cuttle, 
horses and hogs. Tho latter may be wintered 
entirely on them, and thrive well. The cost of 
cultivating depends much on the condition of 
the soil, the time tho work is done" and the 
price of labor. My crops usually cost from 8 
to 15 cents per bushel, counting all expense, 
including use of land manure, &c 

The great secret in raising good crops is, 
good seed, good soil and careful cultivation. — 
The mongcl-wurtzel and sugar beets are first 
rate crops to raise for stock. They are good 
to feed fat cattle with meal, and also milch 
cows. They may be raised at a little less ex- 
pense than carrots, and ore less valuable. I 
Ihiuk ruta-bagas the best for fatteuing pur- 
poses, and they can bo raised cheaper than any 
other roots except round turnips. I once 
raise 1 a crop of 600 bushels at a C03t of less 
than 4 cents per bushel. Beef that is fed en- 
tirely on ruta-bagas, will taste of them, and so 
with some other things, onions in particular. — 
1 had some cattle runniug iu u Geld where they 
had access to a lot of onions where I hud 
raised seed and left the stalks and onions in 
the ground The cattle ate them freely. I 
noticed them doily, without thinking they were 
doing any harm. A few days after they were 
sold to the butcher. The beef was so strongly 
scented with onions as to make it unsaleable. — 
The first onion a milth cow gets will taste in 
the milk. Carrots are the favorite root for 
cows. I think root culture as a branch of 
farming is generally too much neglocted On- 
ions are a remunerative crop to the fanner. — 
The high price they have sustained for the last 
few years has paid for beading tho back and 
pulling weeds. The best kiud is the English 
potato onion which may be found at Seed 
Stores. The greatest trouble is to keep them 
till spring. If they Bprout from the tope, two 

inches, they are worthless. My method of 
keeping them, for the last ten years, has been to 
have them perfectly dry, sort them over lute in 
the fall, and put them in a bin in tho barn and 
cover them with straw. A layer of onions, 
then dry Btraw, and so on until ull are packed, 
or put them in boxes or barrels and cover them 
well on top. Seed onions may be kept in the 
same way. Freezing will not hurt them if they 
keep froze and are not exposed to the nir. I 
saw a statement some lime since which said 
pack them iu dry sand I should think it im- 
[ possible to keep them in that manner ; besides 
it would be quite tedious to put up 75 or 100 
bushels in tin's way, at the least it is entirely 

This article i3 too long, but if what I have 
written will be tho means of saving brother 
fanners trouble or of stimulating them to do 
what they have not done before, I shall be well 
pnid. u. s. u. 

Ro-liratrr, Jan. lOlh, 1SS4. 

• ■ ♦ ■ ■ 


Mb. Moorb: — I noticed iu the Rural of the 
17th of December last, that you ask overy one 
that has a new idea on practical subjects con- 
nected with funning, to communicate it for 
publication. Now it may not be known to all 
your numerous readers, that a very cheap, du- 
rable and neat looking board fence may be 
built, which will prevent the snow from drift- 
ing beside it — being a very desirable object for 
any one situated as I am, where the snow drifts 
into the road even with the tops of all common 
fences. Knowing that wire fences were good 
against snow-drifts, but disliking them on 
many other accounts, I concluded to try a 
cheap board fence with very narrow boards. 

I built about 20 rods one year ago last 
April, which works admirably; not n sign of a 
snow-drift beside it, while other fences in close 
proximity, have been entirely covered. 

My method of procedure was this: — I drew 
some oak, elm and hickory logs to mill and had 
them sawed into boards one inch thick, four 
inches wide nnd twelve feet long; and used five 
such boards to the length, leaving a space of 
2J inches under Ihe first or bottom board, 4 
inches between the fust and second, 5 J inches 
between the second mid third, 7 inches between 
the third and fourth, nnd 9 inches between the 
fourth and lifih boards; making my fence four 
feet high; high enough for anything that runs 
in the road about here; while gecae oven, do 
not get through it without yokes on. 

I used butternut posts, having plenty on my 
on 1 1 land, nnd knowing, from experience, that 
Ihcy would last 12 years tit least The posts 
were set 3 feet deep, and Ihe boards nailed on 
with twelvopcnny nails, 5 to each board. Now 
the cost of such a fence, reckoning Ihe price I 
should have had to pay for each item would 

For 20 feet of boards to each length at $G 
per M feet, 12 cts; 2 butternut posts to each 
length at C cts. each, 12 cts; 30 twelvcpenny 
nails (about J lb.) at 4 cts. per lb., 2 cts; cost 
of putting up fence at 10 cts. per length. 10 
els.; — making the whole cost of fence, 36 els. 
per length of 12 feet, or 49J cts. per rod. — 
The advantages of such a fence, when compar- 
ed with a crooked rail fence, arc very great; 
for the extra amount of timber required for 
rails would sell standing iu the woods, for 
enough to pay the expense of such a board 
fence. Then the neat appearance of the fence, 
with no snowdrifts beside it in winter, gives the 
owner tho satisfaction of knowing thnt he is 
not entirely excluded from tho rest of mankind 

Let us now compare the cost and durability 
of such a fence, with that of good stone walL 
If a man has a good stone quarry on his own 
farm, digs down for a foundation and builds a 
good substantial wall, it will cost him, at least, 
two dollars per rod; besides it should be 2) 
feet thick nt the bottom, which will lake up 
considerable more land in fencing the farm 
thai a board fence. Hut say nothing about 
the land, allow tho board fence to last only 12 
years, and we shall then have something left in 
favor of the board fence. Let us sec: — One 
rod of my bonrd fence cost 49 J cents, or in 
round numbers 50 cents; the simple interest on 
50 cents for the twelve years, which the fence 
is supposed only to last, would be 42 cents; 
making tho whole cost of board fonce for 12 
years, with simple interest 92'cents, 

Tho cost of slono wall, 2 dollars, nnd simple 
interest on it only for 12 years, would bo $3.08; 
but eay uothing about the 2 dollars, excepting 
tho interest on it for 12 years, which is 81,68, 
from which we deduct the cost nnd intorcst of 
board fence, 92 cents, will leave us 76 cents; 
with which we can build a now board fence 
for 50 cents, and have 26 cents loft to add to 
oui two dollars principal ou which to receive 
interest for tho next 12 years, &c; thus, in 
course of time amounting to a considerable 
sum in favor of the board fence, oven at a 12 
years term of simple interest 

Kooi'a Com* n-, Oarid* Co, X. V., Jan., 1864. 

'^ri cultural 'gliscclkuin. 


A oottRRsroNnKKT of the Mich. Farmer 
raised thirty bushels of onions from two ounces 
of wed on a piece of oak opening land ono rod 
wide by five long, 

Phof. Mapbs, in a recent lecture before the 
Mechanics' Institute in New York, is reported 
in the Tribune, to have said " ninety-eight per 
cent of the dry material of every vegetable is 
carbon." According to many determinations 
made at Rotliaiustcnd, and which agree well 
with Boussixoaui.t, the dry matter of turnips 
contains in one hundred pounds: 

Carbon, 42 ; Oxygen, 42 ; Hydrogen, C ; 
Nitrogen, 2 ; Ash, 8. That is to say, instead 
of 98 per cent of carbon, we found only 42 per 
cent. Boussi.voaui.t found in the dry mailer 
of the grain of rye 46 per cent of carbon; in 
oats 50 per cent; in wheat. 4G per cent; in 
wheat straw 48 per cent ; in potutocs 44 per 
cent; in clover 47 per cent; in dried beets 42 
per cent 

There arc many other statements in the 
lecture equally at variance with truth, for 
instance, he says " in the Genesee Vulley where 
thirty bushels of wheat were reaped per acre 
thirty years ago, there are now only twelve und 
a half." It is the opinion, of farmers who have 
cultivated land iu the Genesee Valley, for 
upwards of thirty years, that their farms yield 
more wheat per ucre now than they ever did. 
We do not like to speak of men's motives, but 
it does look suspicious, when such a statement 
is made, and superphosphate of lime, of which 
Mr. Mai'ks is a manufacturer, is recommended 
in the sumo lecture, to restore these exhausted 
soils to their original fertility. 



Souk description of this Japanese produc- 
tion was given iu the last Vol. of the Rural 
It is not yet tested sufficiently in this country 
to speak definitely of its merits. It requires u 
long season to arrive at full maturity. I re- 
ceived last spring a few seeds for trial — planted 
them as early as the nature of the ground 
would admit They came up well and made a 
stout growth. Being of an upright, bushy 
growth, in my ignorance of them, I planted 
mid permitted them to grow too thickly. — 
They have large, bean-like leaves, small, axilla- 
ry, inconspicuous flowers — which appeared so 
lute that but a very small portion matured seed 
sufficiently to plant again. The plants were 
crowded with the short, doqjny pods — one 
plant, standing somewhat apart, having over 
200 well formed pods, whilst the least in the 
thickest part of the drill had 65. I sec in the 
journal of the N. Y. S. Ag. Soft, those who 
have reported their success to the Secretary, 
speak of its great prolificness. From this fact, 
if it can be sufficiently acclimated, it would 
seem to bid fair to be iui importunt addition to 
our leguminous crops. But there is another 
drawback which would debar its general culti- 
vation as a field crop. Its stems nre quite 
large and hard as wood, almost, so that to har- 
vest n field of Japan Peas would be about as 
easy as to harvest a field of brush, t. e. w. 


Thk annual meeting of the Monroe Co. Ag- 
ricultural Society, was held in the Court House, 
in Rochester, Jan. 11th, 1854. when the fol- 
lowing officers were elected for tho ensuing 

President. — F. F. Root, Sweden. 

1st Vice President — S. L. Siirloon, Swe- 
den; 2d L. D. MrrcuBii, Pittsford;3d Danikl 
L-nr, Rocukstkr. 

Corresponding Secretary — A E. Haiuiox, 

Recording Secretary — Josei-u Harris, 

Treasurer — E. S. Hayward, Brioiitox. 

Town Committers. — G- recce — F. W. Lav, J. 
S.Brown. Pannu — J. C. Austin, J. Service. 
Clurksou — Dr. A Baldwin, II. P. Norton. 
Sweden — J. P. Young, S. L. Sheldon. Riga 
— Dennis Church, Harvey Spraguc. Ogden — 
J. P. Ross, Jesse Dewey. Wheatland — George 
Shelter, E. A. Harmon. Chili — J. K. Balcn- 
tine, Wm. Colt Gates— W. R. Booth, Cal- 
vin Sperrj". Irondequoit — C. K. Hobbie, 
Benj. Wing. Brighton — S. II. Gould, Wil- 
lurd Hodges. Pjltsford— L D. Mitchell, VV. 
M. Huntington. Mcndon— O. W. Allen, W. 
S. Clark. Henrietta — Stephen Leggctt, D. I*. 
Bailey. Rush— D. S. M c 1 1 ardy, It. Barber.— 
Perinton — J. S. Ramsdcll, Geo. Ayraull. — 
Penfiold — W. C. Tracy, Charles Wisuer. 
Webster — A S. Mclvin, Joel Sherman. 

F. P. Roor, E. S. Havward and John 
Rapauk were appointed delegates to the an- 
nual mooting of the Stato Society. 

A meeting of tho Executive Committee was 
uppoiulcd to be held at the Court House, in 
Rochester, on Tuesday, January 31st, nt 10 
A. M., for the purpose of reviewing tho pre- 
mium list Tho Society will hold two plowing 
matches, one in the eastern and ono in tho west- 
ern district of the county, to be located in the 
towns that will respectively furnish the largest 
number of members of the Society, previous 
to tho meeting to bo held the first Wednesday 
in June. 

, 1 ■ m » — 

Fkrdinu rod popper to hogs with their 
food is said to I „• good for tho kidney worm. 
Tho experiment is worth trying. 

The first fair of the New York State Society 
for the improvement of domestic poultry, will 
be held, simultaneously with the annual meeting, 
ut Albany, on the 7th, 8th & 9th or February, 
1854. Tho following is a list of the premiums 
to be awarded :— 

Class 1. Gallinaceous Fowls. — For Ihe 
best and largest variety of pure bred fowls, 
bred by the exhibitor, a Silver Cup, valued at 

For the second best do., $10. 

Best and largest variety of pure bred fowls 
owned by the exhibitor, a Silver Cup, valued 
nt $25. 

For the second best do., $10. 

Asiatic Fowls. — For the best pair of Asi- 
atic Fowls of whatever sub-variety. $10. 

There will be two premiums or more, be- 
stowed upon all of the following breeds of 
Fowls, the most of which will be, for the 1st 
Premium, $5; 2d, $3. The Premium Li.-t em- 
braces Red or Bull", Black, White, and Domi- 
nique colored Shanghais, Cochin Chinas, Brah- 
ma Pootras, Chittagongs, White Calouttus, 
Black Juvas, Hong ICougs, Black Spanish, 
Dorkings, Hnmbtirghs, Games of different 
kinds, Dominique, Guelderluuds, Polish, all col- 
ors, uml Bantams, all kinds. 

Class II. Turkeys. — Wild and domestic. 

Class III. Guinea Fowls. 

Class IV. Pea Fowls. 

Class V. Ducks. — Aylesbury, Cayuga 
Black, Muscovy, Top Knot, and Common. 

Class VI. Geese. — Bremen Chinese, Afri- 
can and Wild 

Class VII. Swnns. 

Class IX. Rabbits. — Lop cared for the 
best pair, $3. 

Second best do., $2. 

Common, For the best pair, $2. 

Second best do., SI. 

Class X. Rat Terrier Dogs. — For the best 
specimen, $5. 

Second do., $3. 

Exhibitors must be members of the society. 
Admission, to others than members of the 
society, 25 cents. Any person can become u 
member of the society, by paying one dollar. 

David Taggart, Esq., of PeniL, will deliver 
an appropriate addicss, on AVeduesday evening, 
at the close of which the officers will be elected 
for the ensuing year. 

Arrungeineuts ha\e bean mode with the 
New York Central Railroad, by which all coops 
of fowls destined for the exhibition, will be con- 
veyed over the road, free of charge. It is ex- 
pected that similar arrangements will be made 
with all the other principal roads in the Stale. 
» ■ ^ ■ « 


A xuMBRR of prominent gentlemen, interest- 
ed in the improvement of domestic poultry, met 
at the Astor House, in the city of New York, 
on the 5th inst, and organized a National 
Poultry Society. Several hundred dollars wore 
subscribed which will be offered in premiums, 
for the best specimens of fowls that cun be 
produced from any part of the United States. 
The first show will take place at New York, 
on the thirteenth day of February next, and 
will continue several days. It will include an 
exhibition of all kinds of fowls — pea-fowls, 
ducks, geese, swans fancy pigeons, gold and 
silver pheasants, &c Premiums will also be 
awarded for the best specimens of rabbits, rat- 
terrier dogs, and deer. Exhibitors wilPbc ad- 
mitted fiee at all times during the exhibition. 

Food and water will be provided by the 
Society for all fowls ou exhibition, nnd proper 
persons will be appointed to regularly feed imd 
provide for them, without inconvenience to 
the owner. Fowls intended for exhibition may 
be sent in advance of the time to the Managers, 
at Adams' Express Office, New York. 

P. T. Barxum, Bridgeport, Conn., is ap- 
pointed President; A. B. Allen, Secretary, 
and R. B. Coleman, of tho Astor House, 
Treasurer of the Society. 

Superphosphate op Lime. — A correspond- 
ent of the JYew England Farmer, says that 
last year (1852), he used guano on young 
trees tcith good result. This year ho was in- 
duced to try superphosphate of lime, but in- 
stead of making the "vegetables jump, it hardly 
kept them awake." He tried it "in com and 
around com," and also on potatoes, cucumbers, 
squashes, tomatoes, &e., but did not perceive 
any benefit. The potatoes and tomatoes looked 
fair, but were not so good n3 where ordinary 
manure was used. The com cucumbers and 
beans were n little below respectability ; and 
tho "poor squashes were not able to keep 

alive upon it" 

■ ■ ♦ ■ 

Gates. — Reader, have you a set of bars in 
any place through which you havo to pass fre- 
quently? If you have, you ought to feel 
ashamed of yourself. Do repent, and uo long- 
er forego tho pleasure nnd advantage of having 
a good gate, well hung, that swings both ways 
and that will open easily, and close of itself, by 
means of a spring. These leisure winter days 
are just the time, not only to think of how it 
should be done, but also to do it! You can 
make a goto just as well as not; and we know 
that if you once make one that hangs well, 
you will never stop till every set of bars ou 
the farm is replaced by a gate. 

Hobxulexdk is the gnmd primary source of 

Inquiries imfa $nstoers. 


Wmi this crop 1 have not had n great deal 
of experience, but such as I have, nnd with 
what observation I have had in the cultivation 
of it by others, I will communicate, in uuswer 
to the inquiry in a lute number of the Rural. 
My own experience with il has hecnou light 
soil, where the yield was rather light, and some- 
what uneven; nevertheless, it was n remunera- 
ting crop— yielding a ton nnd a ludf, or inure, 
to the acre. I have seen crops of it on river 
bottoms or alluvium that would yield as high as 
4 tons per ucrc. When it grows stout und heavy 
there is more wastage in proportion, as Ihe 
large coarse straws are not eo well relished by 
stock. To obviate this a thicker seeding is 
necessary, as then the product is closer and cou- 
scqueiitly finer. 

When grown thus, nnd well cured, it is rel- 
ished much by slock of all kinds and is quite 
as good as hay. For milch cows it is equal to 
the heat com fodder. The seed grown is equal 
if not superior to the same weight of wheat 
bran or shorts, including, as it does, a greater 
How of milk. For working cattle it is in my 
opinion equal to the same weight of corn. As 
feed for young chickens, it is superior to any- 
thing else, and saves ull the trouble of wetting 
np meul — for hens it is also the best of feed. 

For soiling, millet must be a first rale crop, 
on strong rich land. It is a quick growing crop, 
and can therefore be sown at intervals to in- 
sure a succession. 

For winter forage it is well to sow sufficient- 
ly early to insure good weather nt the harvest 
For this purpose I prefer the first of June — 
i though it will answer as late :us July. Late 
sowings, however, bring the period of its matu- 
rity so near the autumnal frosts, that thore is 
liability of damage from thein, for like com it 
is a tender plant in this respect, and like com, 
too. iu another respect, its straw or slem is te- 
nacious of moisture, and therefore requiies much 
care, and some time in curing. 

I prefer to let it remain until the seeds nre 
out of the milk, and then cut while they arc 
doughy. The herbage will be si ill green and 
succulent at this point, whilst the seeds niil bo 
better for feeding, &c. The better method is to 
cut with a cradle, letting it lioin swath till well 
wilted, then bind in small sheaves, setl ins ihe 
sheaves insmullslooks well capped against ruin. 
In this manner they may remain securely in the 
field till thoroughly cured, when, if removed to 
the mow in a dry state, there will be no fear "f 
injurious heating. It is cheaper harvesting with 
a cradle, whilst there is less after loss in seed 
shelling, and time iu hauling and threshing. It 
should by ull means be thrashed bi fore feeding', 
unless it has been cut whilst in blow or just 
ufter, which some prefer, as stock will eat the 
fodder closer, whilst the seed ground into meal 
will be worth twice as much for feeding as un- 
ground Theamont of seid used lo the aero 
varies. I have seen fields sown at four and six 
quarts to the acre. I have .-own I", om ten mid 
twelve to sixteen quarts. On rich land 1 think 
the latter amount uono too much. The more 
seed used to the acre, the finer will be I lie growth 
and the more valuable the fodder. 1 would 
therefore vary the amount ofsecd to the strength 
of tl.e soil. Millet is one of the crops that will 
tell a geneious soil I o the passerby, t. e. w. 

Swkkt Fiisxen Turnips ■*. Ubta Baoas. — Will 
yon picas? inform me through the Koral, 
whether the sweet French turnip (or, as I have 
seen it marked from some gardens, sweet Rus- 
sian,) is as good for cattle for laving on of fat, 
;ls the Hula HagaV If so 1 think liny would be 
moro profitable, as on my land, (a light Baud ) I 
can raise about a third more, and I have ro sod 
at the rale of over five hundred bushels to lliu 
acre.— J. D. li., Decrjidd, Lcn. Co., Mich. 

We are not sure we understand exactly 
what our correspoudeut means by the " sweet 
French turnip." Has it a long yellow root?— 
If so it is uot so nutritious as tho Skirvings purple 
top ruta buga. If, as we suspect, it is a varie- 
ty of rula baga, we should be inclined to think 
it more nutritious thmi the Skirving's, inasmuch 
as we have found the Skirving's to contain more 
water than any other variety .,1 rata bogus. 

Sweet Potatoes. — Can you give me any in- 
formation respecting the cultivation uf sweet po- 
tatoes T I should think it might be a profitable 
branch of fanning near large cities. — U. 8- 
Xorth Chili. A'. Y. 

No doubt about it We can raise as good 
sweet potatoes here, at the North, as at tho 
South, at least as good as those we generally 
get from the South. Will some of our readers 
who have experience iu this mutter uuswer tho 
inquiry of our correspondent. 

Hvdrablio Hams.— I wish to mako an inquiry 
through tho Kukal. respecting hydraulic rams, 
where they can bo obtained, ami what amount 
of fall of water is necessary to mako them 
work wolL— C. S. Puklps, LatUs Oroek, Mich 

Hydraulic rams can be obtained at almost 
any implement or seed store; their price varies, 
according to size, from $12 to 820. Th y work 
well with from four to tju feet fall of water. 



Di-rljart antx {fatten. 


Levi Bartlktt, of the Granite Farmer, 
gives an interesting statement in regard to 
growing peaches in New Hunip.-hire. It ap- 
pears Unit in 18-10, ho sowed some [icach pits 
which came up ajid nindc a vigorous growth, 
but were entirely cut down next winter. And 
so on for three yours, during which time the 
ground was well tilled and manured. He here 
gave up the effort to grow peaches where the 
thermometer fell to 28 ° below zero, and left 
the trees lo shirk Tor themselves. Thisneglect, 
by causing a slow growth, has been their sal- 
vation ; "the trees uuw stand in the Nursery 
rows apparently as hardy as the gnarled oak." 

"Grass and weeds sprang up among the trees 
and reliiMcd their growth, and every succeeding 
winter killed less and less of the new wood up 
bo Hi" spring of L850, when scattering blossoms 
appeared on eight or ten of the trees, which 
produced fruit of various qualities. In '51, 
there was a much larger show of blossoms, suc- 
ceeded by two or three bushels of fruit. In 
Is.'.ii, I ■ in I thirty trees in full bloom, they all 
produced fruit, ripening in succession for five 
or six weeks. Last May, we had forty trees in 
bloom — probably, we had from 50 to CO bushels 
of peaches of various qualities, from very gilbd 
to poor — and of different colors, shape and 
size, and in time of ripcuiug, embracing a 
period of five or six weeks. We have grown 
upon our farm, the burdock, the mullein and 
the Ihislle, also, the peach and the grape ; the 
expense of each, about alike, but have found 
the two last the most profitable, especially the 
peach ; as we* had them in doily eating for 
weeks, and the gratification of giving bushels 
to our friends, and selling a dozen, dollars, 
worth, and of giving us many bushels to our 
pigs, besides making much use of them for 
pies, preserves, pickles, drying, uud mashing up 
a bushel or two by way of experiment, the 
juice of which made a fine white vinegar. 
Judging from our experience in the matter, we 
do not see, why peaches cannot be raised 
among us with about us much certainty and 
ease as any fruit we cultivate." 


Tiik principal reasons deduced by the or- 
chardist for neglecting, or refusing to plant as 
many ]>ear trees as will bear some proportion 
to the number of his apples, peach and other 
trees, are that the first cost of the pear tree is 
generally more than double that of the apple; 
it is longer in coining into bearing; it is more 
liable to leaf or sap blight, &c These objec- 
tions may look formidable, but they are not in- 

Jt is true, that the cost at the nursery of one 
hundred pear, is more than that of two hun- 
dred apple trees; and this must continue to be 
so, for the expense of raising pear trees for a 
suitable size lor market is much the greater; 
but when plauted in the orchard they require 
no mure attention thuu other fruit trees; in or- 
dertontukc them Jo their best, they require cul- 
tivation and attention far beyond what is usually 
extended to them. 

A well cultivated pear tree is as prolific as mi 
apple tree of the same size, mid the fruit al- 
ways sells at more than double the price of 
apples, so that the cultivator gets full return for 
his extra outlay for bis pear tree. 

It may be said (hat pears will not bear trans- 

Cortatiou equally well with apples; but it will 
e recollected that most varieties of pears im- 
prove by being gathered before they are quite 
ripe ana allowed to ripen oil' the tree; if this 
course is pursued, the objection falls. 

A very popular method of cultivating the 
pear is by working it upon the Angers' quince 
stock; by this means the tree is dwarfed and 
thrown into bearing at an early age. 

Some varieties succeed better on the quince 
than on the pear stock, while others refuse to 
grow upon the quince unless they are double 
worked ; that is, first work a free growing va- 
riety upon the quince, then the refractory one 
upou the free growing pear. 

Many persons appear to mistake the term 
" Dwarf rear," thinking smidl fruit is what is 
meant It is not the fruit, but the tree that is 
dwarf. " 

The best stock for dwarfing the pear is the 
Angers quince. The apple is made dwarf by 
bciug worked upon the Paradise stock; and the 
cherry upon the C'erasus Muhulcb. 

For the orchard we prefer t« grow the pear 
on its own stock, but for gardens und small en- 
closures we would select the best varieties that 
are known to succeed well upou the quince, and 
grow them as dwarfs. 

Varieties of the pear thnt are late in produ- 
cing fruit when worked on pear stocks, may be 
brought into early bearing by judicious prun- 
ing and pinching. 

If the tree is permitted to branch, say three 
feet from the ground, aud pruned into a pyra- 
mid form, leaving the lower branches the long- 
est, and cutting back those above, it will not 
oidy bring the tree into a handsome shape, but 
the pruniug that it gets to keep it in this shape 
tends to throw it into bearing. Pinching the 
ends of the growiug branches the lust of Au- 
gust or first of September, so as to stop the 
growth mid ripen the wood, will cause the for- 
mation of frml buds. — Farmer's Companion. 
» ■ ♦ ■ » ■ 

It is said that in an instance where the 
Washington, Iniperiul Gage and Reiue Claude 
were grafted on a damson plum tree, that the 
curculio destroyed all the fruit on the damson 
bnt left untouched tho Washington, Goge and 
Claude, which boro heavily and matured a fine 
lot of fruit 

. ■ m ■ . 

Charcoal, it is said, placed around rose 
bashes, has the effect to add greatly to the 
richness of tho flowers. 


Tiir Hvaci.vth is a native of South-western 
Asia, and is said to grow wild, very abundantly, 
about Aleppo and Bugdat. It was introduced 
into Europe about two hundred mid fifty years 
ago, and for a time was the passion of the 
Dutch florists. In 1720 they had increased 
the number of varieties to over two thousand, 
many of which are now lost. They ore still 
sufficiently abundant, however, to form a beau- 
tiful and varied ornament for the garden and 
green house. 

Ilyucinllis arc propagated usually by offsets 
from the bulbs, which under proper manage- 
ment, are formed very plentifully. (Out-door 
culture is usually employed, — of that we do 
not now speak.) It is now the proper time to 
start those intended for blooming in pots and 
glasses in the house. They can be grown in 
pots of wet sand, moss, mould, or iu water in 
properly formed glasses. In pot culture, core 
is usually taken to keep the whole bulb cover- 
ed und moist alike, until the shoots are two 
inches long. Willi the upper part exposed to 
the air and light, the development is said to be 
unequal, and the shoots sickly and abortive. — 
It should therefore be covered two or three 
inches deep with old bark, luu, or ludf decom- 
posed leaves, so at to retain tho moisture and 
partially exclude the air. "When the shoots 
arc of the required height, the covering may 
be gradually removed, mid the sunlight will 
soon restore them to their proper color. A 
large portion of sand in the mould, is ulso re- 
quisite. It assists in the proper diffusion of the 
moisture, and allows of more perfect drainage 
than can be attained in any other way. When 
tho bulbs arc planted, the pots should be kept 
in a cool room, away from any Gre, (but riot 
allowed to freeze,) mid watered sparingly, until 
the leaves appear, when they will need a larger 
su pply. Afler being thus fairly started, in a 
cool room, they may be removed to the silting* 
room windows, and in a few weeks their beauty 
mid fragrance will abundantly repay the care 
they hove received. 

The prettiest way of growing Hyacintlis iu 
windows, is that represented in the cut — in 
glasses, without earth, and allowing them the 
nourishment of pure water only. Fill up the 
glasses with rain or river water, until the bot- 
tom of the bulb will touch it, and constantly 
fill up the glass as the bulb absorbs it It has 
been thought necessary to keep them in the 
dark for the first few weeks, but experiments 
have not confirmed this opinion. It is well to 
keep them cool at first, but the exclusion of 
the light is not necessary to their perfection. — 
The water should be changed occasionally, as 
it becomes impure, which is readily done by 
taking the bulb mid roots out und rinsing 
carefully both the fibres and the glasses. — 
Single flowered varieties are generally prefer- 
red, as their colors are brighter and their bells, 
though smallor, much more numerous. 

The Narcissus, Crocus, and Early Tulip, all 
grow well in water, mid a very pretty winter 
show may be made by cultivating several va- 
rieties. Most seedsmen have the bulbs aud 
glasses for sale, at different prices according to 
their form mid variety. — n. 


WBfind in the English Gardeners' Chronicle 
tho following us the dimensions of what is 
quoted ns mi enornioii ' |in tree, quite a 
lusus natural there. It is growing in the 
vicarage of Boxley. K.CDI : height 60 feet, the 
spread of the lower branches, which feather 
quite to the ground about 45 feel, girth 9 fuel 
-1 inches at '_' feet from the ground, und 7 feet 
3 inches at (i feet. It stmids on llie ci|;;r ofu 
small pond, iu which its roots luxuriate, being 
natural to sxeampy ground. The Cypres* 
growing in the Barlram Garden in Philadelphia, 
according to the Florist, is one hundred and 
thirty-seven feet liigh und twenty feet in cir- 
cumference. In Buxton 1 Mexico, a cypress is 
alluded to, which would girth 17 yurds, over 
fifty feet, uud there were many others of equid 
size ou the Chnpultepec heights, near Mexico, 
some of which were sadly buttered by the 
American cannon al the lime of the storming 
of the fort. Thai our English cousins should 
consider a tree of nine feel girth, worthy of u 
newspaper paragraph, shows at least that they 
have not been to America, .and reminds us of 
I he Englishman, who was relating with great 
gusto to his American visitor the natural 
wonders of their Islaud, und among other 
things, as a fact, whether he believed it or not, 
that I heir great river, the Thames was really 
150 miles long. He hud never heard of that 
small stream, the Mississippi, over 2000 miles 
in length. — Farm Journal. 

Cultivation or TnR Peach. — It is generally 
advisable to tet peach trees in (he spring, 
though for most other fruit trees, fall setting is 

If you have a clay or gravelly soil, and no 
other should be used for the pouch, dig the pits 
for setting them in the fall, ut least three feet 
across and fifteen inches deep. If you throw 
iu and around n little ashes or lime it will be 
better. Set the trees about twenty feet apart 
oneway, and from twelve to fourteen tho other. 
Tho hind con then be cultivated for two years, 
which is long enough if you uftcrwards keen it 
cultivated around the tree, putting on aslies, 
lime, and marsh muck, and when the tree shows 
signs of decay from the "yellows" add a little 
salt and iron scales, filings uud cinders from the 
smith's shop. 

" What the Apple Mas savs in 1853." — 
Mr. N. P. Morrison, of Somorville, iufonns us 
that he has just received leu dollars uud eight 
cents for one barrel and 28 apples of the Hub- 
bardston variety. These apples were sold at 
50 to 75 cents a dozon. Mr. M. cultivates 
nbout eight acres of land ; his fruit crop, this 
barren year, brought him eight hundred and 
fifty dollars. For 2C bushels of upples he re- 
ceived sixty dollars. For 136 barrels, he re- 
ceived four hundred and eight dollars. For 
strawberries ami raspberries, one hundred dol- 
lars. The balance, to make up the whole sum, 
StiaO 00, was for cider apples, Bold al 8 to 12 
cents a bushel, mid for early windfalls sold in 
July and August. Perhojw some of our young 
men, will come to the conclusion, that the 
market for good fruit is not yet overstocked. 

-«-%>x^v»<\.«. #-*-*'-.•■* 

Corn Meal Punnixo. — Pour over a quart 
of corn meal sufficient boflillgwatcr to scald it, 
stirring to mix. Add half a tea-cup full of 
sweet cream, (or a cup full of milk,) mid the 
same of dried cherries, or any other fruit, with 
a little suit. When milk warm, stir in a cup 
full of lively yeast — cover close mid set in a 
warm place to rise When light, stir in flour 
to muke the halter quite slid, and let it rise 
again. Put it into a pudding bog which has 
been wrung from water and its inside dusted 
with flour or meal, to keep the pudding from 
sticking. Boil from onu und a half to two 
hours. Serve with sweetened cream. Four 
or five hours are uccessary to prepare this 

Corn Bread. — A JVcio Recipe- — Every- 
body who has been at the Mansion House, at 
Buffalo, New York, has learned the luxury of 
the corn bread there provided. Tho clerk is 
often taxed to write directions for home manu- 
facture, and I thus procured a recipe for domes- 
tic use, which I copy for yon, so that those 
who wish may try a piece of bread from the 
Mansion. It is as follows: — One quart of 
sour milk, two table-spoonfuls of snleratus, 
four ounces of butler, three table spoonfuls of 
Hour, three eggs, and com meal sufficient to 
make a stiff butler. — Exchange. 

Stewed Apple Podding. — Cover with ap- 
ples pared and cored to the depth of two inch- 
es, a deep basin or pan ; add water sufficient to 
stew them. Make a crust as for common bis- 
cuit, roll to mi inch in thickness, cut a hole iu 
the centre and cover with it the apples. Set 
the dish ou the stove or coals to cook, cover- 
ing closely to prevent the escape of steam. — 
Twenty or thirty minutes will be sufficient — 
Serve with sauce made of wider, butter, mid 
sugar, thickened with flour and seasoned with 
nutmeg. — Michigan Farmer. 
■ ■ » . . 

To take Fresh Paint on of a Coat. — 
Take immediately a piece of cloth mid rub the 
wrong side of it on the paint spot If no oth- 
er cloth is at hand, part of the iusido of the 
cootskirt will do. This simple application 
will generally remove the paint when quite 
fresh. Otherwise, rub some elher ou tho spot 
with your finger. 

1 i » ■ « 

JYuinnv Cakes. — Scald a quart of sifted In- 

diai id with sufficient water to make a thick 

batter, stir in a tablespoonful of salt Flour 
the hnnds well, and mould it into small cakes; 
fry I hem in fat enough, nearly to cover them. 
When brown upon tho underside they should 
be turned. It lakes about twenty minutes to 
cook them. When doue, split and batter them. 


nxt %x\$, fa. 

Iraned from tho United States Patent Office, 

For tho voek rnJinj; January 3, ISM. 

Alfred C.Cook, of EtusseUviUo, Ky., tot ma- 
chine for sawing level tun faces. 

Samuel <fc Thou. Champion, of Washington, 
PC. for improvements in feathering paddle 

Isaac Crandnl. of Cherry Valley, N. V„ fur 
improvement in running gear of wagons, ifcc. 

John Cullniann, of Silver Crook, 111., for ruling 

Win. S. Dillohay, of the county of Shelby, Ky., 
for improvement in straw cutlers. 

John Donlevy, of New York, for method of 
forming plates lor chromatic printing, 

F. P. biiupfel, of 1'liiladclpliin, Pa., for im- 
provement in steam boiler furnai I 

Jas. Hamilton, of New York, for improvement 
in quart?-, crushing machines. 

Michael W. Ilellon, of nioamington, Iinl,, for 
improved method of hanging and operating saw 

0eo, D. Miller, of New Berlin, Pa., improve- 
ment in tuyeres. 

Lucius Paige of Cavendish, Vt., for improve- 
ments in s>crcw bolts and nub. 

Jonathan Russell, of Philadelphia, Pa, for 
machine for cutting irregular forms. 

Matthew Stewart, of Philadelphia, Ta, for 
improvement iu floor plates of malt kilns. 

Edward A. Tuttle, of Williomsourgh, N. Y., 
for improvement in hot air registers. 

John li. Terry, of Hart ford, Conn., for improve- 
ment in machines for sticking pins. 

Zina S. Ogdon, of Glenn's Kails, N. Y., assignor 
to Lewis C. Ogdeu, of Glenn's Kails, aforesaid, 
fur improvement in lowering, raising and fasten- 
ing carriage tons. 

Dexter H. Chamberlain, of Boston, Mas?., as- 
signor to himself and Neheiniah Hunt, of same 
place, for improved mode of banding pulleys 
lor saws. 

James H. Longbotham, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
for improvement in dying bookbinders' hoards. 

Ceo. A. Hander, of Hamburgh, Pa, for im- 
provement in corn shelters. 

Clins. Muller, of Now York, for improvement 
in muchiucs for costing type. 

Win. H. Price, of Philadelphia, Pa, fur im- 
provement in bedstead fastenings. 

Philip P. Taploy. of Lynn, Mass., for improve- 
ment, in machines for polishing leather. 

Wm. If. Tdton, of New York, for improvement 
in guitars. 

Claude Desbeaux, of Paris, Prance, for appa- 
ratus for turning the leaves of Ixsoks. 

John Shuttlewortb, of Frankfort, Fa, for im- 
provement in power looms. 

Joseph Mason, of New York, for improved ar- 
rangement for cutting screws in lollies. 

Reuben M. Hine, of Mentz, N. Y., assignor to 
Horace C. Silsby, of Seneca Falls, N. Y„ and 
Reuben M. Hine, of Mentz, aforesaid, for im- 
provement in shanks of hay ond manure forks. 

Thos. W. Harvey, of New York, assignor lo 
John B. Kerry, of Hartford, Conn., for improve- 
ment in machines fur sticking pins. 

Shcrburn C. Blodgolt.of Philadelphia, Pa, for 
improvement in hemming and cording umbrellu 

Patrick Clark, of Rahway, N. J., for improve- 
ment in regulating the damper of steam boilers 
by the pressure of the steam. 

" Robert H. Collyer, of Sou Francisco, CoL, for 
improvement in quartz pulverizer. 

Theodore F. Kngclbrccht, of New York, for 
improvement in double acting spiing hinges. 

Bauford Gilbert, of I'ittsbtirgh, Pa, fur im- 
provement in corn smellers. 

J. Durrcll Greene, of Cambridge, Mass., for 
improvement in breech-loading fire-arms. 

Jos. B. Holmes, of Cincinnati, Uhiu, for im- 
provement in machines for nailing washboards. 

Samuel Malonc, of Tremout, 111, for improve- 
ment in corn planters. 

Goo. F. Page, of Baltimore, Md., for improved 
ratchet catch for head hacks in saw mills. 

Thos. Rogers, of Philadelpliia, Pa, for ma- 
chmo for cutting hand rails. 

Houry C. Nicholson and James Spralt, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, for improvement in scaling pre- 
serve cans. 

Orcu Stoddard, of Busti, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in machines for sawing logs. 

Wm. Wright, of Hartford, Conn., for improve- 
ment in operating cut-off valves of steam-engines. 

Wm. H. Smith, of 1'liiladelphin. Pa, f..r im- 
provement iu utilizing slags of furnaces. Origin- 
al patent dated Dec 7, 1852. 

Cornelius W. Blanchord, of Clinton, Mass,, for 
improvement in looms for printing figured fab- 
rics. Original patent dated Aug. 3, 1852. 
■ ■ ♦ ■ « 


Dr. Riddeli, officiating superintending Sur- 
geon for the Nizam's army, in making experi- 
ments on the Muddar plant of India, (Asctepir 
Giguntea,) had occasion to collect the milky 
juice, and found that as it gradually dried it 
became tough und hard like gutlu pcrcha. — 
He was induced to treut the juice in the some 
manner as that of the gutlu pcrcha tree, und 
the result has been the obtaining of a sub- 
stance precisely analogous to gutta pcrcha.— 
Sulphuric ucid chars it; nitric acid converts jt 
into n yellow resinous substance. Muriatic ucid 
has but little effect upon it: acetic ucid has 
no effect, nor hos alcohol. Spirit of turpentine 
dissolves il into a viscid glue. When token 
between the finger and thumb, pressed togeth- 
er, ond then Bcpuratcd, it shows numberless mi- 
nute and separate threads. The foregoing 
chemical tests correspond exactly with the es- 
tablished results of gutta pcrcha It becomes 
plastic in hot wntcr, and bos been moulded in- 
to cups mid vessels. It will unite with the 
true gutta pcrcha. The Muddar also produces 
mi excellent fibre, useful iu the place of hemp 
and flux. An ucre of cultivation of it would 
produce a large quantity of both fibre and 
juice. The poorest land suffices for its growth, 
and no doubt, if well cultivated, there would 
bo a large yield of juice aud n finer fibre. A 
nearly similar substance is procurable from the 
juice of the Euphoria Tiracalli, only win n il 
hardens after boiling, it becomes brittle. — 
The subject is most important; and if common 
hedge plants liko the foregoing can yield a 
product so valuable, the demand for which is 
so certain quickly to outrun supply, a material 
addition will have been made to the productive 
resources of tho country. — Journal of the So- 
ciety of Arts. 


It appears that o Mr. Seymour— about to 
take up his ubodo in the land of nuggets— com- 
uik-ioned Messrs. Biolclicld lo construct B num- 
ber of portable houses, mainly with thnt mate- 
rial which they have been so instrumental in 
rendering publicly useful, papier-macho I Tho 
paper village, when made, was temporarily sol 
up in the grounds of the factory. It consisted 
of ten houses. One of these was a villa with 
nine rooms, each twelve feel high; another was 
Storehouse, eighty feet long, with a silting- 
ronm, kitchen, and two bed-rooms attached; 
while the rest were small houses varying' from 
two to six rooms each. The villa hud a draw- 
ing-room and a dining-room, each with a buy 
window, a hall, several bed-rooms, two closets, 
and a kitchen. The chief material of all H" 
houses is papier-mache us ordinarily used, bnt 
contains an admixture of rags not reduced to 
pulp, which enables it to solidify ns hard as a 
board. The walls ore double, to insure venti- 
lation; mid the partitions hove o strength mid 
durability which will put to shame Uie lath and 
plaster mockeries of loo many of the London 
nouses thnt Jack built The roofs arc nearly 
flat, just inclined sufficient to throw off the rain 
wafer. The flooring, with the joists attached, 
is mode in large square pieces; and, like the 
walls and the ceilings is bo planned as to lie 
Irunspiirted with ease and rapidly set up. It 
was found on trial that one of tho smaller 
houses could be pulled dowu mid re-built in 
four hours. If, as is stuted, this paper and rag 
building matcriul can be odvuntageously used 
for barracks, mid park-lodges, and shooting- 
boxes, and billiard-rooms, wo see no reason why 
A ustrnliu should monopolize these paper houses. 
— Household I fords. 

* ■ ^ ■ » 

IIorsr Power and Steaji Machines. — As 
we hove received o number of communications 
lately rcspeeliug the "horsepower" of steam 
engines, we present the following condensed 
from Bourne, who is held by practical engineers 
Osgood authority : 

liorse power is an amount of mechanical 
force that will raise 33,000 lbs. one foot high 
in a minute. Tliis standard was ndoplcd by- 
Watt as the average force exerted by a strong 
horse. His engines were made of a certain 
size, corresponding to their recorded honso 
power; that is, I he diameter of the cylinder af- 
forded a key to the power of the engine, as the 
steam carried was uniform in pressure, mid so 
was the velocity of piston. At the present day, 
we ennnot say that a certain diameter of 
cylinder is the key to its power. The steam is 
the power, nnd some engines whose nominal 
horse power is given by the bore of the cylinder 
may exert double the nominal amount. 

The ntiinber of pounds pressure on the square 
inch multiplied by the number of square inches 
in the nrea of the piston, and by the uumber of 
feet the piston travels in oue minute, gives the 
amount of impelling force. About onc-lcuth 
the power so calculated, is deducted in large 
engines, for friction — the remainder is the ef- 
fective force, which, if divided by 33,000, gives 
the actual horse power. — Scientific American. 

1IE.VS fiEST. 

C. V. Ambnt, of Dnnsville, N. Y, has mado 
one of the most astonishing inventions which 
for many long years has fidlen beneath our uo- 
tice. It is nothing Jess than a hen's nest so 
constructed that when the ovipositing Shang- 
hai or Cochin having arrived at her full lime 
shall have deposited the embryo of a future 
fowl, the ovum passing through on aperture in 
the lowermost portion of the neat, mid falling 
upon an elastic cushion beneath, shall pass 
into a receptacle destined for its protection 
from the chilling frosts of winter, or the greedy 
ottocks of some egg-eaiing quadruped. But 
judge the astonishment of biddy when arising 
from her seat und looking oroung her she be- 
holds that the precious deposit lias vanished 
forever from her sight ? The inventor having 
the necessity of the public fully before his eyes, 
has applied for o patcnL — Set. Am. 
« * ' ■ 

New Tvn.nei.ixo Machine. — Tho New 
York papers describe a new tunneling machine 
iu operation at Harlem. The machine is said 
to be, in effect, a huge seventeen foot augur, 
slowly turniug at the rate of one revolution 
per hour, nnd advancing at the same tiuio from 
four to eight inches per hour, according to the 
solidity of the rock perforated. Tho total 
weight of the machinery is 150,000 Iba Sixty 
horse power of Steam, two engineers, and two 
men to shovel out the broken rock, compre- 
hend the expense of working the machine, 
which, making allowance for necessary inter- 
ruptions, may be run twenty hours per day. 

India RumiER Beneath Rails. — The New 
York Central Railroad Company have assum- 
ed the expense of loving one or two miles of 
indiu rubber under I heir tracks, intending to 
obviate materially the present destruction of 
rails mid machinery, mid do away with tho 
noise attendant upon the motion of the train!). 
We arc glud to learn that this invention is to 
be tried in this country. A patent was taken 
out in England two years ago, but wo have 
never heard of its adoption there. 

. , ♦ , . 

New Is, i m - of Boots and Shoes. — Measures 
have been token to secure a patent for a new 
kind of boots mid shoes, invented by Albert 
L Mur<k>ck, of Boston. The soles, and the 
lower portions of boots and shoes arc mode of 
India rubber, orguttu percha, while tho upper 
portious are formed of some textile fabric, 
such as woolen, cotton, 4c. The lower portions 
of the boots and shoes protect the bottoms and 
sides of the feet from wet or moisture, while 
the upper portions form an clastic covering for 
tin.' upper part of the feet or l.-g.-s and keep the 
lower portious properly adjusted to tho feet, 
und at the same tunc allow the free perspiration 
to pass off. 

■ • i ■ 

IlEUF.iiiiKu that point is ono of tho best 
known means of preserving implements; wagons, 
and wooden machines of all kinds. 




(For Mooto'h Rural Kcw- Yorker.) 


Having for some lime made this occupation 
a business, and, daring that lime, been an at- 
tentive observer of the organization, arrange- 
ment, and government of common schools, aud 
feeling a deep and lasting interest in the well- 
being and education of the youth of our land; 
and knowing that by far the greatest portion of 
them receive their book learning ut the Dis- 
trict School — I propose now and then to say a 
few words to the public, through the medium 
of the Rckai, New-Yorker on this subject 

Nor is the teacher free from the cares attend- 
ant upon his profession, from the commence- 
ment till tho close of the term. They follow 
him by day, and at night his mind is not free 
from them. Any thing that tends to hasten 
and make more lusting and useful impression 
upon the minds of his scholars, is full of living 
interest to him. Dc sees in them men of future 
growth and action ; whose thoughts and deeds 
are but tho exemplification of his precepts and 
examples upon tho young und susceptible mind. 
They arc, in his hands, as clay in the hands of 
the potter. Ho may form their minds at his 
will,— giving tone and shape to their future 
course in life. And the thoughts that are so 
easily impressed to-day, may not be oblitera- 
ted to-morrow, but remain as indelible as the 
natural colors of the African race. 

And however well the individual may be 
educated that proposes to enter upon tho du- 
ties of a teacher, although he may have spent 
four of the best years of his life in college, 
and spared no pains to cultivate his mind 
thoroughly and correctly in nil that may per- 
tain to a liberal education, yet, in the true 
sense of the wool ho is not fully prepared to 
enter successfully upon duties of so vast im- 
portance, until he has candidly weighed these 
facts, viz: — that he needs a constitution like 
iron, a delicate sense of duty, and an unwaver- 
ing spirit of perseverance in all he finds to do. 
Without these qualifications, he will find him- 
self unarmed wilh the necessary instruments, 
offensive and defensive, to combat all the oppo- 
sitions, all the coldness, all the prejudices and 
all the ignoranco of those who should be his 
most zealous friends. I mean the patrons of 
his school. I have found by long experience, 
and close observation, that the only course 
which can be pursued with safety to both 
teacher and scholar, is for the former to study 
and know his duty and net accordingly, regurd- 
lcss of the very many different and erroneous 
opinions often entertained and advocated by 
communities and districts. 

Hunt's Hollow, Jan, 1854. 

■ ■ ♦ ■ » 
[Written for tho Kural New-Yorker.] 


Every new specimen of human intelligence, 
is an item, occupying on original position in- 
dependent of all present and preceding, except 
in those influences accessible to reason und 
judgment through the alembic of the mind, 
with no advantages over the first of its race, 
excepting the assistance of others in the appli- 
cation of influences, to hasten maturity of the 
reasoning powers, so as to be able, not ouly to 
reflect the light of others, bnt to emanate light 
of its own, constituting the true philosophy of 

And though it is claimed there is no rule to 
demonstrate the existence of intelligence, with- 
out material organization, yet in imagination 
myriads may exist in all conceivable forms aud 
conditions; and it might be considered folly to 
attempt to prove, and the height of presumption 
to insist upon others believiug,#in the truth of 
imagined conjecture only. Still, what matters 
it, if those who desire to hide ignorance, clothe 
the incomprehensible operations of Nature 
wilh the attributes of Divine Intelligence, or 
with the qualities of a demon, when, as her 
laws are obeyed or contravened, so will the at- 
tributes of a Deity, or the qualities of a demon, 
bo exhibited in evidence of, tho truth of such 

Although it might be difficult to admire that 
faith which believes true an inferred conjec- 
ture based on an unsolved problem, yet such 
faith would compare with that which believes it 
possible to convince an intelligent mind of a 
truth withont evidence. 

And after all, similar results arc pursued in 
our present system of juvenile education; the 
abstruse studies are presented to the candidate 
for knowledge, before reason and judgment 
are matured, so as to be able to understand 
what is presented as evidence of truths taught 
consequently many juveniles pass for prodigies, 
if able to advance a few score of opinions, on 
obstruse subjects, and at the same time, unable 
to give a reason, other than what is found in 
books, for one of them. 

Knowledge i3 not surely gained, until the 
pupil is nble to give reasons of liis own, in Ian 
guoge of his own, and still be the true reason. 

S. Graves. 

HarsoUua, Job. 2nd, IBM. 


w^^ m 

— 2"<" '"a - It 







Iscfitl ©Ik 

Tire above engraving represents a scene in 
the deserts of Arabia, where the sons of Isn- 
mael, whose hands are against every man, and 
every man's hand against them, are reposing 
in the shadow of their touts. These are pitch- 
ed upon one of those singular oases scattered 
here and there over the broad surface of the 
desert like tho islands of the ocean, affording 
rest, shelter, and fresh water, to tho wandering 
and restless followers of the Prophet. 

The fleet and noble courser, who is the fa- 
vorite animal and constant companion of the 
Arab, is appropriately mingled in the scene. — 
Of all the numerous aud'vuluablo varieties of 
the equine race, the Arabian is the most cele- 
brated iu history, in romance, and in song; and 
next to his favorite wife, the steed that bears 
him over the sands with the flcetness of the 
wind, stunds nearest in the affections of this 
wild wanderer of the desert. And the dumb 
but intelligent brute, is not a whit behind his 
master in his affections; following him like a 
dog, obeying his voice and gesture with as- 
tonishing sagacity, sleeping with hiui iu the 
same tent, sporting in harmless gambols with 
his children, and sharing with them even the 
last meal 

The camel is the most useful of all animals 
to the iuhabitants of desert countries, for with- 
out them existence could not be maintained; 
but in this, as in an infinite number of instan- 
ces besides, the thing absolutely necessary is 
placed in the affections of mankind behind that 
which ministers to luxury or show; and thus 
the horse is made the companion of the Arab, 
while the camel is made his slave. 

Sir Walter Scott in the outset of one of 
his bc3t stories, entitled the "Talisman," has 
given a thrilling sketch of an encounter be- 
tween a redoubtable Crusader, Sir Kenneth, of 
Scotland, and a Saracen, which took place be- 
side a spring called "The Diamond of the 
desert," that welled out amid a trackless waste 
of sand The narrator contrasts in the most 
vivid manner, the heavy, unwieldy, but resist- 
less power of the Christian knight in his mail of 
proof, and the light and agile evolutions of the 
Arab and his steed. The former was like the 
sword of Richard of the lion heart, that would 
sever, nt a single stroke, nn iron stanchion; the 
latter was like the scimitar of Saladin, that 
would cut a web of gossamer while floating up- 
on the breeze. The knight proved nfterwards 
to be the Earl of Huntington aud heir to the 
Scottish crown, and the Saracen the renowned 
Saladin himself ; mid both lived, according to 
the romancer's account of the affuir, to do yeo- 
man as well as kiugly service in the cnuso of 
their respective religious faiths. The courser 
of Saladin may be represented by that in the 
accompanying cut, nud that of Sir Kenneth 
by one of our best imported Clydesdale steeds. 


Tite want of good pastures and fresh streams 
is very unfavorable to cattle, but the camel 
makes amends to the Tartars of tho Oitousfor 
the absence of the rest It is the real treasure 
of the desert It can remoiu fifteen days or 
even a month without eating or drinking; and 
however miserable the country, it always finds 
something to satisfy it, especially if the soil is 
impregnated with salt or nitre : plants that other 
.mini il will not touch, brambles, or even dry 
wood, serve it for food. Yet little as it costs 
Jo keep, the camel Ls more useful than can be 
imagined out of the countries where Providence 
has placed it Its ordinary burden is seven or 
eight hundred weight, and thus ladon it can go 
forty miles a day. In many Tartar countries 
they ore used to draw the coaches of the kings 
or princes; but this can ouly boon flat ground, 
fur their fleshy feet would not permit them to 
ascend liills and draw a carriage after them. 

Notwithstanding this softness of its foot how- 
ever, the camel can walk over the roughest 
roads, stones, sharp thorns, roots of trees, etc, 
without being hurt. But if obligetl to walk 
too far, the real sole of its foot wears out, and 
the flesh is luid bare. The Tartars, under such 
circtimstunccs, make it shoes of sheep-skin; but 
if after this the journey is still much prolonged, 
the creature lies down and must bo abandoned. 

There is nothing the camel dreads so much 
as a wet and marshy soil. When it places its 
foot on mud and finds it slip, it begins to stugger 
like a drunken niun, and often lulls heavily on 
its side. Every year, toward the spring, the 
camel loses its hair, and it all goes to the last 
fragment before the new comes on. For about 
twenty days it is as naked us if it hod been 
clean shaved from head to tail; and then it is 
extremely sensitive to cold and rain. You may 
see it shiver ull over, like a man exposed to 
cold without clothes. But by degrees the hair 
giows again: at first it is extremely fine and 
beautiful, and when it is once more long and 
thick the camel can brave the severest frost — 
It delights then in marching against the north 
wind, or standing on the top of a hill to be 
beaten by the tempest and breathe the freezing 
air. Nutumlists have sometimes said that, cam- 
els cannot live in cold countries; but they could 
hardly have meant to speak of Tartar camels, 
which the least heart exhausts, and which cer- 
tainly could not bear the climate of Arabia. 

The fur of an ordinary camel weighs ten 
pounds; it is sometimes as soft as silk. That 
which the entire animal has under his neck und 
along its legs is rough, tufted, and black; but 
the hair in general is reddish or gray. Tartars 
do not tuke any care of it, but sufler it, when 
it falls off; to be lost. In the place where the 
camels feed upon you may see great bunches of 
it, like old rags, blowing about; and sometimes, 
in the hollows and comers of the hills, large 
quantities will be drifted by the wind. But it 
is never picked up, or only a small portion of 
it to make a coarse sort of sacks and carpets. 

The milk of the camel is excellent both for 
butter and cheese: the flesh is tough, ill-flavor- 
ed, and little esteemed by the Tartars. They 
make use, however, of tlie hump, which they 
cut in slices and take with their tea. 

It is said that Heliogubalushud camel's flesh 
served at his banquets, and that ho yraa espe- 
cially partial to the food. Of this latter dainty, 
which the emperor had the glory of discover- 
ing, we cannot speak; but we can affirm from 
our own experience, that the flesh of the camel 
is detestable. — Hue's Journey through Tar- 

■ ■ ♦ . . 


Eiioxy is a wood that is very hard and close 
grained, susceptible of a very high polish, and 
its colors are black, red, green, and sometimes 

Black ebony Ls found in the Indies, St Do- 
mingo, Ethiopia, the Island of St Maurice, 
and Madagascar, where the natives call it black 
wood. The green is found also in the Antilles 
and in the Isle of Tobago. 

Authors and travelers give very different 
accounts of the tree that yields block ebony. — 
By some of their descriptions it would bo like 
u palm tree, by others, a cytisus. M. Klacourt, 
who resided many years at Madagascar, as 
Governor, says that it grows very high and 
large ; its burk is black und its leaves resem- 
bling those of our myrtle, of a deep, dusky 
grccu color. It yields an agreeable perfume 
when laid on burning coals. When green. 
it readily takes fire from the abunduuee of its 

Candia also bears a little shrub which goes 
by the name of Ebenus Crelicu; it is a slender, 
elegant shrub, with silky leaves and rose-colored 
flowers. It is ctdled ebony because its wood is 
hard and bluck. It is said to be heavier than 

The tree that yields the green ebony is very 
bushy, its loaves arc smooth, of a fine green 
color. Beneath its bark is n white layer about 
two inches thick; all beneath which, to the 
very heart, is a dark green, npproachiug 
towards a black, though sometimes streaked 
with yellow veins, It is used for tlie purpose 
of coloring, nud is said to possess some medi- 
cinal qualities. 

The black is used for ornamental purposes, 
such as Mosaic work, toys, canes, handles for 
tools, knives and 6ome kiuds of musictd in- 
struments. The Indians make statues of 
their gods, and sceptres for their princes of 
this wood. Black ebony is used more than 
the other colors ; the best is n jet black, free 
of veins. It is now much less used than it 
was by the ancients, since the discovery of so 
many ways of giving other hard wood, a black 

i . » i 

Mahogany — This is ono of the most useful 
as well as one of the most ornamental woods 
in the world. It grows in immense forests on 
the American continent within the tropics, from 
whence it is exported in tho log, to all the civ- 
ilized countries. It is then cut into thin slabs 
and used in tho manufacture of elegant furni- 
ture, which is thus made to assume tho appear- 
ance of solid mahogany. 


Who that hag crossed the Atlantic, has failed 
to see the Eddystone Light-house? It is erect- 
ed on one of tfie rucks of that name, which lie 
in the English Channel, about fourteen miles 
S. S. W. from Plymouth, and teu miles from 
tho nearest land. These rocks are now much 
elevated above the sen, and at high water arc 
covered with it so that many gallant and valu- 
able ships, with all on board, formerly perished. 
In 1696, anil in 1706, lightrhouses were built 
on one of these rocks, the first of stone, and 
the second of wood, but both perished; the 
firs i being washed away, and the second burnt 
So that at the end of 1755, passing ships were 
exposed to all their former dangers. 

In the early part of the following year, Mr. 
Smeaton, a self-taught civil engineer, was re- 
commended byLordMurili-liild tho President 
of tho Royal Society, and he undertook to 
erect a new light-house, which should resist 
alike the winds the waves, and the flames. — 
This plan, it was almost universally believed, 
would fail; but the fact was, that the public 
did not understand the great principles on 
which he was about to proceed. Men were 
set to cut deep into the rock for a foundation, 
which was at length secured. The whole work 
was a solid mass, for every stone iu the vast 
circular building was dove-tailed to the rest; 
so that it was impossible auy part should move 
without the whole moving, and the rock also. 
By the labors of 2,074 hours, which was idl the 
time the)' could work in more than three years, 
the whole undertaking was completed, it has 
stood the most terrific storms which history has 
recorded, without the slightest injury, for near- 
ly a century, to the vast delight of its friends, 
and is one of the grand objects of which the 
English people boast — Watchman and Rcf. 

JSmto llcabing. 

•' *.'*»*• *. «*/-*** 


In regard to temperance, I am inclined to 
think that the inhabitants of southern Italy, 
and of the wine-growing countries generally, 
enjoy a reputation somewhat beyond their des- 
erts. It is true that it is very" rare to see a 
man absolutely drunk; but it is not uncommon 
to see those who have drauk more than is good 
for them. But even where excess is avoided, 
the constant use of wine in considerable quan- 
tities is unfavorable both to health and good 
morals; to health, from the febrile and inllama- 
tory state of the system to which it leads, and 
to good morals, from the irritability of temper 
and quarrelsome spirit which it induces. If 
the proportion of the cases of stabbing brought 
to the Roman hospitals which occur in or near 
wine-shops could be known, I have no question 
that it would furnish a strong fact wherewith 
to poiut the exhortations of a temperance lec- 
turer. There is nn added temptation to drink 
abundantly of wine, from the nature of the 
usual food of the common people. This, being 
principally vegetable, does not' especially in 
cold weather, supply the waste of nervous ener- 
gy, but leaves even when the appetite is satis- 
fied, a certain dull uud indefinable craving, like 
being filled but not fed. Wine relieves this 
sense of flatness and inertness by the momenta- 
ry glow and fillip it gives to the languid blood ; 
but the relief thus derived is like the heat of a 
fiire of thorn, und there is thus constant induce- 
ment to repeat and increase the remedy. If 
the common people of Rome uud its neighbor- 
hood could eut more meat and would drink 
less wine, there is little question that their 
health and morals would be the better for the 
ehaugc. — HillartTs Six Months in Italy. 
. « ♦ . ■ 



MrTnouorrr the clouds Iu Huron >o fair 
Were boa with title* oiled— 

pirea iuid turroti gleaming there, 
Just like the carta Id ihe nir 
Wo often I'M]. I. 

These islands, In tho realms of (pace, 

Sailed on through sea* of blue. 
And thcro I could distinctly traco 
The axuro wing and angel faco 
Of one I know. 

She tat opon a radiant throne. 
And wore a crown of light; 
More glOriOQfl than the sun nl aooDj 
A heavenly halo round her shone— 
Her robes were white. 

Sho was a pleasant angel here, 
Before wings had been givoa 
To bear her to that blissful shoro 
Boyond tho silver cloud so near— » 

Her naUra Heaven. 

Tve seen her at Die elck child's bed- 
Watch with unsleeping eye, 
rutil lis gentle spirit Hod, ' 

On rosy pinions from the dead, 
To God on high. 

When sunlit clouds are floating W, 

I often bow to hear 
The sweep of wings from yondor sky, 
Whore ministering angels fly 

Kr'.'in to sphere. 

(Written for Sloorc's Ruml Now- Yorker.] 


Dickens closes his Child's History of En- 
gland, in the Household Words of December 
111, with the following tribute to America: 

"It was iu the reign of George III, lhat 
England lost North America, by jwrsisling in 
taxing her without her own consent That 
immense country, made independent under 
Washington, and left to itself, became the 
United States: one of the greatest nations of 
the earth. In these times iu which I write, it 
is honorably remarkable for protecting its sub- 
jects, wherever they may travel, with a dignity 
and determination "which is n model for En- 
gland. Betweeu you and me, England has 
rather lost ground in this respect since the 
days of Oliver Cromwell." 

We commend this as a lenitive to the 
wounded sensibility of those who absurdly took 
ofTence, where no offence was intended, at the 
allusion in the JVcwcomcs, by Thackeray, to 
Washington. If we smart under the lash of 
one English author, there is another to pat us 
ou the back. If Dickcus, in his book of trav- 
els, touched us on the raw, there was Cham- 
bers, in his petting letter, the other day, to 
coax und wheedle us. If wo quarrel with 
Thackeray in his uovel, hero is Dickens, in his 
history, to make peace with us. If Americans 
cannot suffer criticism, no one will deny their 
power of endurance under flattery. We do 
not doubt, then, that our vanity will absorb all 
the good that is said of us. As we were quick 
to square off with Thackeray, so we shall not 
be slow to embrace Dickens. 

■ . ♦ . . 

Our Country a Hundred Years Hence, — 
A hundred years hence, and the population of 
the United States, if it increases as it has in 
times post, will be about three hundred aud 
seventy-nine millions. That will be equal to 
one-third of the present population of thewhob 
globe. Where there is one person now there 
will be 16 then. What a teeming host! And 
yet there will be room for all. Uncle Snm is 
rich in lands, nud all may have laud and em- 
ployment But what will be the state of the 
country then? Will education be fur advanced? 
Will virtue und religion be generally extend- 
ed? Where will the seat of government be? 
Washington will be about as far from the cen- 
tre us Boston would have been from that of 
tlie thirteen original States. What will be the 
state of politics? What will be tho honor of 
the President? But it is useless to ask ques- 
tions in regard to these matters. Time will 
bring forth. Our duty is to bo good and do 
good. Thus we may lay the foundation for 
good in the future— Exeter JVetct Letter. 

Early impressions arc considered the most 
interesting and important of all thoso which 
are received during life. Interesting because 
they are full of all the buoyant feelings expe- 
rienced by those who are in the morning of 
youth, in the spring time of life. The mind at 
this time begins to expand, and may be com- 
pared to the opening bud, spreading its leaves 
to the enlivening and beautifying influence of 
the sun. 

In early youth, the mind, that living princi- 
ple within, is continually seeking something to 
satisfy the craving of its insatiate appetite. It 
seizes upon that which lies within its grasp. — 
It acquires hubils and indulges feelings which 
form the whole character, and control the sub- 
sequent acts of life, thus causing the most triv- 
ial and insignificant things to tell on the desti- 
nies of a future existence. The youthful mind 
unsuspectingly quaffs copious draughts from 
the pure ocean of pleasure which rolls in sweet- 
ness o'er the souL The rich treasures of tho't 
are just disclosed to our view with bright and 
joyous images gathered from tho storehouse of 
nature, which will accompany us through the 
dark vale of human existence, divesting it of 
many real and fancied ills. 

Early impressions are the food which nour- 
ishes and supports our intellectual nature, or a 
corrodiug poison, that, mingling with the stream 
which follows us, for refreshment gives only 
weakness, for support destruction. It is nn in- 
controvertible truth that they can never be en- 
tirely erased, however low or exalted the sta- 
tion fortune may allot us. How often in after 
life, when hope's fairy visions have fled, when 
ambition's gaudy laurels no longer delight the 
heart, does memory, that faithful chronicler of 
the past, revert to those illusory dreams of 
childhood's sunny hours; and though cxperi- 
euce has taught us their falsity, we turn to them 
as the polar star of the future. 

It is in childhood's early day, before tho 
mind has become indurated by the vicissitudes 
of life, that superstition exposes its direful form 
and seeks to enter the portals of the youthful 
mind. It is easy, thus curly, to imbue the liv- 
ing fountain with unholy principles, which will 
poison the pleasing cup of existence. Wilh 
what rigid scrutiny ought we to select those 
objects with which we suffer our attention to 
be eugrossod; for iu youth we riot in a profu- 
sion of blissful anticipations, and revel in tho 
enjoyment of society. May wo study with 
zealous care to improve the golden hours which 
we now enjoy, and as wo drink deep from 
hope's perennial fount, strive by faithful efforts 
to experience the reality of her bright visions, 
that when time has furrowed the cheek with 
the cares of life, and the eye is dimmed with 
age, we can look back upon the reminiscences 
of youth with a pleasure that will shed a rich- 
ness and a beauty around our pathway, and 
like ^Eolian melody call back those kindred 
spirits that dwelt with us in happier days, and 
which seem to linger near and pour their per- 
suasive strains upon the ear, until a gcutlo 
zephyr wafts them to a brighter clime. 

But when we consider these impressions im- 
perishable as the soul, and that when time with 
all its scenes and changes shall have passed 
away, tho mind, with the impress it receives 
during the early period of its brief existence 
hero, will yet live on during untold ages, how 
important then does it appear that they be 
such as will lit us for a higher, holier state, and 
enuble us whilo eternity rolls ou to bo forever 
ascending in the scale of intellectual and moral 
excellence. b. u. k. 

North Rldgeway, M. Y. Jan, ISM. 

Tub brevity of human life is recognized in 
tho abstract by nil men, and yet they act as if 
it would endure forever. 



[Written for Moore's Kami Now-Yorker.] 


Wk seek not tbo pearls of the Ocean— 
Wo search not for gems of the mine — 
Wu delve not for gold of tbo mino; 

But we strive with a purer devotion 
For the treasures of Wisdom divine. 

Our heajta am not Hieil on Hie Heeling, 
Our rpiriU not bound '." the earth— 
Our wills soar away from 'I arth — 

For Virtue and Truth Hi-.- are beating 
A happier measure tluin inirlb. 

We era mine™ In search of true treasure. 
For the rielic* of Truth do we mine— 
I For the ore of true knowledge «„ mino— 
Asuayvrs— our work 'Us, and pleasure. 
The gold from tho dross to refine. 

Then gtvo us the wWom of agee, 
The virtue and boldness of youth— 
Ihe ipirit and courago of youth— 
And we upon Time's marble pagd 

Will grave a new record of Truth. — B. 

» ■ ♦ ■ « 

(Written for Moore's Rulni New-Yorker.) 




Time, in its continuous round of change, of 
rapine and destruction, has ground to utorns 
the proudest productions of ancient learning; 
but still, as if in mockery, has spared a few 
specimens whereby wc nrc made known the 
immensity of otir loss, and arc left to mourn 
over the annihilation of many a tome of splen- 
did genius. We are therefore compelled to 
detach from Poetry— which is, at best, but a 
doubtful and extravagant source of knowledge 

and infer from Fiction, f?ueh matters as arc 

necessary to substantiate History. 

Of all the writers of antiquity, on Morals, 
Philosophy, and History, we may say, perhaps, 
Pujtarcu was the most worthy of being 
spared. His philosophy is natural, and comes 
warm from the heart; his incidents and exam- 
ples are always appropriate and touching: 
Indeed, the sympathy he everywhere expresses, 
and the benevolenco he endeavors to inculcate, 
constitute the chief beauties of such of his 
writings as have been preserved. He united 
himself to no sect, but selected the beauties and 
consistencies of all, to adorn his owu philoso- 
phy, while he rejected their superfluities or 
form and absurdities of belief. Living nt a 
period when the religion of the Bible was con- 
fined within the boundaries of Palestine, he 
had no polar star to guide him in his endeavors 
to instruct the world and increase its happi- 
ness: Yet, he expressed many of the senti- 
ments of Divinity, as if its noble conceptions 
were implanted, originally, in his breast 

But yet, notwithstanding the excellency of 
P«n tucu's works, how neglected are they!— 
The learned and philosophical read, study, and 
pass encomiums upon them; but the triflcrs, 
the devourers of fiction, who lounge upon sofas 
aud weep over imaginary misfortunes, kuow 
nothing of their merits, nor of the writer; only 
as he may be referred to in the fashionable 
productions of the day. Depraved in taste, it 
cannot perhaps be expected that they can ever 
admire his inimitable compositions; and they 
thus make recompense for their early mis-edu- 
cation. But the rising generation should be 
protected. The public Libraries, that are 
springing into existence in every section of the 
Union, should be the guardians of the young. 
No novel should disgrace their shelves; but 
History, Philosophy, and Poetry, should em- 
brace their contents: and Plutarch should be 
among the first authors placed in the hands of 
youth, to enable them to form a correct taste, 
and lay the foundation for a sound understand- 
ing.— i- 

» ■ • ■ 


Ir is related that Chateaubriand, on return- 
in"- from his eastern travels, was asked ir he 
could assign a reason why the women of the 
Jewish race were so much handsomer than the 
men, when he gave the foljpwing oue: — ■•.)<■«■- 
esses have escaped the ofee which alighted 
upon lli.ii fnthcrs. husbiuiH, and sons. Not u 
Jewess was to be seen among the crowd or 
priests and rabble who insulted the Son orGod, 
scourged Him, crowued Ilim with thorns, and 
subjected Him to infamy and the agouy of the 
cross. The women or Judca believed in the 
Savior, and assisted and soothed Him under 
affliction. A woman or Bethany poured on 
his head precious ointment, which she kept in a 
vase ol alabaster. The sinner anointed his 
feet with perfumed oil, and wiped them with 
her hair. Christ, on his part, extended mercy 
to the Jewesses. Ho raised from the dead 
the son or the widow or Noiu, and Martha's 
brother Lazarus- He cured Simou's niothcr- 
in-law,and the woman who touched the hem 
or his garment To the Samaritan woman he 
was a spring of living water, and a compassion- 
ale judge to the woman in aduletry. The 
daughters or Jerusalem wept over him; the ho- 
ly women accompanied him to Calvary, bought 
him balm and spices; and weeping, sought him 
in the sepulchre. 'Woman, why wecpest 
thou'/' His first appearance after the resur- 
rection was to Mary Magdalene. He said to 
her ' Maryr At the sound of his voice, Mary 
Magdalene's eyes were opened, and she answer- 
ed, ' Master.' The reflection ol some bcauti- 
. Tul ray mast have rested ou the brow or the 

» i *> ■ » 

The world grows wiser, and it is hojied bet- 
ter with each succeeding generation. 

[COKCLDDKO TOO* IMOE 28, Trus XOmil.!!.) 

"La, my dear old soul!" interrupted Kllie, 
laughing good-humorodly, "Miss Pumelaand 
1 think alike in all respects. You don't, think 
fdjdisobey her, do you? She told mo to come 
here, and here I urn. She told me to take the 
dogs Tor company, and they followed me. She 
told me to put the pistols in mv pocket for 
protection, and here they are. She told me 
that I mustn't refuse to marry cousin Sum. mid 
1 don't mean to. And so, if cousin Sam will 
take mo ' for better or for wor e,' hero 1 am — 
nil meekness and obedience! Lai Mrs. Scropc, 
you don't know what a girl 1 am, aud how 1 ve 
been brought up. 1 mean to turn Scropc Hall 
out or windows when we are married. Did 
yon over follow the hounds Sum? — it's such 
funl" Sam faintly said " N 0," rel real tog furl her 
and further, pursued by the young lady, her 
dogs having quietly stretched themselves on the 
rug. At length mutters reached their climax, 
for Miss Elspeth Cordon, pulling oil" her gloves, 
placed one lily hand on Sam's shoulder, nnd 
with the other begun patting his fat, white 
cheeks, saying, in a coaxing tone, "Ducky 
mustn't be frightened. Ducky will learn to 
leap a five barred, won't he? — and to ride 
steeple-chase, won't he, to please Ellief 

Blushing scarlet, Sara eluded her gentle 
touch, and rushed from the room, while Mrs. 
Scrope, bewildered and miserable, persuaded 
her singular guest to ndjoum'to the chamber 
prepared for her rcceptioik She re-issued 
thence in the same attire, merely having cost 
aside her slouched hat, and substituted a vdycl 
cap of conical form in its stead, beneath which 
her hair was not visible, while the green spec- 
tacles rested on her nose as before. Arter the 
repast was over, (u repast most uncomfortable 
to Mrs. Scrope and Sam, who scarcely tasted 
food, or uttered a syllable, the young lady talk- 
ing incessantly all the time about horses, dogs, 
fire-arms, her own wonderful feats, and what 
she would do when she became her own mis- 
tress,) Kllie took out a cignr-cuso and handed 
ii to Sam, inquiring indifferently: 
" Do you smoke?" 

Too "much astonished and embnrrassed to 
reply, the young man looked at his mother 
who, with grave looks, answered for her son: 
"No Miss; Sum doesn't smoke, and allow 
me to say, it is remarkable to see a lady carry- 
ing and offering such things as those." 

" Lai ma'am: Aunt Pamela said lo me: don't 
forget your cigar case, Kllie," replied the guest 
with simplicity; "and so you see I didn't for- 
get it" 

" I don't allow any smoking on my premises, 
Miss, said Mrs. Scrope, authoritatively. 

"Well, well, ma'am, don't put yourself in a 
passion," rejoined Kllie, sweetly; " I'll wait till 
they're mine, mid then see ir I don't Emokeyou 
outl Ha, ha, hal But perhaps Cousin Sam 
is a snuff-taker " — handing to the wretcned 
Sam mi unique gold box foil or " Prince's mix- 

"No, Miss; my son does nothing or the 
kind,'' replied Mrs. Scrope, she uloue being tho 
speaker; Sam's heart was too foil for speech; 
"and allow me to remark that snuff-taking is 
another singular habit for a young lady. 1 " 

you may tell her so— she'll kill mo ; loll her to 
be gone. Oh— oh— what a twinge! I wish she 
hndil, the Jezebel! and she laughed at mo too. 
I'll never forgive that." 

" But the forty thousand, Sam," said Mrs. 
Scrope. sighing deeply ; " think of thai, Sain." 

" I do think of that, mother," said tho misera- 
ble Sam ; "audit almost Breaks mv heart, il 

docs, to give it up. 1 wish she'd give mo up ; I 
wish with all my heart that she had taken a dlB- 
like to me." 

" Ah. my darling," said the fond mother, 
. .. i cannot wonder that she does i>- -t do that, 
The mortification will bo severe enough when 
nho has to return to that precious Miss Pamela 
with tho tidings thai you have refused her.— 
But, after all, alio may improve, Sam, mj door, 

mid perhaps il is worth while to try ; for il -1) 

you possess forty thousand ponndsol your own, 
it would be very convenient to have as much 
" Mother," replied Sam, solemnly, " if yon 

"La, ma am," responded Elbe, smiling im- 
perturubly — "Miss Pamela said tome: 'don't 
lorget your snutl'box, Kllie:' and so you see I 
didn't forget it. I'll teach Sam lo snuff fa- 
mously when he's my husband Won't wc 
snuff aud smoke, Sam? Are you fond ofhome 
brewed, Sam? You should sec our groom 
drink it" 

" You're a water drinker, I observe, Miss," 
said Mrs. Scrope, stiffly, by way orsayiug some- 

Elspeth looked very sly, and smacking her 
etty lips, replied, " Ah! I uiu't 
you should see me sometimes!" 

pretty lips, replied, "Ah! I ain't thirsty to-day, 

u should see me 

"And this is the young lady or Miss Pame- 
la Gordon's bringing up?" 


said Mrs. S 
when she had retired lor the night, tears or 
vexation ready to start rrora her eyes: " this is 
a wife for my poor Sam. She'll marry him per 
force; I see she will, she's so desperately in love 
with him already. They say opposites often 
fbney each other in this way; but if she had a 
million instead of only forty thousand pounds, 
she'd never do for Sam. I see her eyes spar- 
kle through those green glasses; she'll smoke 
me out — 0, to be sure!" 

Mrs. Scropc in the habit or thinking aloud, 
did not remark that her maid Martha loitered 
in the room, as il desirous or speaking out 
something which burdened her mind; and un- 
able to keep it any longer, the handmaid broke 
out with: — Oh, Missis, 'xcusc me, but Tom, 
Miss Gordon's groom, us come with her, says — 
at least he hints, which is much the same — 
that Miss Kllie won't never do for Muster 
Samuel. She's a regular lass or spirit, he says, 
and he means more than he says. And ho 
says outright, with such a broad grin on his 
red race, that ir Miss Kllie ever marries Master 
Sam, she'll horsewhip him to a dead certainty, 
and turn the old one out of doors. Yes ma'am, 
she calls you ' the old one.'' 

" Alasl* thought Mrs. Scrope, as she laid her 
head that night on a restless pillow, " what is 
to be done?* There is near forty thousand 
pounds at stake. What could Mr. Whitehead 
mean by tnakjng such a will? — and knowing 
this odious Miss, too!" 

For one whole week did Miss Elspeth Gor- 
don turn Scropc Hall completely topsy-turvey; 
never was such a din and racket heard; the 
servants grinned, and ran hither and thither, 
mid Mrs. Scrope was nearly out of her mind 
with fright nnd vexation. Miss Elspeth also 
made such desperate love to Sam, that Sam, 
flattered aud bewildered, mid inveigled out on 
a wet day to widk with the Amazon through 
tho woods, and following her steps through 
brake and brier, fairly stuck in a dismal swamp, 
got soaked to the skin, and took to his bod nt 
once, putting his nose out or the blankets only 
to ask '• if that Jezebel had goner 

" No, my dear," said liis anxious mother, 
" your Cousin Elspeth is not gono yet ; sho 
wants to see you." 

" Toeeo me*" cried Sam. " What I would she 
follow uic even into ray Back chamber, the impu- 

wish to scelho in my grave, you'll marry me to 
this dreadful woman. Tom Bicks,Mi«8 Pame- 
la's groom, a most respectable man, who has 
lived with Miss Pamela these twenty years, and 

,vi wife is cook there— Tom Hicks told me, 

that if over Miss Kllie Gordon was my wife, hi r\l 
not give a brass farthing for my life. 'If she 
marries you, sir, she'll worry you to death in a 

year ; if you marrv her, sir. you'll get a' , 

'Rut Tom Hicks didn't, say what, though I guess 
ho meant a tartarl No, mother, my mind's 
made up ; I'll have nothing to do with her, and 
you may tejl her 6o at once. She laughs so 
wildly I"". I declare I'm all over Bkeene like 
when I hear it. Let her go! let her gol— and 
well rid of her at ativ cost." 

■■ Do you really mean to tell me, ma'am, that 
Mr. Samuel Scrope, "f Scrope Hall, absolutely 
refuses to marry me?" cried Miss Etepcth Gor- 
don, in a voice of high indignation. " I'll not 
give him up so easily — no, that I won't, that I 
won't," and tho voice almost rose to u hysterical 
sub and laugh. 

"Calm yourself, pray, miss," replied Mrs. 
Scrope with severity — she did not care about 
keeping terms now the chance has gone; "calm 
yourself, pray. My son's mind is quite made 
iip ; and, allow me to say, that the sooner you 
return to tho protection of Muss Pamela Gordon 
the better, as we particularly desire a quiet 
house, now my poor son is so ill— an illness, 
miss, entirely brought on by your extremely 
improper anil indelicate proceedings." 

•• I'll tell Aunt Parol" whimpered the young 
lady, taking out her cambric handkerchief.— 
" I'm badly used by cousin Sam— that I am. — 
You asked" me here to marry me to him; nnd 
now I've come, you send me'off again, jus-l be- 
cause cousin Sam don't like mv green specs." 

" No, miss; you well know that is not die rca- 
miii why my son rejects the honor of your al- 
liance," responded Mrs. Scrope, ljridling up nnd 
getting very red in tho face; " mid if you had 
ten thousand times forty thousand pounds in 
your hand to oiler him for marrying you. he'd 
refuse the bribe, miss." Mrs. Scrope spoke \ cry 
loud. " My son, Samuel Scrope, will never 
marry, for the sake of lucre only, n smoking, 

snuffing, horse-whipping, dog-baiting" 

" Go on, ma'am — go on with your peroration," 
Bobbed the young lady, with her handkerchief 
at her face." " I'm very badly used — that I am; 
mid I caDnot face Aunt Pamela, and tell her all 
this. She'll never believe it. unless cousin Sam 
writes her a letter all in form, to say he won't 
marry me. I cannot tell her myself, ma'am— 
indeed I canuot," aud Miss Elbe begauto blub- 
ber violently. 

" Well, I'm sure if you'll go away in pence, 
miss, my son shall write the letter at once, and 
communicate, in formal terms, his rejection of 
your. hand," interrupted Mrs. Scrope, only too 
glad to clear the house on any terms. 

" I'll go when you give me the letter— but 
won't, you let me see Sam?" said the green-spec- 
tacled damsel, in a wheedling tone, sidling up to 
Mrs. Scrope, with her comical velvet cap vibra- 
ting from some inward emotion. " Give my love 
to cousin, then ; and if I may not see him, tell 
the dear fellow that I'll he a sister to him in 
heart, if he refuses rac for a wife." 

"Indeed, I'll tell him no such thing, Miss," 
paid Mrs. Scrope with asperity, " he'd rather not 
have you in either character. You've half killed 
him ; and the mischief your two dogs have done 
is incalculable. You shnll_ have the letter in 
half an hour ; so please be in readiness for de- 
parture, Miss, if it quite suits your convenience. 
Excuse my want of ceremony, but a sick house. 
Miss, must plead for a mother's want of time ; 
bo I bid you a very good morning, and wish you 
a very pleasant journoy, Miss, mid pray present 
my compliments and Sam'scomplimentsto Miss 
Pamela Gordon." As tho incensed lady hurried 
out of the room, and up stairs to her son's 
apartments, what a wild elfin laugh rang in her 
tare! What could it bo? It was doubtless 
tho Jezebel in hysterica ; and Mrs. Scrope has- 
tened her steps. 

Mounted on Vixen, prancing and curvetting 
down the avenue, nnd attended by Tom, with 
Juno and Peto bounding aud frisking for joy, 
Mi.-- Khrpcth Gordon, provided with tho letter, 
turned her head and waved an adieu to Scropo 
Hall ; mid as the Utile cavalcade receded in the 
distance, again the same clear laugh floated past 
on the morning breeze. 

It was not very long after these events, when 

jfrjr % I afc-its. 


She I- thine — the word [»»] 
Haul I" hand mil heart to heart 1 

Though all other Uei aire broken, 
Time these bonds •IiaU never part. 

Thou host Liken lirr in gladncm, 
From tlio altar's holy elirlno; 

O, n'tni-mbcr In her sadness, 
Sho U thine aud only thluol 

In so fair .1 b-iiipli- never 

Aught of 111 can hope t" oomi ; 

flood will strive, and striving over, 

stake mi pure a sbriuo Ito borne. 

Encll thu other's love possessing, 
Say what care should cloud tho brow? 

She will be to thee a lib tag 
And a shield to her to IhOO. 

[Written for UoorVl Rural New-Yorker,] 


BY MRS. kf. W. R 

•'Do noUiing without advice, and when thou hast once 
done, repent not." — BCOtu 

Mrs. Scrope — who hod never ceased to lament 
.the loss of Mr. Whitehead's fortune, even going 
the great length of upbraiding Sam for having 
been too premature in rejecting the young lady, 
was informed by her older son in person, of Ins 
approaching marriage with Miss Elspeth Gor- 
don. Mrs. Scrope was, of course, delighted to 
hear that the money, after all, was not going out 
of the family ; but concluded her remarks by 

•■ Well Prank, I'm sure I wish you joy of 

Eour bargain ; forty thousand pounds is not to 
b sneered at, as I told Sam. However, you 
have line health and spirits, and may be able to 
manage her ; but mind. I shan't bo in the least 
astoiuished, to hear that your bride has horse- 
whipped you before the honoymouu is over." 

"Never mind, mother," cried Frank, gaily 
laughing, •' if she horsewhips rac, I'll Hog her 
soundly, I promise you. I hope you'll come 
and boo us soon, mid bring Sam with you. 1 11 
promise that Ellie shall behave herself." 

To Mrs. Sorope's dying day she never could 
comprehend by what moans her eon trunk 
Eardley had wrought so wonderful a cliaugo 111 
his wife ; and even Sam, who always remained 
n bachelor, was heard to declare, that if he could 
meet with on exact counterpart of Frank's wife, 
ho too would marry. 

•■ But who could guess," said Sam, " tlint mat- 
rimony would transform a mad woman, in odi- 
ous green spectacles aud a sugar-loaf coo, into 
a mild, pretty, kind creature, who never laughs 
at a fellow because ho's got a cold or a focc- 
oebo V" 

Gkniuh is desirable, but application is indifl- 

lOUOl? uic tit" '»»■ mj Muniuaiuuia, Uiouuira- 1 " , , ° ' .i|„„ * 

dent hussy? I'll never boo her again, mother; 1 pcnsablo to great excellence. 

No parents who have token a proper inter- 
est in the well-bciug of their children and 
society, can have foiled to contemplate with 
concern, the prevalent leudency to too early 
marrioges. When young people marry in the 
immaturity of youth, form hasty and iuconsid- 
eralc connections, how can any thing be ex- 
pected for them but disappointment? They 
form an alliance which should be terminated 
by death alone, before the mind has discovered 
what is really wanting to constitute its highest 
happiness. This tendency is clearly traceable 
in many instances, to parents themselves. It 
does appear to mo that our children partake 
very much of the "spirit of the age," in the 
rapidity with which they pas3 from babyhood, 
to the assumption of responsibilities belonging 
to men and women. Wc too often see a moth- 
er, as much delighted with the attentions be- 
stowed on her ehild-duughter, as is the child 
herself, who is not slow lo discover the weak 
points in her mother's character, and fortunate 
indeed, if her own good sense preveuts her 
taking advantage of them, to her own injury. 
In our daily walks we meet mere boys, who 
ought "to tarry at Jericho till their beards 
have grown," gallanting the little misses, talking 
nonsense'nud feeding them with confectionery. 
I heard a lady remark not long since, that "now- 
adays, a fine horse and carriage, and a paper 
of lozenges, form the preliminaries of a court- 

I am aware that in cities particularly, it is 
very difficult to restrain children from assuming 
their own guidance, before the judgment is 
sufficiently matured to understand the just re- 
quirements of social life. Yet they should, as 
fur as parental authority can be properly exer- 
cised, be prevented from mingling too freely in 
each other's society. In the first flush of im- 
agined maturity, what more natural, than that 
they shotdd full in love? or in Dr. Johnson's 
language, "exchange glances, reciprocate civil- 
ities, go home and dream of one another, find 
themselves uneasy when upart, and therefore 
conclude they shall be happy together." Thoy 
marry, and when too late, they find each other 
destitute of those qualities, on which alone a 
permanent affection can be founded — too lute, 

"Itegret, unchecked by hope, devour* his mind, 
Ho feet* mduippy, aud ho grows unkind." 

Cowr-ER has furnished a vivid picture of the 
evils resulting from enrly marriages, in his fable, 
"Pairing time anticipated." After relating 
that the young birds, deceived by a beautiful 
day, contrary to the advice of more experienced 
ones, immediately paired and built nests, he 
describes tho disastrous effects of this precipi- 

" But Uioogh tho birds were Uiua In hiun>, 

Tho loaves came on not quite «o fast; 

And desUny, that souii-Umes bear* 

An aspect stern on men's affaire. 

Not altogether smiled on their*. 

Tho wind,— of late breathed genUy forth— 

Now shifted cut, and east by north; 

Bare troe* and shrubs but iu, you know, 

Could shelter them from rain or snow ; 

Stepping Into their nests, they paddled, 

Th. m-vlves were chiUed, th«lr cjrg* wore addled 1 

Soon, every father bird and mother 

Grew quarrelsome, and pecked each other. 

Parted without the least regret, • 

Except that Uioy had ever met, 

And learned in future lo bo wiser, 

Than to neglect a good adviser." 

I do not quite like it, that the Poet should 
have represented that all the evils rcsultiug 
from this false step, were traceable to the 
blandishments of a little female bird, 

" With golden wings »nd saUu poU." 

However, wc will let that pass, pocket the in- 
sult, and appropriote the moral 

I think parents frequently commit on error, 
in treating the fancies of their children as silly 
vagaries, unworthy their attention; thus driving 
them to other and indifferent persons, for that 
sympathy which is so important to them. How 
many parents know less of their children's con- 
duct than others, from the very fact. Hint the 
children do not confide to them their little 
plans mid secrets,— the parents being in fact, 
almost the only ones from whom they wish to 
hide their acts. It is a matter of the first im- 
portance to a young girl, to have a sensible 
mother, who should be the solo recipient of her 

fidl confidence. The daughter may rest as- 
sured, the judicious motlter will never advise to 
nny course which is not consistent with her 
duty and well-being — the mother will endeavor 
with unselfish kindness, to hide her little alte- 
rations, and enter with reeling into all her little 
plans for enjoyment Young people often 
withhold their confidence, from a fear that their 
parents will sneer at their childishness nnd folly. 
Their hopes nnd disappointments, pleasures nnd 
pains, are matters of much moment to them; 
they are in fact, " the stuff their yonng lives 
are made of," and exert a powerful influence on 
their future. 

A young person of your own sex, and nearly 
of the same ago, is rarely found to be a safe 
depositor}' for love secrets. There are so many 
trilling interests, for each one to consult ou his 
or her own account, that disinterested friend- 
ship is a rare virtue. I would by no means en- 
courage suspicion, but would recommend the 
advice of Burks to his young friend : 

" Ay free, afl" han' your story tell, 

W 1 11 n wl' a bosom crony ; 
But dtill keep fomethlng to yoorsol 

Yo scarcely (ell tn one. 
Conceal yoursel wcePs yo can 

Frae criUcol dissection; 
But Jtoek thro' ev'ry other man, 

Wl' sharpened sloe InspccUon." 

It is a very important matter in a family of 
brothers and sisters, to submit in many cases 
to the judgment of each other, in regard to 
associates. Young men, by their position in 
life, have many opportunities of lcariu'iig the 
I habits and pursuits of their own sex, that fe- ' 
malc3 cannot command. No girl should ven- 
ture to receive attentions from ouo whom her 
brother had seen to frequent any of those places 
kept purposely for the gratification of pervert- 
ed appetite, even though the place be so aris- 
tocratic that the prices of its viands, cigars, 
and wines, exclude the poorer class, who indulge 
thosame tastes ou cheaper materials. No right 
minded brother could see his sister exposed to 
the blandishments of a vicious man, wiUiont 
warning her of her danger. There is some- 
thing so beautiful in the confiding love of a 
sister, that my heart always warms toward 
those who evince it. 

On the other hand, a sister can much more 
easily ascertain the real character, tastes and 
habits of her own sex, than the lover. Iu fact, 
it is rare that a young couple understand each 
other's characters till after marriage. I think 
it would be well for parents to mingle more 
with their children in company. Under proper 
regulations, it is decidedly advantageous for the 
sexes to associate. I have known young girls 
to receive the attentions of gentlemen for 
months, under the same roof with the parents, 
without theirever seeing him. This is certainly 
a culpable indifference on the part of the pa- 
rents, who should require an introduction of 
the suitor, and become acquainted with him, 
that the daughter mny have the benefit of their 
judgment and penetration. 

Only a few days since, I was reading in a 
newspaper, an account of the miserable end of 
n young female, who persevered in receiving 
the attentions of a man to whom her father ob- 
jected, because he believed him to bo a dis- 
honest man. She believed tho professions of 
the lover, who promised immediate marriage, 
and persuaded her to elope with him. When- 
ever she reminded him of the marriage cere- 
mony, he put her off, till at length he grow tired 
of her, and his character was seen in all its de- 
formity, even by her, his too yielding dupe. — 
She clung to him with a woman's love, till he 
fled, to escupe from the offended laws of his 
country, leaving his poor victim, to a life of 
degradation, from which her heart revolted. — 
She committed suicide, rather than return to 
her heart-broken parents, or pursue the only 
course left her by the perfidy of her professed 
lover. This is but one of the many instances 
in which the most lamentable results have fol- 
lowed a disregard of parental advice. 

As a means of preventing boys and girls 
from becoming too familiar, wonld it not be 
well to have their little meetings under the eye 
of the parents, who should unbend sufficiently 
to remove constraint? It would relieve many a 
little coterie from embarrassment, if the parents 
would join the circle and lead off in some prop- 
er amusement, that dco not involve the old 
fashioned kissing plays — the resort in many in- 
stances, from lack of more rational and leas 
mischievous amusement. Happy is that parent 
who retains enough of youthful feeling to send 
his blood coursing through his veins while en- 
joying a hearty piny with the children, who al- 
ways enjoy it all the bettor for having "father 
and mother" engaged in it Were this course 
to prevail more generally, it would, no doubt, 
lead to more confidential intercourse between 
parents aud children, and consequently, there 
would be less improper, and too early marriages. 

Womak's Sphere. — Woman is by far the 
fittest judge of her own sphere. Not tho in- 
dividual, but the aggregate of the sex; and 
what thoy claim as a whole, may be safely, and 
ought to he justly awarded to them. There 
are idiosyncrasies in the female mind as well as 
in that of man, but those instances are not the 
true exponents of woman's character. 



Patience, Kind Friends. 

Ix consequence of the large ami continued in- 
crensc of our subscription li>t, it. lius been im- 
possible l« Issue tho Rural, for two weeks past, 
as promptly as was anticipated — and our present 
number wdl go to press a day later than intend- 
ed. In order to gain time, the Bf< am press is 
now running both day and night, and the pros- 
peel is that we shall be fully up to time next 
week and thereafter. Meantime, wo must 
throw ourselves upon the indulgence of our 
subscribers. Though some may receive the pa- 
per a day later than was expected, it will be 
euro to reach them — and will embrace the most 
important news up to tho time of going to press. 
Grateful for tho generous support accorded to 
the Rural, wo are doing nil in our power to fa- 
cilitate its rapid printing and mailing, and feel 
confident that those interested will make proper 
allowances for a temporary delay which could 
not be foreseen or avoided. 

Dreadful Shipwreck, 

It becomes our painful lot to record one of 
tho most direful shipwrecks that has OVM fallen 

to t In- lot of our morchant marine.; and one too, 

that has been attended with nn overwhelming 
and lamentable loss of human life I 

Tho new and beautiful steamer Snn Francisco, 
Boiled from New York on tho 22d of December, 

Our Albany Correspondence. 

Ai.iia*y, Jan. 10, 18M. 

Tnp. first week or two after thu appointment 
of committeex, there is generally very little 
done in the Legislature, more than to give no- 
tices, present petitions, and plan tho work for 
tho more active part of the session. 

The present session has been more than usu- 

with some six hundred persons on board, of "Hy nolive. The Maine law has been intro- 
whom five hundred were United States troops, j duccd into both houses, and will be open fur 

Franklin Anniversary. 

Tiif. Rochester Typographical Union appro- 
priately celebrated tho natal anniversary of 
i Frasulix, tho I'atron Saint of the "Artof Arts" 
— by giving a Banquet at the Hall of Blossom's 
Hotel, on Tuesday c\euing last The craft and 
other professions were well represented on 
tho occasion, and tho entertainment was appar- 
ently satisfactory to all participants. Capitol 
responses wore mode to the regular toasts by 
Rev. Drs. Vax Ixokn, Kexdriuk and Dewey, 
Prof. Raymond, Edward Weustkr, R. D. Jones, 
Jas. Viok, Jr., H. O. Brest, C. B. Hill, C. P. 
Dewky, and others. Letters were read from 
Ex-Gov. Hunt, Hon. T. C. Peters, HBxny O'- 
Reilly, Esq., and other distinguished gentlemen, 
who were unable to attend. After the conclu- 
sion of the intellectual banquet — served by the 
more sedate and mature guests — tho representa- 
tives of " Young America" continued tho fes- 
tivities — opening their hall by twinkling merry 
feel in unison with excellent music. We shall en- 
deavor to give a synopsis of tho proceedings in 

our next number. 

. ■ ♦ ■ . 

The Weather. 

The weather (hiring tho past weok has been 
exceedingly mild for tho season. Some of the 
time it has been wet and muddy, but much of it 
has boon very pleasant. Thus far this winter, 
the prognostics of the weather wise, have failed 
most signally. It was said in tho fall that a 
kdling winter was about to come upon us ; that 
the instincts of the animal creation had fore- 
warned them to put their houses in n state of 
extra preparation ; that the muBkrat had dug his 
hole a foot or two more in depth ; that tho otter 
had fortified his habitation with extraordinary 
caro ; that the ground squirrel had been partic- 
ularly active in the corn field and hickory grove; 
that tho wild goose had taken nn early and a 
rapid flight to n more genial clime. The veget- 
able kingdom also, had put on an additional 
covering against Jnck Frost; corn husks were 
of extraordinary thickness, Ac, <tc. 

Admonished by these exponents of winter, the 
human family also, put themselves in a posture 
of defence, and then calmly awaited the onset. 
But thus far they have waited to no purpose. — 
There has been, it is true, a sort of skirmishing 
warfare going on between the antagonistic sol- 
stioial forces, and for a week or two the frigid 
party seemed to get tho upper hand. Sleighs, 
and slide, and skates, were called into active 
service, the locomotive covered its frosty nose 
with n snow plow, and the city dandy laid on 
an extra moustache by tho use of bear's gTcaso 
and Macassar. Sparkling eyes, and *iny feet, 
pecked out of plentiful surroundings of down 
and fur, and the pour wretch who could do no 
hotter, covered his shivering limbs with rags. — 
But in a few brief days tho battle was over, and 
othorcal mildness commenced its reign once more. 

and their families. On the evening of the 2-ltb, 
tho wind commenced blowing violently from 
the North-west, and continued to increase in in- 
tensity until tho morning of tho 25th, when, in 
consequence of tho breaking of the piston rod 
of the air pump, the engine suddenly stopped. 
The ship then became nearly unmanageable and 
labored heavily — Inying in the trough of tho sea. 
and every sea striking tremendous blows under 
the guards, tearing up the planking fore and aft 
on lioth sides. At the samo time they tore away 
tho railing on tho upper deck, hen coops, hay. 
boxes, barrels, Ac., nil swept off in a confused 
mass. The ship now commenced leaking bndly 
and nil hands were immediately set to work 
clearing the deck, manning tho pumps, Ac. The 
water still gaining on them, tho troops were or- 
ganized into hading gangs to keep the steamer 
from going down with all on board. 

At 7 o'clock on the morning of the 25th, the 
foremast went over tho side with all the rigging 
attached, breaking about six feet nbovo tlio deck, 
and splintering to tho berth deck. At 9 o'clock 
the vessel shipj>cd a heavy sea amidships which 
stripped the larboard paddle box, carried away 
starboard after ring post, both smoke stacks, all 
^tho upper saloon, staving tho quarter deck thro' 
and washing overboard a largo number of pas- 
sengers, including CoL Washington, Mnj. Tay- 
lor and wife, Capt. Field, Lieut. Smith, two 
ladies, names unknown, three civilians, also un- 
known, and about 150 privates; a waiter, the 
barber, and a young man, the carpenter's broth- 
er, were killed. Up to this time the water had 
gained much. A large part of her quarter deck 
was stove in, and it was only by tho greatest ex- 
ertions that the ship was kept atlont. A gang 
of soldiers was set apart to hold blankets around 
the shafts to prevent the flowing in of water. — 
Tho storm continued until the 29th, tho vessel 
being entirely at tho mercy of the winds and 
waves. The bark Kilby, of Boston, having fall- 
on in with tho wreck at this time, took off 100 
of tho passengers, tho remainder continuing on 
board until January 5th, when the survivors 
were rescued by the British brig Three Bells, of 
Glasgow, and the ship Antarctic 

Besides those who wcro washed overboard at 
tho time of tho wreck, 1 1 died on the steamer 
from sickness and exhaustion. The cholera 
broke out on board of the Thrco Bells, in con- 
sequence of the crowd of passengers, exposure, 
and want of suitable provisions and medicines, 
and a large number of them died. 

Taken all together, it is one of tho most heart- 
rending calamities that has ever happened upon 
the high seas. 

Tho conduct of Capt Wat kins, of tho Snn 
Francisco, is everywhere extolled. He was the 
last person to abandon the sinking ship, and 
with 225 others, is now on the Antarctic bound 
from Liverpool. Tho Three Bells brought her 
passengers back, and the Lucy Thompson re- 
lieved tho Kilby of most of hers and landed 
them m Now York. 

discussion in a few days. It ls in substance, tho 
bill acted upon by the last Legislature. Notice 
has been given of a bill to submit the tame to 
the people. 

Tho question of allowing city stocks to be 
deposited in tho Bank department, has been dis- 
cussed at some longth. . Onoof the best speeches 
of the session was made by Mr. I,ittlkjoiin. in 
favor of the measure. The arguments adduced 
for such a course are, that the stocks of the 
United States nnd of New York are so scarce 
that it is difficult for banks to perform the busi- 
ness necessary for the growing commercial 
wants of the State. Said stocks aro as good se- 
curity for the bill-holders as any other, nnd far 
more readily and safely converted into money 
than bonds and mortgages on real estate. On 
the other hnnd it is contended that the use of 
these stocks would have a tendency to draw too 
many into banking operations, and in times of 
commercial revulsion, disastrous consequences 
would follow. 

The Senntc havo had under consideration a 
bill to perfect the amendments to the Constitu- 
tion on the canal question. It provides a special 
election the third Wednesday in February. Of 
course this day may not be adhered to, but it 
will be likely to be as soon as that 

Tho reports of various officers of the State 
arc coming in quito briskly. The business will 
bo in full blast very soon. As most of the mem- 
bers are young and ambitious, a profitable ses- 
sion may be anticipated. 

Tho peoplo of Albany are enjoying a rich 
treat in n course of scientific lectures from Prof. 
C.Min, of the Albany University. They aro free 
and will extend through scvcrid months. The 
different clergymen embrace the opportunity 
afforded by tho presence of tho Legislature and 
the many other visitors in the city, to preach 
scries of sermons. Some of them ore largely 

The argument of the celebrated HENDnicnsoN 
case comes olf to-morrow before the Court of 
Appeals, the decision of which will be looked 
for with much interest 

The January thaw made serious fun here for 
several days. But little is said just now. 


3J.etoa llaragnijjlis. 

.VW Edward Harris, a manufacturer, at 
\\ nousockct, It. I., to encourage his operatives, 
five hundred in number, to save their earnings, 
oilers the twenty-live who shall have the lnrgf*t 
per cent, of them during the year, a j remium oj 
$'20 each, and to the twenty -five who shall save 
tho next largest he oilers $10 each. He pro- 
poses to appropriate in this manner the sum of 

j:y Six gold watches, appropriately inscribed, 
have been procured by the citizens of Itulfalo, 
to be presented lo the six gallant men who res- 
cued the sailor Wnkelee from the schooner Onei- 
dn, in October last, and a purse of §500 mode 
up to bo presented to Mr. Wood, whoso team 
was mined while carrying the life boat and tho 
men to point Albino. 

ZW A letter from Oct*. Transylvania, Nov. 
23, states that so thick a smoke arises from se\ - 
oral forests of that country, which arc on fire, 
that it is impossible to carry on the ordinary ag- 
ricultural pursuits. In nllditioJi, tho atmosphere, 
Lhe letter declares, is so saturated with acrid 
emanations as to seriously afreet the sight and 

IW Mr. Marsh, of Litchfield, Conn., has on 
his premises an apple tree which measures/our' 
teen fed. in circumference, nnd yielded twenty 
bushels of good fruit the past "season. It hail 
yielded previously to 1835,.nbnut 100 bushels a 
year. It was carried to Litchfield from Hart- 
ford by the first settlers of the former town, and 
has borne delicious fruit for 130 years. 

1 jy The Queen of Spain and tho King of 
Prussia have addressed letters of congratulation 
to Santa Anna, in reply to letters from him of 
April Inst, in which ho informs them of his elec- 
tion to the Presidency. We suppose when he 
informs them of his elevation to a quasi throne, 
thoy will send him another, a longer, and a 
warmer letter. 

$ta Swbitiw. 

Congressional Proceedings. 

abundant timo for cold and frost, and 
not do to exult too soon ; aU of which is true. — 
But it does not detract from the fixed fact, of a 
mild winter thus far, and it has cut off at least 
ono half of tho season allotted for the reign of 
frost Thosunhoslong since reached his south- 
ern declination, and is now wheeling his majes- 
tic car again towards the north. He rises every 
day higher and higher in our heavens, and ere 
many months have rolled awnv, wo shall be 
able again to say, 

"Comu, gonUe upringl utberral mtlilncw oomol 
And from tho bo*om of yon dropping cloud 
In ircntlo ohowora on our plaloa duoeud." 

Sinor the above was in type, another turn has 
taken place in the tido of success, and this 
(Wednesday) morning it is snowing fast — 
Whether or not tho triumph of tho Borean for- 
ces is to continue, •• this deponent snith not" 

' Smuoolixo dy the Europa.— A paragraph in 
our item column states that tho steamer Europn 
had boon seized and two of her crew arrested 
by tho United States authorities for smuggling. 
It appears from later advices that Dr. Winsteh, 
the surgeon of the steamer, was one of the par- 
tics, and when arrested, lace of tho value of 
$1,600 was found secreted on his persoiL Tho 
other party was John Bevan, the bar-keeper, 
who had in his possession a largo quantity of 
watches. They wcro both imprisoned. Infor- 
mation of tho intended smuggling was given to 
the officers by Mr. Cunard, the agent of tho 
line. Tho Europa was not seized, as had been 
previously reported. 

■ ' • . . — 

Commk.ndadi.e-— The merchants of Now York 
City, hnvo held two meetings in the Exchange, 

It may be said however, that thero is yet 4° T Ul( ' P ur P 0S0 of urging upon Congress the 
id that it will P ro P rict y of indemnifying tho vessels for exp 

To Aoexts and FttiKsiis.— We are publishing 
a large extra edition in order to furnish tho com- 
plete volumo to now subscribers. Hence it is 
not too lato to form now clubs, or make addi- 
tions to those already ordered. Coruo on, good 
friends, nnd wo will endeavor to honor all drafts, 
whether you count by tens, twenties or hun- 
dreds. Remember Hit not too latt to secure the 
back numbers, and hence aU your neighbors 
and friends (nnd especially the borrowers) can 
havo the pleasure of joining your club, forming 
a now ono, or subscribing singly. 

ses incurred in rescuing tho passengers nnd 
crew of tho ill-fated steamer Sun Francisco, and 
of bestowing on tho officers and crews some 
proper testimonials for their heroic exertions. 

Governments of lato havo been especially lib- 
eral in cases like this, and thero is nothing which 
stimulates men to tho performance of uoblo and 
generous actions so much as the bestowmont of 
well merited praise. 

The Genesee College.— A difficulty has aris- 
en in this institution lately, which has resulted 
in tho withdrawal of tho President, Dr. Tej-ft, 
and also of Professor Whitlook. Nearly all of 
the students of the College havo loft and gone 
to Amherst College, in Massachusetts. Tho 
difficulty has arisen, it is behoved, in reference 
to a difference of opinion as to the rostrnints 
and rules necessary in tho management of the 
mole and female departments of the Institution ; 
and is much to be regretted, for it is ono of tho 
beat and most successful seminaries in tho State. 

Tnis Horticultbrist.— Attention is directed 
to the advertisement of this popular journal— 
now, as heretofore tho leading Horticultural pe- 
riodical of America. It Ls ably conducted, and 
published and illustrated in superior stylo. Wo 
shall bo happy to furnish tho Horticulturist to 
any of our agents or subscribers at $1,50 per 
copy for plain, and $3 for oolorcd edition. 

The principal business done in tho Senate 
during the week, was a debate on the Clayton 
nnd Bulwer treaty, in which Mr. Cass took 
strong ground as heretofore against the treaty. 
Mr. Clayton replied in part, but was taken ill 
beforo closing his speech, and was obliged to 
defor it to a future day. Mr. Dixon gave notice 
of nu amondment to the Nebraska bill, repeal- 
ing that part of the act which proliibits slavery 
north of 30 deg. 80 rain. 

A resolution was offered by Mr. Pearcc, of 
Maryland, for a joint committee to express suit- 
able thanks to tho rescuers of the Son Francisco 
passengers, and adopted. 

Tho nomination of Mr. Redfield, as Collector 
of New York, was received and referred to the 
Committee on Commerce. 

House. — Mr. Cobb, from Committee on Pub- 
lic Lnnds, reported back tho Homestead bdl, 
with amendments. 

Referred to Committee of the Wholo on tho 
State of tho Union. 

Mr. Cutting from Judiciary Committee, re- 
ported n bill making tho children of American 
citizens born abroad, citizens of tho United 

Mr. Orr introduced a bill for the relief of the 
survivors of the army saved from tho steamer 
San Francisco, which was referred to the Com. 
on Military affairs. 

A resolution was offered by Mr. Chandler, like 
that of Mr. Pearce, in the Senate, for a joint 
committco to express suitable thanks to tho res- 
cuers of tho San Francisco passengers, nnd 

1 ■ » ■ ■ 

A Noteworthy Item. 

Tne man who superintends the press work ol 
tho Rural, has been ciphering a little, and gives 
ns the residt in the following note Were wo to 
add the expense of editing, type setting, mailing, 
Ac, Ac, the figures would be far more surprising 
to the uninitiated : 

Friend Moork : — Perhaps some of your read- 
ers are not aware of the expoase of publishing 
the Rural New-Yorker. If it will set them to 
thinking on the subject, wo will figure a little 
on ont item. The paper to print one week's 
issuo of the Rural costs $310. Tho weight of 
the paper is 2,790 pounds. If placed one on 
the other, closely pressed, they would make a 
pile over 12 feet high. If spread out on a 
smooth surface, would cover nearly 5, l a ' acres of 
ground. If cut info strips one inch wide, nnd 
fastened together, would reach ovor530t.j miles. 
If printed in tho old fashioned way, on n hnnd 
press, it would take a good smart man 30 days 
to work each week's edition. 

Very rcspoctfidly yours, a k. a. 

jy The daily food of Hannibal, the elephant 
nt llerr Driesbach's Menagerie, consists of four 
hundred pounds of liny and three bushels of 
oata He washes this enormous quantity of 
provender down his throat with four barrels of 
water. Besides his regular meals ho thankfully 
receives candies, cakes and apples from the vis- 

E1T The New York State Court of Appeals 
has (given nn important decision in a suit brought 
by Ex-Attorney General Chatfield, on behalf of 
tho Commonwealth, to test the title of Rons- 
sclacrwyck. The Court has unanimously af- 
firmed the title of the Van Rensselners to be 
regular and valid. 

jy Not less than £2,972,000 was remitted 
from Irish emigrants in America to their friends 
and relatives at homo in 18-18, '49, '50 and '51. 
It is estimated that if the remittances have con- 
tinued nt the same rate, upwards of four mil- 
lions must have been remitted in the last six 

jy Rev. J. M. C. Pennington, D. D., of New 
York city, has been elected President nnd Pro- 
fessor in the Woodstock, Mich., Manual Lnbor 
Institute. He is a colored gentleman, and was 
a fugitive slave at tho timo of the passage of the 
fugitive slave law. 

jy Two mammoth steamers ore building in 
Bnflido, to run in connection with the Michigan 
Central Railroad route on the opening of navi- 
gation. They nre estimated to cost $500,000 
each, and are to he named the " Plymouth" and 
" Western World." 

jy The Methodist Church in Fnirhnvcii, 
Conn., was prevented from administering the 
Sacrament n few Sundnys since, from the theft 
of tho wino reserved for tho purpose, and n por- 
tion of the communion service, by sumo unscru- 
pulous rascal 

jy Col. Benton declares that tho central 
part of the Rocky Mountains has territory 
enough to make a mountain .Slate double the 
size of all the Swiss cantons, with everything as 
grand in scenery, nnd without the drawbacks of 
its avalanches, glaciers and cold. 

gy The screw steamer Era, from Grcenoch 
to Australia, foundered on the 281 h of Dec 
about 15 miles from Lamhay, on tho Irish coast. 
Only 7 of the crew were saved. The captain 
nnd wife, and second mate and five seamen were 

EST" Extensive robberies have been detected 
nt the Custom House. Largo quantities of Can- 
ton silks nnd shawls, have been abstracted from 
the bales, and tho bnles restored to their origi- 
nal appearance. Suspicion rests upon parties 
connected with the Customs. 

In n personal altercation at the Univer- 
sity in Columbia, Missouri, between Benjamin 
Hardy, of Harrodsburg, Ky., and W. W. Thorn- 
ton, o'f Shelby ville, III, both students, thu for- 
mer was shot by the hitter with a revolver, oud 
almost instantly killed. 

gy A telegram says that nn important treaty 
had been concluded with Mexico, which gives 
the United Stntes 39,000,000 acres of land in 
the Mesilla Yallov, for the sum of $20,000,000 ; 
$5,000,000 of which is reserved for paying 
claims, including the Garay grant. 

Tho Oxford University Commissioners 
recommend the study of Locke. Thereupon 
Dr. I'usey pronounces Locko to be " ono of the 
shallowest writers who ever treated of tho hu- 
man mind," nnd, moreover, " the forerunner of 

ty Tho prico asked for Mount Vernon, the 
ninnsion house nnd two hundred acres of the 
adjacent land, Ls $200,000, while the intrinsic 
value of the property, is not estimated hieher 
than $30,000 

Letters prom tub People. — Wo ore receiving 
from 125 to 200 letters per day, the most of thoni 
well lined with tho essential requisite, from all 
quarters. When wo get oil tho names entered, 
wo propose to publish extracts from many of 
these epistles — for, aside from money and names, 
they abound in wit, humor, facts and sentiments 
worthy more attention than wo can now bestow. 

£y Lord Aberdeen Ls said to have declared 
that, having onco witnessed forty thousand dead 
and wounded men exposed on tho battle field, 
ho '• shrinks from tho responsibility of being a 
party to any warlike operations." 

gy Two hundred and cighty-threo thousand 
three hundred and thirty-two emigrants arrived 
nt New York during tho last twelve months ; 
nnd $570,322 were received, and $570,775 dis- 
bursed for their benefit 

jy The consumption of water in Philadel- 
phia, during ia r >3, supplied bv the Fnirmuuiit 
Water Works, amounted to 2,000,0110.(100 of 
gallons ; that supplied by the Schuylkill Works 
to 1,400,000,000 ' **' 

jy The steamboat Jno. S. Avery, passed tho 
mouth of tho Ohio river Jan. 11, having ou 
board 3-1 tons of sdver, which Adams A Co. wcro 
transporting eastward. 

Tho steamer Europa has been seized bv 
the officers of the Customs. Two persons, one 
of thorn tho steward, wero detected smuggling 

The hills west of San Francisco, havo 

boon found to contain pcroxyde of tin, 

Malignant scarlet fever is prevailing to 

isome extent in Buffalo. 

Another evening paper has lwen started, 

bo that Snn Francisco has now thirteen dailies. 

Archbishop Hughes had arrived at Ha- 

Parliament met at Quebec, on the lGth 


The Ladies of Texas are petitioning to 

the Legislature for the prohibition of the sale of 
intoxicating drinks. 

_ The cars on the Milwaukio and Missis- 
sippi Railroad now run regularly to Stoughlon, 
a distance of seventy-three miles. 

The Western House of Refuge nt Roch- 
ester, will cost, when enlarged as it must be 
not less than $000,000. 

Two thousand and twelve marriage li- 
censes wcro issued in Baltimore during the'prcs- 
ent year. 

. There is n German in Chatham street. N. 

Y., whe gives dinners to all poor Germans, gra- 
tis, every day. 

——Two men were killed lately nnd two se- 
verely injured, by th# fall of an embankment on 
the Toronto and Hamilton Railway. 

. Ths German who was shot in the Bedini 

not, at Cincinnati on Christmas, had just inheri- 
ted a fortune of $20,000. 

— —The failure of tho Merchants' and Me- 
chanics' Bank of Oswego, was announced Janu- 
ary 6th. 

— -" Twelve hundred murders" have been 
commuted m San Francisco, during the lost four 
years, and but one conviction has been made. 

The total number of barrels of Flour 

trnnspojtedoA et the Western railroad from Alba- 
ny, during this year was, ■171,801. 

The Church of the Holy Cross, in Troy, 

hove just been presented by N. B. Warren, with 
a peal of six bells. 

— The trial of tho policemen in the Bedini 
affair is progressing at Cincinnati, and the tes- 
timony so far is decidedly against them. 

The Mayor of New-York, in his Message 

lo lhe Councils, recommends City railroads as 
"great public conveniences." 

Baltimore consumes nbout 5,000.000 

bushels of ,-oal annually ; Phdndclphia 9.000,- 
000 ; ami Cincinnati (i.OOO.OOO. 

The Legislature of Kentucky have elect- 
ed the Hon. J. J. Crittenden (Wing) United 
States Senator. 

A newspaper has been already com- 
menced in Nebraska, at Old Fort Kearne v. cull- 
ed the Nebraska Democrat. 

General Wool has gone to New York, to 

replace the men and officers lost on the San 
I' rancisco. 

— — Scnntor Clayton, of Maryland, is con- 
fined to his bed. Ho has been seriously, but 
not dangerously attacked by the influenza 

The machinery for tho San Francisco 

Mint, to be in operation on the 1st of Febmary 
arrived out on the 10th. 

— — There aro eighty-three newspapors in 
Michigan— the aggregate circulation of these is 
over three millions nnd a quarter. 

Tho LouLsviUc Courier publishes a list 

of seventeen merchants of that city, who im- 
port their goods and wares direct from foreign 

It is stated in ono of the Cleveland pa- 

pcrs i hat orders to Pittsburgh Glass Mauufactu- 
r< r to the amount of $50,000 have been with- 
drawn, in consequence of tho Erie difficulties. 

The land c mission of Califomin, de- 
cided eleven cases on tho 13th ult, confirming 
six of 1-1.000 acres, aud rejecting five of 115,100 

The second track on the Now Haven 

Railroad will be completed in nfew days. v. hen 
there will be a double liuc of raU ou the wholo 
route from Boston to New York. 

Tho steamer Massachusetts has brought 

not far from seventy-five wrecked seamen to 
New Bedford, free of charge, within the past 
two weeks. 

The " Ericsson" steamer is still under 

treatment, nnd probably will remain. so for some 

time to come. The experiments thus far havo 
proved very unsuccessful. 

—-Tho year 185-1 began and will end on 
Sunday; there are five months in the year that 
contain five Sundays each, and thoro aro fifty- 
three Sundays in the year. 

Tho earnings of the '• People's Lino" of 

steamers on the North River, tho post year, aro 
said to have been $3-10,000, nnd the net profits 
$24*1.800. * 

The medical fraternity of San Francisco 

have formed a society of sixty-five members, to 
protect tho community from those pretenders 
who kill without a regular diploma 

— — George W. Penbody, of London, has of- 
fered a donation of $200 a yew whilo ho lives, 
to be awarded as rewards of merit to the chil- 
dren of tho public saltools of Danvers, Mass. 

A. Scotch scrvlut girl at Cleveland, Ohio, 

has received information from her mother in 
Scotland Hint she is heiress to n cash fortuno of 

In Connecticut, n man named Lucas has 

boon sentenced to tho State Prison for six years, 
for i.lncing obstructions upon tho Middlctown 
Railroad track. 

Tho Senatorial term for which Mr. Crit- 
tenden has recently been elected by the Ken- 
tucky legislature, extends G years' from noxt 

The Senate's bill to perfect tho amend- 
ment of the Constitution to complete tho canals, 
names Die 3d Wednesday in February for tho 

A list of tho Presbyterian clergy of Scot- 
land occupies fifty-two pages, while the li-i of 
all other denominations occupies a little over five 

Two Half-Brced Indians, at tho month 

of tho CoquiUo, Southern Oregon, are said to 
have recently dug out ono hundred and fifty 
pounds of genuine gold ore. 

A parly of engineers sailed from South- 
ampton on the 17th, per steamer Oronoco, to- 
survey the Isthmus of Darien, for the purpose 
of constructing o ship cannL 

— ; — A slight shock of nn earthquake was 
felt m Memphis on the INth ult, between the 
hours of six and seven o'clock. It lasted but a 
few moments. 

Too Cleveland Plaindealer says that tho 

Common Pleas of that county granted 21 di- 
vorces at its last sitting. 



foreign Intelligence 

Arrival of the Baltic. 

Tlio Collins mail steamship Baltic, arrived at 
New York, Jan. 12. 

Sho li-fl Liverpool at 9 o'clock on Thursday 
evening. 2!lth nil. 

The news allV-cting the Tiirko-KuK.« : .iii wnr is 
highly important. The Divan met on tlio I8tb 
nil., wlien, nfior a long and animated discumioii, 
it was resolved to nutliurir.e the ministry to 
rtatc M, .H the Siihlimu Porte would willingly 
Bend a | ■ 1 ■ iii| ■.]. in i;o v to -'.in. place in neutral 
territory for the purpose of treaiing for peace, 
and at the BalUC time would bo willing to accept 
the guarauty of the four powers that the prin- 
cipalities should lie evacuated immediately up- 
on tlic conclusion of « peace. 

On the contrary, we learn that tlio Czar, in 
iioii-ofhV.ial communications to the courts of 
Ucrliu and Vicuna, has stated his determination 
nol to agree to any proposition for peace, unless 
considerable concessions were made to Russia. 

The question hod become much more coui- 

tlicated by tlic intrignes of Russia in Sweden, 
'ersia and I ndiii, and according to the general 
tOnoof the English press, a goncral war through- 
out Europe ami Akui i* now inevitable. 

The only event of political importance is the 

di C of Lord l'abnerston to retain office. — 

The reason assigned is that his ditrerences with 
government on the Reform bill have been ad- 
justed. The Times renuws its assertion that the 
foreign affairs had nothing whatever to do with 
hi- tender of resignation. 

Letters from Paris distinctly state that Louis 
Naiioleou was very peremptory in his determi- 
nation to protect Turkey after the alfair ul Sin- 

pnooaess ok IBB war. 

The allied fleet it was said had entered the 
Black Sea, although the public are unaware 
with what instructions they entered. 

This. hick of information, which appears so 
remarkable to A moricaiLs, is far from being the 
result of accident. The governments of Europe 
keep the telegraph in their hands, and sutler 
mil lung to pass over it but what suite their pur- 

The Turks are preparing for an expedition 
av'a.ust Sebastopol. 

Tin- overland lndinn mail brings confirmation 
that ihe Shah of Persia left Teheran with his 
army— atl.llUt) cavalry. 1.0UU cannon and 3,0ffl) 
rami I loads of ammunition to aid Russia. At 
latest accounts they hail passed Tabrer. The 
Shah had also sent nu envoy to Dost Mahomed 
to point out the advantage of his siding with 
Persia ami the Russians. 

Odessa letters of the 8th state positively that 
the Jagoudib, Ul) gun Russian ship, was lost at 
the battle of Sinope. This ship was bravely at- 
tack! d by a Turkish frigate and both vessels 
blown ii] . 

Admiral Osman Pacha has himself had a 
limb amputated, and now lies in a dangerous 


The Turks estimate their loss at Sinope, iu 
ships, munitions and treasure, at 20 millions of 

The detailed account of the massacre of Sin- 
ope, broilgllt by the English friguto Retribution, 
' ""lii hi- the previous statements which had 
beet) made as to the heroism of the Turks, the 
unrelenting ferocity of the victors, and the la- 
mentable extent of the disaster which has oc- 
curred. Ali Hey, the captain of thu frigato Nu- 
vick, rinding a combat with a Russian line-of- 
battli -ship hopeless, threw a lighted match into 
his powder magazine, and blew up his own ves- 
sel and that of tho enemy. The Turkish Ad- 
iii. rah in a small frigate, only yielded ton three- 
decker of 120 guns, after he nail inflicted con- 
siderable damage on his opponent, ami had him- 
self l"-l a leg in tho action. In no naval en- 
gagement recorded in modern times has a hope- 
less resistance to overwhelming force l>een main- 
tained with more desperate resolution. 

According to a letter of u Constantinople cor- 
respondent, out of 4,1110 Ottoman sailors, only 
I,(J80 — and those mostly wounded — survived the 

The details of the past events do not bear out 
tho victories claimed l>y the Russians. 

The European residents of Smyrna, have col- 
li , -ted JUO.tltill francs to send to the Frank vol- 
unteers in the Turkish army. The Governor of 
Snijrua and the Fronch Consul General have 
given orders to seize all incendiary publications 
coming from Greece. 

On the 1 1th of December, the anniversary of 
the birth of Mahomet was celebrated with very 
grcol splendor at Constantinople. 

It was very generally reported in all tlio prin- 
cipalities that an armistice during the winter 
months would be agreed upon. Bullhis would 
eiiuble Russia to tako the field in the spring 
with not much short of 180,000 men. 

It appears that the Moldavo-Wallachian mi- 
litia, recently incorporated with tho Russian 
fore -, cannot be trusted in the field against the 
Turks. They are therefore to bo employed to 
do garrison duty in the principalities. 

Arrival of the Europa. 

Tun Europa arrived at New York, Jan. 16th, 
with •-'! | .-L-v-1 ngeix 

Lord W. Stuart is at Constantinople endeavor- 
ing io induce the Porto to enroll an European 
Polish Legion, to entice desertion of Poles from 
the Russian army. 

The ratification of the treaty between Russia 
and Persia was done at St. Petersburg, Decem- 
ber 18th. The Persians were daily expected to 
attack Bagdad. 

Turkey li/is formally accepted the Persian 
declaration of war. The Shah of Persia has dis- 
iini.-i d all French, English, German and Itahuii 
officers from his army. 

'I'll.- Hritish Parliament is appointed to meet 
for business, Jan. 31st. 

There had licen a severe storm on the Black 
Bca, and ho sail lost. 

Capt. Dear), of the steamer Prince, from Liv- 
erpool lor Dublin, reports having seen a largo 
screw steamer sink in tho roccut gale in tbe 
Channel. Much anxiety is felt to know what 
steamer is missing. 

At Constantinople, the Porte is acting in tho 
roost friendly accord with the representatives of 
the powers. 

On tho 20th. a company of Wallacbin militia 
seised their newly appointed Russian officers, 
beat them soundly, and then deserted with five 
of them to Kalofat. 

Toe Chronicle states that the Turks have rais- 
ed (besiege of Akiskaand Alexandriaiiople. — 
30,000 Turkish irregulars have beeu repulsed, — 
Alnler Pasha, Comniandcr-iii-Chief, has resign- 
ed. Ahmed Pasha replaces him. 

On the 15th, the four powers presented a note 
di mandiog an armistice. _ 

llalil Pasha's entrance into the Ministry is re- 
garded as favorable to the projected peace. 

VlJtHNA, Friday. — Turkish bulletins acknowl- 
edge the evacuation of Russian territory in Asia 

The English Consul nt Teheran, mediates be- 
tween Persia and the Porte. 

It was rumored iu Paris on Ihe 29th, that Min- 
ister Soldo hail fought the third duel with the 
Duke of Alba, and was killed. It wants con- 

LiTF.nrooL MaKAOsrusKa. — The arrivals of for- 
eign breadstuff's continue moderate, and millers 
and dealers have been obliged to purchase freely 
at an advance of 'ld@(id. on the week. Flout 
fully Is. pi r barrel dearer. Indian corn in bet- 
ter demand at ls@ls. fid. on the week. 

LtTRrtVooL PiiovisioNS — All the provision cir- 
culars report nothing doing in beef. No Bales Ol 
American or French pork. Paeon, new', is sell- 
ing at about 45s.; no sides of old. Lard lower, 
50s. taken to clear out stock ; 200 tons now re- 
maining on hand in speculators' hands. Cheese, 
little offering and prices firm. Apples have been 
much injuired ; some of tirst quality realised b'Os. 
» ■ ♦ ■ . 

Kane's Arctic Expedition, 

A l.KTTF.n from Hr. Kane, giving the experi- 
ences of the Arctic Expedition under his com- 
mand, up to July 20, has been enmmunicnted to 
the N. V . Tribune. It is the first letter received 
since the expedition sailed, and it is written 
in a hopeful ami em- a/in_; spirit. The gal- 
lant commander describes a calm of twelve 
day's duration which came over them, and they 
lay almost still, Aiicieiit-Mariucr-likc, like "a 

( minted ship upon n painted ocean. This calm 
icgau on the llfllh of June. Then a stiff bree/.e 
set in from the South, hauling glrnrcwards, and 
Bending them on at the rate of eight knots nu 

hour. During the culm, C mander Kane had 

sent into Sukcrtoppcu and laid in a good supply 
of reindeer skins, filling at the same time his 
water casks. At the rate he was going, he ex- 
pected to make Liefly the night he was writing, 
and Proven iu two days more. The Northwest- 
ers he thought must have cleared the ice from 
Melville Hay. and if the wind hauled a little 
more to Ihe eastward, the ice would not drive 
hack again. The commander then described 
his procedures for undertaking a sledge jour- 
ney, and his plans generally. It was his inten- 
tion to remain iu the brig as long as possible, 
seeking a harlsir Oil the eastern side of Smith's 
Sound. The moment the vessel comes to an- 
chor, he will leave Olsen, a trustworthy man in 
charge, to prepare for winter quarters, drop his 
whalcbnat, with himself, the Esquimaux and 
seven men, and take advantage of inshore tidc- 
leuds to continue his journey to the north. 

. , m ■ . 

Railroad Accident. — The Chicago Tribune 
says: On the evening of the 12ih iust., nlmut (i 
o'clock, a construction train belonging to the 
Illinois Central Road, came info collision, while 
backing on the track, about four miles below the 
city, with the evening train going towards 
that place. The engineer of the construction 
train, fearful for his own safety, reversed his 
own engine and sprang off. The shock threw 
one of his rear cars off" the track and uncoupled 
it from the remainder of the train, which ruab'l d 
on toward the depot at a lightning speed, wheie 
it buried itself in n freight car of tho train made 
up for the morning. There were fortunately no 
lives lost, and no one injured. 

Gold and Siltko in \Vavne County. — It is a 
current report that there is a placer of gold in 
this county. It appears that it was known to 
the Indians who inhabited this section previous 
to the advancement of civilisation, mid has been 
handed down from generation to generation. 
Tho knowledge of tho location is now iu the 
possession of a ninii resident near us, who ob- 
tained his information from nn Indian, at Green 
Hay, Wisconsin. The exact locality was found 
by marked stones as described by the Indian, 
which was found to correspond exactly with 
history. We understand the placer is in the 
town of Wolcott ; and the owner of the secret is 
only waiting an opportunity to possess himself 
ul i In- land in which it is situated, or permission 
to work it, to n\uil himself of tho secret No 
need of going to California now ; gold at home 
and plenty of it. We hope our Wolcott friends 
won't advance Inc price uf their lands so as to be 
beyond Ihe reach of purchasers, on thisnecount. 
—Clyde Time*, IMh. 

Maine Law. — Tho Albany correspondent of 
tlio New York Daily Times savs, "There can bo 
no doubt that tho question (of a. prohibitory 
law ) will be submitted to the people, and prob- 
ably at the lamo time as the amendments to the 
Constitution. To obviate the Constitutional ob- 
jections, the question submitted will be : "Shall 
u law be passed prohibiting the sale of liquor i 
and if decided iu the affirmative, then tho law 
will be drawn nud passed by the Legislature." 
1 . ♦ . . 

Important Rumor. — The Springfield, Mass., 
Republican of Saturday says there is a very cur- 
rent rumor in thnt city, for which good authori- 
ty is given, that the Supremo Court of the State 
have come to a decision unfavorable to the con- 
stitutionality of the seining and destroying fea- 
tures of the present anti-liquor law. 

■ i • ■ 

Plyuoltu Cuuboo, — Last Tuesday evening 
week, a snlo of pews in this church, (H. Ward 
Bet-Cher's.) iu Brooklyn, was made for one year. 
One bundled and sixty -three rented for §10,047 
25. One hundred and thirty-six are unsold. 

(I o m m c r c i it I . 


Tiikrc ha* beno on uouAuiUly quiet week Id Uie Aoiuicbl 
worllt. No upwnnl or .ln.nmird movement lijis laJ-eo 
|ila«« among the built or btara iml Iherv l* a ireneral <l .»rl h 
uf Interest urouml Iho Qiund*J board. No California ar- 
rivals since our last, and constquenllj there lu* been no 
aiMliiom Ui tho sjiecie lint, while ul II, e mihc lime it has 
continued to mora otr tow-ants the eommereial cJUom of the 
old rt-orh' at about the usual rules. Tho Africa look out 
• ii o.. nn., $000,000, and Uio Propeller All* {2£i,;03.— 
The new uteamur Nashville, had also $40,000 in specie, on 
her manib-L 

The Tribune says Iho balaaoo the In Sub-Treasury at N. 
York Is note $2,804,71*1. 

The tolaliunounlof dry Roods entered at the port of New 
York, thus Or in January is $4,178,094, against 90,000,760 
In 1843. 

The Import* of Ihe week other than dry goods, were $),- 
4.VV-J0. The exports of the week, exclusive of specie, ore 
$1,509,807, Including marly $1,100,000 of urudsiufb. 

Tho coropaniUee receipt* of tlio New York Central Rail- 
road for the past fire month* have been compared wllh 
those of hurt year as follow. :— 1843, £,4*7,740. !'.; ; 18M, 
$1,948,898.09. iucreasr in U.e monUis, $438,841.43. Thl* 
ir equal Io on accrnge of $107,000 f month Increases 

Slock* ore not active and some of them have declined.— 
N. Y. Central 1US, Erie 78, Michigan Central W.S, Hud- 
son luvex 07, Panama tts.S, and other slock* in proportion. 

Starkft Intelligence, fcc. 


ltodiester, Jan. 10th, 1844. J 
Pricks of farm products have none up generally, o 
around Ihe board. The List European advices by the E 
rons, have pushed Wheat and Flour still higher, and II 
general Impres-ion l«, that the end l< not yet. irUll tho I " 
celleut prices now ruling, ought to bring oul the Ntonsi i. 
grain more freely. Flour in quoted nt $7,8708. ; Win .a . 
$1,7691,78. Mill Pood, DOt much in market — prices ore, 
rollowi —Fine Middlings. 37«'iJ4lc. ▼bush.; Coarse d. 
UQlBJic do.; Shorts or llran )'2!^0l4o do. 

Pork Isactiteiuid lil^lier, i|iioli-l nt $5,7605,87. Sheep 
carcKse.1 also higher, run^iii^ hum $4y.i Y t.,i. Turk.-. 
8 '.'.'. Ilay «S to $13 per ton. 

other thinpi not quoted at any actual advance, but tt 
market «yui|uthixe» with Ihe buoyancy of the more lui 
porlant staples. 

Bochestor Wholesale Prioea. 

Fuipk a.iu Chain. 

Flour, bbl *',87g8,0U 

Wheat, bu I,7$01.i8 

Cum To i ; 

Hals 4U)$4A: 

Itv »MSJ*0 

linl"v ten t6fl 

Uuckwheut I1O1405 

Ubsiui 75tijjsl 

Pork, men bbl 615,00 

Do. civi 5,7 ' 05,87 

Bu 1, iiiim bbl.. 10,0.1 1 10,50 

Do. cwl. .. . 4,o0/.i,iiu 

Mutton carcass, 4,0043,6 

I lii,. . .iunke.1 lb. .. .U/a)10c 

Sbouldcri o 1 , 8754c 

Cliickcus o^(7c 

Turkeys KjJOc 

Daibv, kc. 

Duller 1',/lfH 


L&TU, tried ,'J. 

Ho. I1-.O" 10c 

Tallow lie 

Eggs, dm l~.._o 

Caudles, box U', 


Apple*, bush 6U@7f 

Do. 'lriesi g| t | 

Potalo.^. &),&* 

Hide* urn Sniffs. 

Slaughter 4! a <'.'. 

CaU Bald 

Sheep [Kills .ei.i I, 1 

Lamb .in 75^^$t 


Clover, bu ^0,5007,0 I 

Tnnolliy "in 

Flax 1,11 

Wood, hard 4,0004,5 

Do. »ofi ntt&fr 

Coal, t^blghabin. . ,0,1 " I 

Do. iuranlou u^. 

irj 0,1 

Do. Cliar 8011 | 


Salt, bbl *l,0-2,',l 

liny. Urn 801 I 

Wool, lb :ia.^45 

Willie bah, bbl. .eS,6O0O,i 

Codlllh, y qulntaj 4,i 

Trout, bid 8^0 


Flour — Good home nnd eastern deinand for Weytero and 
Slate Uour, — m.irkui nnn. Arrirabi continue moderate. — 
Wo oollcu a f.ur di in not for futon- delivery, nt term* not, 
mule public. I'.Mii'liiiii tlrui, » ih s at $808,12. Sales oil 
Western Canal 7,500 bbLs— $.S'i/.S,12 for common to elmlghl' 
State; S-t,OO08,o5 for Michigan aud Ohio. 

Cr.iin — holders of Wheal 0X0 very lino. Tlio stock of 
prime is ncsiriy eahaushsl and price* tend upward. Sates 
(fcnise'e $^,'25; red Southern $2. 

Ryo— Scute; ■alca Jt raey 11,29. 

Oats— In demand at 61fa)53c, 

Com — t^-s biiiiiiini aiii niiiet. Sales alfi7ycforncw 
damp \o iliein ye)lnw; 90092c for new Southern wlnle 
and yellow; U3f 0l > Wifltcrn mlxe*l; 92 for old round yelluw. 


Fuicn Is generally held full 25c T bbl. higher, but the 
Riles are limited ami coniined to small lots In the trade 
lor llo- East. 

In gTain there is inurh competition among street buyer* 
ami live lias further advanced iuut is noi, M'lling utsl,12?a; 
Qirn 75070c; Oaui 40047; Uuckwheat Floui jJ.HijJ,..! 
r cut. 

Dn'ssed Hogs are in f.dr rviuesl, and the mirkct is linn 
at $0,25730,60 for fair to good lolsal Iho depul sith sale* to 
i fair Qaleilt. 


At Washington Drove Yard— (liferod to-day 2,060 [Serf 
Culllu; ollered during Iho week 3,12.1. Busloeal pnit,- uc- 
Uve, und pricai linn. We quote Ihe ranging of the market 
,il lioni 8010c mr lb. 

Cows au>l I'ali ... I.rought from $20045. 

Veal Calve*. 4(.V7c. 

Sheep and Uunbd from $4,50010. 

Al Browning'*— (Lower Uull> Head)— 357 beef cattle, 43 
Cows and Calves, and 2.7SO Sheep anil I juntw. 
, Beeves.— Prices lasl we I ranged ill from 8J^09>ic. r"lb. 

Cows and Calve* from $25 to $45058. 

Sheep J'l .'..',, ^.miii,- 1 \tri brought as high as $8. Lambs 
sold 1.1 |2,T6, 3,tiO04— nil sold. 

At Cltuiiberloin'*— (Hudson River Hull's Head.)— Of- 
fered 800 Beet CatUo, .lu Coin and Calr.s, 25 Calves, 
am! 3,200 ■! < -c and Ijiinbs. 

Pric««— Beef CalUe all sold at 7XQ10c, u In quality. 

Cnwsnnd Calvisi frnni $25, 40006, Coin*. 607c Tib. 

Sheep, $2,75, 407. 1 jml«, $2,40, 3,4005. 

AUIIlriens— (No.OSivtb strvcl)— Offered 110 Beef Cal- 
II., uid 25 Caw* and Cdlvi« Salesoflho rornxer at from 
$7 to $8,600" , K , t ev i > ,„„| ||„. tiller al from $25040 each. 


At W. Woolfurdi Bull's Head, Waihingtiui street.— Beef 
CatUe — 580 at market. I', loss are M foll-'KH : — Extra 87,- 
50; linn i|iu.lliv 47 ; Zd Uo, S1s.5d.6O; 3.1 do, 84,50. 

Cows und Calvea — Few In market. Prices al from $25. 

Slns'p and I^imbs — 075 in market. Prices at from S3, 

Swine — 600 in m-irkeL Pricws fat hogs 80^0,40. 


At market 817 Cattle — 775 Beeves, 42 Stoixs— oiuahrllne 
of Working Oxen, Cows oud Calvea, yearlings, Iwu and 
Ibree years old. 

Prices— SUrkel Bwf. — Extra 87,75 Vcwt; flrst qiullly 
57,2/.; 2.1, .so, SI,.; 7, 00; ,11 ,!,., J.1,2-,. onlinary $5,5000. 

III. S0.50 »> cwl. Tallow, 88,6000, 

P. II- 81 3701,00. Calf skim 12o T lb. 

Veal Calves— 90, 708. 

Barn ling Callle— $4,4006. 

-storvs,— Woiklng Oxen— 475, 86, 98, 111 129, 1380140, 

Cows and Calves— $24, 2S, 31, 37, 48, 44067. 

"i 1 'I I m.- — None. 

Two year* old— 919, 24. 29, 31, 37, 40048. 

Three years old— 930, 41, 45, 49, 60075. 

Slu'ep uid Isuntss— 2,325 al market. And on on average 
of superior quflUlT, 

Price*— Extra 95,50, 6, 7, 8010. 

By lot— 92,25, 3, 3,60 404,75. 

Swine — Nooe. 


At nwirket 725 Bet?r Cattle. 75 Working Oxen, anil Coim 
nnd QMrA-S 1^650 Sheep, and SJ) Svviue. Tliu Sirinu uciu 
all ir|Kirtea lut h"L 

Prlc-M — Ui'i'f Caltle; price? hare ■drODCOd a Irilk* from 
LiMi icoek. Wf quo! ■ K\lo 87,75^3 ; lirnt ou^littr S7&07,- 
50; 2d do, $a,50@7; 3d dn, V>,25(dO;J5. 

Working (Im-ii — So '.tl-* noli* i-l- 

Co<™ nnd Cairo*— Sal« $&, 28, ul, 35, 40^55. 

Siicv|>— Vunlilv quite c^iod und nriiw for Uiu likeqnalily 
lower, iviIcm $^ 2\76, 4,76, 6,U3@»5,&0. 

Swine — All sold; a few wlccted Ixirrowa 5c; mtctj! IoIj* 
to clow 4c At n-Liil fmiii 4'<$5Kr. 


Hcvf Cattlo — OlTeriu'r 1 "'l* p.u(t iroek uliiitv* an IncreoWj 
ainnunl.iiif to over 1,600 htnul of l(«f Callle, of vLlcll 
nuinbar, nbouiaoO were driven lo New York. I'ricifl mngv 
from *7s76 to $10 per 100 Iti-s ivUlch is au od\-imco. Tlio 
demand oa« materially Inc/.-nned. 

Cowi range from $12 lo $o0 each. 

Hogs ui« arriving frecljf ; about 2,500 «old nt $0,25.gfl,SS, 
vrblch is a Hllglil fm|irori'mi<nt; about 1,000 In-ad wen* 
Ink ci j for pricking. Priceaof killi-d lu-g* ^n- «I<«i looking up 

Sin ijiaiid Lambs ooun- in *>lowl), und cumumnd S3 to 0,- 
60 imcIi, According to qu.ility . 

:l a x x i a q t s . 

In HiiHI. | ..r- p by Itie Bev. J. TimuieniLui, uu 11 Ih ni-.i , 
Mi. IIKIIllAKIl •<( Pembroke, uinl MLm AIJDA A. VAN 
BK0CKI.1X, uf HiUiilelKirt, Niaenr* In., N. V. 

TllK Loss OK TIIESTAKKOBUalllHE. — Tilt' Hltl'liM 

Chronicle iriveB a fen brief deloil» of the iU-foteil 
.SlalTurdshirc. Mr. Alden, the chief mate, anil 
lie steward had reached Holilax. They win- 
badly frost bitten. In the gale a day previous 
lo tho wrecking, the Staffordshire lost loretop- 
iiia.-t, fureyard. and sprung bowsprit. Captsiir 
llicliariln.ii had dislocated lib* ankle, but was on 
deck giving orders when the ship struck. In 10 
iiiiiiutex alter etrikiug, the ship went down- 
When Ihe boats left the ship, the water was oven 
with the upper deck. Capt. Itichardnoii, when 
urged to save himself, refused to leave Ihe ship, 
saying that if it was the will Of Heaven thnt sho 
should sink, ho would uot desert his passengers. 
Oue hundred and 6eventy-five persons went 
down in the ship. 

■ *> » 

Three persons have died in Hudson — Iwu 

men and a woman — from eating putrid meat. 

Uublisjcr'B lotitfs. 


Gjf To CvKAOUXfl.— As wp arc obliged to pre-paj the 
American portage on paper* sent to tbe llrllifdi 1'iovinci^ 
our Cantdum agvnU and friexnh mu*t add afi cent! per oopj 
to Hie dub nArs of tlio Ruiul,— making the lowcrt price 
lo Canadian subtcribcni $1,50 per \ pot. 

Ify AOKxrt*.— Anj pcrMD *o dispo»c<l can act an apenl 
for Uiu Rural Nkw-Yobkkk, — nnd all who remit accord- 
ing to term* will be entitled to premium*, Ac. 

tn^TiiOHK who aro forming clubs, (20 (n 100 cnjiii*,) 
can ■ ad on Uiu names and mom » of rt©h patron* oa do 
not wI.hIi lo wait, oud compli'to their li*ta oAerwonl*. 

(CfTTuB Ritual h> puMbibffl «lrlctly upon the cajoi 
8YSTFJI— sent no longer than paid for— and all order* 
hIiouM be in accortlanco with terms. 

try OVR tovett club price In $1,25 for any number or 
copiui orer 20 — and Ql.ftO under that number, unless a 
full club of twenty la obtained. 

B3 rix making up clubo for tho Rchal, the Woo 

G ■ r aud Stock BegUilcr en bo added ftlSfiets. a copy, 

whldi i« the lovest club price. 

Cyjjl remitting for cluhx, please «nd Bank Bllla, or 
llr.ilUi on New York (deducting the exchongp.) Initead of 
Checks or CertiOcaUM of Ucpoalt on local bonka. 

d*p" I-'" writing us, pleaw l»o parUtmhir to give your P. 
(>, aUdrvm correctly — Uie uiune of your Pout Oftlco (uot 
Town,) County, and State. Write all name* plainly. 

E*j^ Tuoaii wishing their papers changed from onend- 
<li» - lu.inother, fihoald give the names of b*»th Post Officer 
— \\i>- fi&mer address, oh well as the one desired. 

ZjT* Mr. 0. Moore, is duly auUioritc! to act as Agent 
f-it the RURAL Nkw-YorKKR Id the counties of Chautau- 
que and Catlaraugua, N. \\ and Warren, Pa. 

XTtT Persons who have fiirvanled %\h fur a club of ton, 
can eitend the numl>cr to TwtXTV for §10, but all Uie 
subscribe!* must begin at ono date. 

Ej^ It In not necessary that all members of a club re- 
ceivt) their papers at one post ofllce. We utid to as manj 
oillces as necessary to accommodate the subscriber*. 

0jr~TiiK posfcige on the RcraL Is but 3 l 4 cents per 
quarter, (Biyable In advTUice, to any part of the State— and 
GJ* cents lo any part of the United States,— except Monroe 
County, where It goes free. 

Cy PnniM)xs entitled to cash premiums, will pleAse 
retain the Kune lo reraltUng for dabs — thus making sure 
of the | . :. i n. ii ., saving us the trouble of re-ma) ling. 

^JT AnniTioXrt to clubs may bemadoatany time, at 
the price per copy jtaid for the original club. 

Ejji** KxrttA numbers of the Rckal will l:o fonrarded to 
^11 dUpOSQd to aid in augmrnting lis circulation. 

C^^All busincsa letters, communicaUons, kc^ should 
be addrx-SMHl to V. D. T. Moork, Rochester, N. V. 


Rare Inducements to Agents and Others. 

As heretofore announced, tbe Fifth Ynlumo of the 
RfiUL S'lw-Yokkkr, for 18M, will Ik' maleriidly improved, 
the I'roprietor having determined that it sh.dl In all re- 
r.|N-cUf*cel either of its predecessors, and nllooutempomni 
Journals. He also oflcrs greater Inducements Lhan ever 
befora to each aud all dispa«ed to act as agents or forni 
clubs. Thu atleutlnn of all luteresled Ih respectfully invi- 
ted to the following list of very 


1. SKVF.NTY-KIVK DnU.AlL-. in CaJW, to Uie nCnon 
ending u» Uie greatest number ofycarlj milscriuera (idi 
month subscrlpUona lobe eounled'piu} r.rtinnnllv) to the 
IU'kal SKW-YoilKHft— remlllfngpaynieiil accoidiugto our 
cluli (eniiA — previous to the 16tli of April, IBM. 

2. PJFTV D01.I.ARS. in CAHn, lo Uio person sending us 
Uio xecoud largest number, as above. 

3. THIRTY DOLLARS, iv Cash, to tho person sending 

u« tin- in \t (third) grr.UtNt uuml"-r. 

4. TWESTV DOLIiARS, ix Cash, to tho pereon eeoding 
u- the next (fourth) greatest numl-er. 

.',. FlcTEEN D0LLABS, l.v I'i.atk or Hooks, to the 
penmu wnding lln- nest (liflh) ga-aU-st numt-er. 

|ier>on Gliding the next ( ^i v i ) i ) giGfltotl number. 

7. TEN DOLLARS, in Plate oh Bookb, io the pereon 
seudiug the next (Mvcntli) greatest number. 

In order to reacli aiid reward Kvrny oxk who may lend 
a portion of Influence in support of the I^'ual New. 
YOKKJSB, we otTer to those who do not compete for .dther 
of the preceding piites, tho following literal gratuities: 

1. F1VK DOLLARS, IX Cash, or a copy of WkiihtkrV 
I'.n \miiii.i,. i« l»i« rio\ M.v, (or^o in Ag.'l U<H(ks) to eai'H 
PRRS0.1 fcndlog payment fur hpty or mora yearly ooplee 
(six month >>ut«criptiuns pro)>ortianally,) according to our 
tonus, previous to the 15th of April, 1S54. 

2d. F1VK DOLLARS, in Books, or four estra eople* of 
tin- Rukal, lo every person remitting payment for roaTV 
..r moie 'Ul«criU'n\ ad above. 

3d. THREK DOLLARS, in Books, or a handsomely 
hound volume of the IU'kal for 1863. to every person re- 
mitiing for tIiiktt ■ub*cr.l<ers. 

-4th. To every one remltUng for twksty copies, (S25,) 
«. rrUI^\*aau c*tra cony of the Rural, and four (tin 
present and three past) volumes of Tin; wool Guowkm 
aXD STOCK Hmiihtik — or, If preferred, an extra copy of 
the Rural and $1,&0 in Rooks. 

6th. To every one remitting for ti;.y copies (* 15.) an e%- 
Ir.i iiiji, of the Rural and three vuluines (ji;u»l or present) 
of the Wool Uhowkk— or, luMcad of vols. W. 0_91iu 

6th, To eTery one remltUng lurjiU C0pfe4 (S10.) on ex- 
tra cony of the Rural, either volume of Uie Wool Grower, 
and a uutind Vol. of Genosofl Farmer for 1S4J* or '49. 

7lh. To every ooe remitting fnr rflRBI COpie* (J5,) eiUier 
volume ft the Wool rower, and a bound volume of Gen- 
»-.i e Paimer for 1WM or '40. 

hlh. To every person rvinitting for oxi: cxipy (.52.) wr 
will give a copy of either volume Wool Grower or the Far- 
mer for 1S4S or "4Q as preferred. 

Au. coinpcUtora for premiums aro expected to adhere 
strictly lo Uie following 


Two Dollarh a YtiAK. Three Copies, one year $6 Six 
Conies for 31"— Ten Copies forSlo— Two&t) Copies for •26, 
lUld nny oildltloiud number at the kiuio rate. Name* of 
fiul-i'j'ilKT' written on the pajien* if debited, however large 
the duo. Club papers sent to different oillcws u* desired. 

{jT* Specimen numbers, A;c, furnished free to all dis* 
-M'x-d to com) ete for Premiums, or who desire to extend 
the circuluUon of the N'kw-Yokkkh. Sulwerlptlnn monoj 
pioperly enclosed, may be mailed at our risk, if oddreased 

I" D. D. T. M00BE, RoeheaUr, N. Y. 

Axn Journal or Rural AirT and Rukal Tastb. — The 
HoitlculturL-it is a Moulhly Juurmd, ilevoled to llortlcul- 
luie and its kindled art*, Rural Architecture and l*and- 
BCHiie Gardening. It is edited by P. Hakrv, Lite llortlcul- Kdilorof UieGeiiesve Faimer, and author of Utalpop- 
uUr a'ork, " The Fruit Garden." To lhnu> who culUrate 
Fruit iii-l Flowers, this work Is IndlsrH-nsnlile, as It con- 
tains full directions for cultivation, as well as every thing 
new un the subject, cither In this country «o In Kurope. 
The Horticulturist is beauUluliv printed on tho bent [*- 

ter, with costly IllustniUnns on wood and stone. It eon- 
iliw -W logea, without advcrthvmeiils, and each number 
has a full i .■■»• engraving, on (tone, of some rare i. ml or 
dower, drawn from nature, by the best Uving artist in thin 

Tkrhs. — Two Dollani Per Annum, In Advance. A dis- 
count of Iwenty-uvu per rent, allowed to agents. Post- 
uiaslcraand othentare Invited to act as agent*, to whooi 
s|*ecJmcn numbers will bo -tent, fre-o of postage, on appllca- 
cation to 

J AS. VICK. Jr n PublUher, Roclie-iter. N. Y. 
P. S. — A new volume commences on Uie Hrst of January. 
January 1, IBM. 


For seed, a good supply of Uio celehnilcO Poland oata, at 
81 per buidiel. dellven-d at my rewdr n... .»,- rfl,25 if *»cnt 
by iwlroad. kacb bushel to weigh at least io pounds- 
•at J. A. CLARK, Uarion, Wayne Co, N. Y. 



FOWLKHH AND \Vi;M h puMlsh the following PerifKUoala. 
Thej hare an segregate oraalatXon <>f about One Hundred 
Thousand Coj U i 

Tin-**- Popular and Profft«innal SerlaLi afford an excel- 
lent opruuti' i'« fbi brin " I & tho Public with Picto- 
rial Hlu-tnitlnna, all subjeclsol Interest, nosological, Kd- 
ucaUonal, Agrieulluml, Mechanical, and Commercial. 


Devolctto Hydropathy, n Philo opbi and PracUce, to 
Physiology and Anatomy, Willi lllusli rings, to 

Dietetic*, Bxoreise. CloihlDft OcconatlonjL axnnjem nta, 
nn<l thosa I^iw* whldi govern Lift and Hialth. PuMi-h.-d 
monthly, in convenient (aim for binding, at one Dolhir a iu udvaneo. 
•• Kv.-fy nun, woman and child who loves health; who 
leipplneaa* lt» direct result; who wants to 'live 
while ho does live,' • live uu he <!(■ \ »ind really live, in- 
"tead of being a mere walking con*-*, ihoubl rjeexuno at 
onoe a reader '»f this Journal, and pracUso Its preoepu." — 
[FuuuLaln Journal. 

It.r, <i| S. ■..•ii.. r | if. T..IU1. ■. uu I i;-i..t d lnf 111.;, in-; II,- 
I ob -d ii. I'hr«!iultigy, I'n ..<■!' *i, I -in- iii.iti, M.i i:, i in, 
Ps)'cholo C v, SI cell an Urn, vgricuTiure, Horticulture, Arehi- 
tvetun . loi Alia and Sdeoct* and to all tho*e Prafrearire 
Sleasurea which aro lo Rcf»nn, ICIcvale, ,md lm- 
provc Mankind. Uluatrated with numeroua \ «tii.o!- ( ni 
uthi r engmvlnn. A beAulifuI Qu irto, in liable forbludlng, 
I'ublUhed Monthly, al tine Dollar a Y*tw In adranee. 

'■ v Joornal co main In s; such a masN of lnterr*ung mat- 
ter.deToted lotiie blgbeai happtoeaaandlatensitf oTnun, 
is nil en In Ihe dear und lively style of it* practised editor*, 
ami afford-d ot tin- 'ifdiculoin-ly Ion price' of nm* dollar a 
\, muil BUCCOOd in lunnitig uji it* present large rircula- 
lion (^l.UOO coplual) to u much hi^liL-r li^uie.— [Xew York 

Tim: [LxmrTRiTBD Urn no pa ni I c Quabtoelt Re\-iew^- 
A New Profession I i\ . \at. doroled to Med (fa 1 "Reform. 
••nihrndng artlclea bj the bear nritens 00 Amlasr/, Pbn- 
lulugy, Palhology, Surgery, Therapeutic*, Midwifery .etc , 

R> -ports of Remarkable Casea In General I'r.ictiiv, t'rltici»-ms 
OUtheTheOiy nnd PracUoS Of the various Opposing Sys- 

fifi Heal Science, Renew* of New Pnbllcatii ol 
all School! of Medicine, Reports of Uie Progress of He ilUi 
lb rorm in ill it* Aspect*, oic 7 etc, with spnronriat* |Hua- 
ti itlon . Kadi nurahflr couiains from 1U0 to 200 octavo 
paffi , it Two Dolhua a year. 

"hi addlUonto the widely circulated monthly journals 
Laaned by luese enterprising puhiisbert-. we have Uio New 
[lydrojtaUilc Quarterly Review, edited l.v the rm.-t distin- 
Lui-lii I members of thai aehooL It la ultril with arlirl.-s 
of pcrmannut value, wldch ought to be read by ercry 
Ani'-ri-.-in."— [Ni-iv VToik Tribune. 

CoramnnlcaUona, New Dookj f.«r notice or review. Ad- 

n rth nta, und SubscripUoaa, r.houhl l« addre»wcd lo tho 

PuhlUhera, F0WLBR9 .»c WELLS, Clinton Hall, Nn 1,11 
N'lessau street, New York. 'J10*2t 


An llltulraled Magazine for Ihe Young. Monthly, Fiflu 
Cent* a Year, iarasiaMu in adtanct. E_ F. Ukaoll, 
l**btuher t lluj/alo, *V. y. 

Thk Third Volumo of the Ytntfh'$ Casket commenced 
with January, 1SS4. The publlcaUun has now become wrll 
ealnbUlhed In the public confldence and estimation, and it 
Li our Intention to »pare no pains '•> make It worthy of In- 
r. uvdnatronagoand innport. The Casket U devoted to 
the best IntenMsof tin- young, combining Instruction and 
amuaeraent, in n rtylo ■nlfed fo the ea|*ritlcs of ihoae (<>r 
wuom ii b dcaJgncu, Useful knowledge h. uuide attractive 
l.v being presented In ;i pleasant g*vrli. and moral Iew.ins 
areenforeA--l, not In hard, diiLteHc sentence*, but In thefnim 
of t-tlert and slorles, toward which the youuiful mind Is in- 
prllnctively drawtr. Aod tbe llclorlal IHuafratFona, which 

iu>- in pfidii inn iii • \< i\ nnnili.T »tToid great aid In inier- 
esllng and ti\lnc the attention of the young reader, and in 
impresslni: what b- read, upon (he rni<mory. 

The Casket Is printed OD good |iip-'r. from clear typo; 
and Is published in monUllj DUfflbeia of twenly-fnurpagea 
i .oh, ni.ikiiij; altogether, a\ the dose of Uie year, u hand- 
some vnloiiie of n. arly ?JM large iiutgaxine page*. 

The January numWr, ». Inrh cnmni.ii.-. - il,.- vnlunie for 
]*M, i» now ready fnr mi ilinn It contains a aitlendld linlcl 
engraving, entitled, "Going to Hrhooi;" which willfouna, 
beautiful rronlljTifr<e to the volume* 

Ttims to Clubs — Invariably in advance. — Seven copies, 
one year, £); Fifteen copies, one jenr, $6; Twenty-four 
copies, oue year, $9. 

AOK&fTfl Wantkii.— Re*pecb»Jile and reaponidble persona 
wanle-l, to canraia for *ulr«cribe;K for the Casket, In every 
(own in Uie United Sfafea and Cjumda*. To whom a lluer- 
.] Mrcentage «ill ir |kild. Spedmen numbcra im I 
graUs. Addresa, nost-paid, 

210-31. K. F. BEADLK, Roffaln, N. Y. 


TiiBSuliacriberofrern for sUe hja r.uin containing fifty - 
five acres of good land, witfdn one-fourth of n mile of Uie 
rillage nf Nundo, in the eountj ol Livingston, Stale ..r \. 
Vnrk. Sold f.inn U located On the Slate road, north or-edd 
\ ill i^-i; ; nn Kifd farm there is a good two story hou>e and 
three good barns. Said farm Is well adapted to the giu<v- 
lug of wheat and all kind* of -priiij* crops : said balJuinga 
lurr-ll io g».oi| n'jtiir, and said form b« In a lu/h rl.t' .1 
cultivation. There Is on said farm a young orchard con* 
I ting o| a variety of fru t There !■ alao seventeen *eres 
of wheat on tho ground — said farm ix well watered by 
creek* and wells. Also will be sold, twentj -three acres of 
srood and limber land, ono and one-fourth miles off,—- said 
timber con-dsli of valuable pi no tlml>or and while oak. — 
There is on sold lot, a good a—orlim nt of wood — aald farm 
will be sold K-j-anite or with tie timber lot. 

Term** nf jtayraent, one-third of the pnrrhase money on 
giving |Mi-w?Mion, the mat lu secured by bond'aud 
mortgage, on tho premises, lo suit Uie purchaser. 


Nunda, Jan. loth, 1854. 'Jll-lt 


Situated 2?-J miles north of the *Ubge, on Rank street, 
containing l'JO acres. — a good new dwelling hou-v, a com- 
nindiiiUA barn and other neoeasarv oot-l.udding-*; twoorch- 
anls with gnifted fruit, and some -'i acrvs of wood land.— • 
The farm u under a good stain of cultivation, naturally 
adapted to the growth of wheat. There aro 40 acres of as 

good looking wueal n* cm be found In Genesee Co., which 

■.ilh the farm. Also, 30 acres well seeded to d , 

prejvaniiorr for wheat next *e-a«on, and 12 acrea or more, 
plowed, and in good condition fur spring crops. 

Onc-Uiird or one-luUf j>oid doan, and tbe tsUance may 

run t<> Milt the pUrdiaaer. For further par.i-ul irs raier- 

encola made to Hon. K. C. DlhU.-, |:at..via *lllfge, Rev. 

ill BU, near thu premise*) and tiiesulacrit-er. 

2U-3I D. i IHiUUHTON, 

Jan i ■*•> 1 • " J Lima, IJvingslon Co^ N. Y. 


TaiA machine stindj without a succt«sful rival, aa t he * 
auncing machine of the age. The -apply wdl DOt be < qua! 
10 ihf demand. If any iKiaon desires one for the coioIuk 
season, they cnnnol speak too sitnn. Tlic uniform pit- at 
ItuiLdo isSllO.OO. AU who will forward uc an ord«r *c- 
Companlcd with lb) c i ih ••[ - iflifaelorj reference, ma* d<- 
|n-nd upon being faithfully served with a machine In good 
■season. H. C. whim J CO 

Ruffalu Ag. War. boUM and Se< I Stop*. II *k IJ Wed Son- 

eoi stnet, Ruiialo, N . V. 21Hf. 

A Fa. km, containing 145 »crv*, vis mile* from the Court 
House, 4io Iho Chili road; Tin re i.- On the pn-uo^-wafraruo 
dwelling houae, two Inrns, and other nec*«K*ry oulbulld- 
Inga, nearly neiv — fiuii tn-* 1 * of all kinds, and three never 
failing well*, one of which dischargee in a trough in Iho 
barn-yard. For particubirs, inquire of the subscriber, on 
the premise*. [210-21] A. HcUATIL, Chili, V \ . 


COXTAINIXO 200 acre* of good land, situated In the town 
of Barrington, wiUiin six mile* of fVun Yon, and on Ore 
stag* itM'I leading fn.m Penn Yan to liaUi. This tirm is 
In a goo-1 slate of cultivation, well watered, admirably 
adapted to grazing or grain crowing; about 160 aciesof 
cleared, and 60 of heavy umlssr* Tlo* bouse lAmo*tly 
new, -' izood burres, good sheds and oot-buildlng* all sufii- 
denlly huge for the farm. A targe ordiard of fnilt tree* 
bearing a great variety of choice fmii. It la eonrcnienUy a to be divide! Into two (arms, each embracing an 
average proportion of deared and timbered land. Terms 
eiviy. Posaoasiou given at any time, to suit the purchaser. 
The price is $50 per acie. For further particulars, inquire 
of the Mjt*cribcr on the premUes- 

[200-3.-1 DELIA HATHAWAY. 

Harrington, Yates Co., N. Y., Dec 21, 1843. 


N09.IIA- IS West Sicvkoa Stkklt. Httstalo.— Hirem 
C. H'htie tf Co.. successor* to Ujisoo u Lovcring, whole- 
aaleanil rttaH dealers in nil klndjoC Afcricoltur*! Imple- 
menbl .»nd Machine*. Field, Oarden and Flower Seeds: 
Fruit and Ornamental Tree*, Shrubs and Flowers: Oriental 
Poultry, At. Al*->, Ageut.t f»r the Hi.-t-.o lUlilo? Com- 
iiany'* Vulcanized India rubber goods, Belting, Hose Pack- 
ing. Ac. &c. 

Oraen solldled, all of which shall recelre prompt atleo- 
ilnn at lowext maxkat rate*, and all arUelM warrant'^ as 
repreaentod. HIRAM C, WIUTE A CO. 

UiRAjf C. Wuitjl [1061X] AKarU Uaaox. 

' 28 



r^S**'^'•%l'*- n •''^''*^^• f ''• 

(Written fur Mboro's llurnl Noir-torkcr.] 



Tire silvery moon is looking iloirn 

On tree, nnd ■! ">■' plre lo-night, 

Shedding o'er earth a Rlorious crown — 

A hoJj rodl I II "i, 

And snow. Acids, anil Icxvhtmnd -Irtaiu, 
• Are mulllni; 'aOmth its kindly bcaru. 

All hushed and still, the din of toll— 
The busy Uirong— thl llUITjlrj foot — 

Naught, save tho lonely hinan's tread. 
Is beard along the silent street : 

Savo whom beneath some shadowed pile, 

Dark vico and crime may lurk tho whllo. 

All wrapped in sleep, snvu they who watch 
With throbbing hearts the touch of ruin; 

Or where the student madly robs 
Tho hour* of sloop, Rune'* wreath to gaiu; 

Or somo fond gator too with ma, 

May weave wild dreams of Po 

0, It has power— wild, wondrous power. 
This moon-lit world, so calm and clear — 

Sleeping in beauty — is there nuglit 
Dnl ^aiccnnd Joj that slumbers here? 

So much of holioisj is glvon, 

*Tis less of earth, and more of Heaven. 

Sleep, mortal, sloop I to-morrow comi* 
Fraught with its weight of toll and care; 

And then again, the sir. im ■■' life 
Will courso along the Iboroughfare. 

I loo must toll, when morning beams, 

And Uion forgot m) moonlight ilroanu. 
Rochester, N. V., Jan. 0, 1844. 

plural SSuk\ §jwL 

THE cousins: 


AY hex the wealthy, middle-aged bachelor, 
Samuel Scrope, espoused the pennilejs widow 
Eardlcy, who had oue child of her first mar- 
riage living, a boy of three years old, folks, as 
usual, expressed various opinions on the subject, 
while of COUrSQ the happy couple, knowing 
nothing and curing less of what was said about 
them, iu process of time shared the common 
fate, and, when gossiping had exhausted it- 
self, were allowed to glide down the stream of 
life unheeded. Mrs. Scrope presented her sec- 
ond husband likewise with a sou, the nurse de- 
claring thut the child and his father were as 
like as two peas. This, perhaps, was not flutr 
tering to the baby, though the declaration 
might be based on truth — Air. .Scrope being a 
fat, white, flabby looking prsouage, with half 
closed eyes, and a clean-shaven face, whereon 
stray hair was never permitted to rest, present- 
iug,' in short, the semblance of a huge over- 
grown " Hubby dabby babby." 

The likeness between father and son contin- 
ued to increase as the latter grew up, and long 
after Mrs. Scrope was left a widow for the sec- 
ond time, continued to lie pointed out by those 
who had known the deceased. And this Uke- 
oea was not confined to outward appearance ; 
for in disposition and character young Samuel 
greatly resembled his father — in excessive ti- 
midity approaching to nervousness; in shy and 
emlmrrassed manner; iu all sorts of old-wo- 
niunish propensities— such as putting his feet 
into hot water, and taking basins of scalding 
gruel to cure colds, which, somehow, he was 
always catching; in fidgety neatness, and de- 
testation of fire-arms and all offensive or de- 
fensive weapons— in these particulars he was 
indeed, as the neighbors remarked, his father's 
own son. From his mother he inherited a love 
of money, of parsimonious saving and hoard- 
ing; a tolerable share of suspiciousness, and a 
large amount of prudence, a cold and unim- 

Sassioued temperament, calculating even his in- 
ulgcuces, and a rather obtuse brain, were 
angularly combined, nnd what he wanted iu 
sense, he made up iu deliberation and wariness. 
Such was Samuel Scrope the younger, the heir 
to liis father's large fortune, the idol of his 
doting mother, ami the pampered, spoiled boy 
of the household. She never could part with 
him for the purpose of education; ho was too 
delicate for any school — it would kill Sam to 
be buffeted and rudely treated! So Bam had 
a tutor at home, whose situation was a real 
sinecure, so far as teaching went — the yonng 
gentleman having it much liis own way when 
nnd how his lessons were to be acquired and 

Mrs. Scrope, like many weak mothers, cared 
not much for her son's acquirements, except 
those which barely sufficed as a passport thro' 
society in general. What did it mutter, she 
said, for Samuel to toil and moil over books, 
when he had a large fortune ready made to 
enioy? It was nil right and proper that her 
eldest born, Francis Eardlcy, should strive to 
win prizes and be a great scholar, because ho 
had only his own exertions to depend upon; 
besides, Frank was high spirited and boister- 
ous, had fine health and energies, nnd was alto- 
gether of a different nature from Sam. Of a 
oiflbrcnt nature, indeed! — brave, generous, self- 
denying, affectionate, and wunn-hearted Fran- 
cis, as little resembled his younger brother in 
disposition as in person, for that was pre-emi- 
nently graceful aud agreeable. Sam's coward- 
ice and sluggish intellect presented such a con- 
trast to the bold, daring aud splendid abilities 
of Frank, that even Mrs. Scrope could not fail 
to sec it, despite her partiality for the former, 
though why that partiality existed, it was hard 
to fathom, unless it arose from Sam's more 
closely resembling herself. 

Frank was seut to a pifblic school, and was 
a favorite with every one, making friends 
wherever he went; but at home, the homo 
where his younger brother reigned parumount, 
there grave faces always met him, there he was 
eluded and rebuked by his mother, and avoided 
by the fat, pampered Sam, who looked askance 
on the fine youth, whose noble and manly bear- 
ing roused feelings of envy and dislike. What 
right had Frank to laugh and joke, and ride 

and siug aud conduct himself in so off-hand a 
way, wheu ho never hod n farthing in his pock- 
et? — for Mrs. Scrope kept poor Frank very 
low in pockcl money, though ihc hod n mode- 
rate life jointure; n'nd Sain, whose hands were 
always in his pockets turning over lus gold, 
which ho seldom changed, skulked about, with 
nothing to do and nothing to say, and feeling 
quite ill at ease before his gay, handsome 

Among the visitors at Scroiie Hull, was a 
Mr. Whitehead, an elderly bachelor of grave 
nnd taciturn demeanor, reputed to be enor- 
mously wealthy, and of privileged eccentricity. 
A miser in the literal sense of the term, sly, 
observant and prying noiselessly into the con- 
cerns of everybody andeverythingi Mr. White- 
head visited about, from one bouse to another, 
living in clover at thorn ulL It was rumored 
that he was not quito sound in his mind, and 
that an early love disappointment had turned 
his brain; however, those who now contem- 
plated his dirty flaxen wig, and tall, lank form, 
arrayed uniformly iu threadbare black, found 
it difficult to realize the idea of n romantic 
passage in such a life nnd in such a being. — 
Mammon was the god of his worship now, at 
nil events. Mr. Whitehead had been a crony 
of the deceased Mr. Scrope, and it was nppa- 
n in that he transferred to the younger Samuel 
much of the approval and liking lie hud be- 
stowed on the elder. At Scrope Hall, Mr. 
Whitehead was always a welcome and favored 
guest ; his ways were in unison with their ways ; 
Sid Samuel was so great a favorite with the 
sour-visaged old man, that Mrs. Scrope in- 
dulged pleasaut dreams of an accession to her 
(lurlings fortune. As to Frank, he had be- 
come Mr. Whitehead's abomination, for Prank 
would neither bend, nor fawn, nor flatter 

There was another dwelling to which Mr. 
Whitehead hud access, and whoso inmates 
were of a very different character from those 
of Scrope Hall, and yet, strange to say, these 
two domicils were the old bachelor's favorite 
resting places, and he resorted from one to the 
other, with infinite satisfaction. Many miles 
of hill and dale, rivers and woodland divided 
the hostile houses, and Miss Pamela Gordon 
had not seen Mrs. Scrope face to face since the 
widowhood of tho latter; but unspoken ani- 
mosity existed between the Indies; and Mrs. 
Scrope called Miss Pamela " a masculine spin- 
ster! — while Miss Pamela denominated Mrs. 
Scrope "a shrew I" Mr. Whitehead heard 
what each said of the other, laughed in his 
sleeve, and enjoyed the good things at both 
house?. Perhaps, unconfes.-ed by himself, the 
childless nnd lonely man found attraction at 
Miss Pumela's pleasant home, which he vainly 
sought for elsewhere; for Miss Pamela had a 
young niece residing with her, whose laughing 
dark eyes brought memories to the old man's 
heart he vainly essayed to dispel; nnd Elspcth 
Gordon became to Mr. Whitehead a sort of 
loadstone, whose attraction it was not possible 
to resist. Yet who played such pranks with 
the cross old miser as little Ellie? Who ca- 
joled him out of a silver crown so easily, for 
the purpose of charity? Who said aud did 
such impudeut nnd yet such tender aud charm- 
ing things as Ellie Gordon, the orphan nieco 
of the strong minded Miss Pamela. 

Miss Pamela was the half sister of Elspeth's 
father, who had married the only sister of Mr. 
Scrope, to that gentlemnn's lasting and inexo- 
rable displeasure. Captain Gordon died soon 
after liis ill-fated marriage, leaving his broken- 
hearted wife and infant daughter ill provided 
for. Mrs. Gordon, at length, in deep distress, 
appealed to her brother's widow for assistance, 
but Mrs. Scrope turned a deaf ear to her re- 
quest; she had Samuel to take care of, and 
Francis Jo educate and provide for. The dy- 
ing woman then turned towards her sister-in- 
law, Miss Pamela, as a last resource, for help 
in her extremity. Miss Pamela was considered 
a person not to be imposod upon, and by no 
menus soft-hearted. Sho lived on a handsome 
life annuity, a fact she took core to render 
public, " as it was better folks should all know," 
she said, " that she had nothing to bequeath in 
her will, and lived up to her income." Miss 
Pamela and her half brother had never been 
very good friends; they had squabbled and 
differed on every possible and impossible tonic; 
moreover, Miss Pamela had strongly set tier 
face against his affiance with Mary Scrope, and 
she was in the secret of Mr. Whitehead's ro- 
niautic devotion to that lady, who, however, 
preferred the insinuating captaiu. 

Notwithstanding these bygone reminisceuces 
when poor Mrs. Gordon meekly entreated a 
small sum to extricate her from pressing diffi- 
iiolty, the good spinster, burying all the past in 
oblivion*8et herself earnestly to the task of 
comforting nnd supporting the widow and the 
fatherless; and at length received EUic as her 
own child, into her own home, when Mrs. Gor- 
don sunk to rest in the grave. Mr. Whitehead, 
in conversation with Miss Pamela, hud recent- 
ly begun to hint very strongly about the valu- 
able qualities of Mr. Samuel, and the good-for- 
nothing character of his half brother — a pro- 
ceeding which always set Miss Pamela in a 
blaze of indignation, while her appeals to Ellie 
brought a corresponding color into that youug 
lady's cheeks. 

" I wonder what that old miser has taken in 
his head now?,, thought Miss Pamela, as on 
one occasion of the kind she watched liis re- 
treating figure; "he looks wonderfully bent and 
Withered of late; he cannot last much longer. 
I hope he'll leave a legacy to poor Ellie, for 
her mother's sake. An, he was very fond of 
Mary Scrope Who ever would believe such 
a being as he appears now, could ever have 
played the fool, and raved when she married 
poor Ned! Ellie is very like her mother, full of 
life and animation litest her, she's a good, 
dear girl; 1 don't know what I should do with- 
out her. She's a clever-spirited puss, too, and 
after my own heart" 

Some months subsequent to this period, Mrs. 
Scrope and her youngest sou snt sipping their 
breakfast coffee, and munching hot rolls, Sam's 
head being swaddled in flannel for the rheuma- 
tism, when the former, after a pause, pursued 
tho tenor of their conversation, by saying in a 
half-hesitating tone: •' After all, bam, my dear, 
it's as nice a letter as one could expect from 
Miss Pamela Gordon; sho has always been con- 

sidered a most extraordinary person, famous 
for doing out-of-the-wuy things, and not stick- 
ing at trifles. I confess I don't quite under- 
stand the calm, sweet tenor of her polite opj 
tie; and I feel almost as if I stood on the brink 
of some powder magazine, with a lighted can- 
dle in my hand. Hut that must be all my ex- 
treme nervousness; because you see, Sam, there 
is nothing to occasion misgiving, aud all is fair 
and above ground. Wc have asked yom- con- 
sin Elspcth here, us in duty bound — ,-l'ie is e, mi- 
ll matter of courso; and, as a matter of 
conn . you will receive her. Let me see" — 
counting with her lingers — "Elspeth Gordon 
is just twenty — a year younger than you, Sam, 
my dear, and some five months; nnd Mary 
Scrope that was, has been dead about twenty 
years. Man' was a handsome, spirited girl." 

" Old Whitehead must have been very fond 
of her to make such a will," broke in Sam, with 
his mouth full and his face very red. " I'm 
sure, mother, I'd much rather remain single 
than be married — that I would; 1 know a wife 
will only bother me, and I shall be taking these 
eternal colds dancing nfter her — girls are so 

" How do yon know girls are tiresome, Sam?" 
asked his mother, sharply. 

"Why, mother," responded Snm, looking 
rather sheepish, " I've heard you say so scores 
of times." j 

" Well, well, my dear, never mind," respond- 
ed Mrs. Scrope, soothingly. " I dare to say 
Kl.-peth Cordon is a discreet maiden, though 
Mr. Whitehead spoke of her as being u gay, 
laughing kiss; and, to do her justice, Miss Pa- 
mela is a clever woman, and has brought up 
the young miss well, no doubt, and trained her 
to obedience and respect of her elders I'll be 
bound she'll come here all blushes and tremors 
at her own rare good luck;" aud Mrs. Scrope 

f loused, as a kind of jealous pang shot through 
icr maternal heart Sain remained silent, his 
white flabby face and half-closed eyes affording 
im index a- In the nature of his ruminations. 

Unaccustomed to the society of strangers, it 
may be supposed that Mrs. Scrope and Sam 
felt a little nervous at the expected visit of a 
well-bred young lady, placed iu such extremely 
delicnte and peculiar circumstances towards 
themselves, as Elspeth Gordon was. Mr. 
Whitehead had departed to another world, af- 
ter a few days' illness, soon after his visit to 
Miss Pamela Gordon; bequeathing the whole 
of his large fortune, without any deduction 
whatever, to Snm'l Scrope, of Scrope Hall, on 
condition of the said Sainl Scrope marrying 
Elspeth Gordon, daughter of the late Captain 
Gordon, nnd Man-, his wife; the said marriage 
to take place within twelve months nfter the 
testators decease. In the event of the said 
Samuel Scrope refusing to ratify the said con- 
dition, nnd rejecting the lady, he forfeited the 
fortune, which then became Elspeth Gordon's. 
But if the lady rejected the gentleman, why, 
then, of course, vico versa. Moreover, Mr. 
Whitehead had provided for every contingen- 
cy. If the couple by mutual consent, refused 
to fulfill the stipulated conditions, the many 
scores of thousands went to enrich various 
charities, nlmost unheard of by the most phi- 

As to Elspeth Gordon refusing Snm, that 
was a thing Mr. Whitehead never dreamed of; 
a penuiless girl like the daughter of his lost 
Mary to cast fortune away — nay, two fortunes 
— was unheard of in the annals of romantic fol- 
ly. So he secured her, as he considered, an 
excellent husband and a luxurious home. Then 
the idea of Samuel Scrope, prudent and mon- 
ey-loving as he was known to be, refusing a 
pretty girl and n stiU prettier douceur, for any 
whim sort of insanity, was far too wild and im- 
probable a conjecture to gain footing in Mr. 
Whitehcad'scalculutions. Sam, unimpassioned 
and cold as he was, would hardly reject a fine, 
lively, good-tempered young creature, marrying 
whoin he would iusnrc to himself the posses- 
sion of nearly £-10,000. 

Elspeth Gordon had received an invitation 
to Scrope Hall, for the purpose of being in- 
troduced to her cousin; aud Miss Pamela, to 
Mr& Scrope's astonishment, had herself writ- 
ten to accept it iu Elite's name, at the same 
time wishing good speed to the wooing. 

The eventful day arrived; Sam had thrown 
aside his flannel wraps, and arrayed iu a bright 
new coat, with well oiled hair, was surveyed 
by his admiring mother with looks of unmiti- 
gated admiration. 

"O mother," he said, "I am aU in a fluster: 
I don't know what to say to her." 

" 1 dare to say she is in more of a fluster 
than you, Sam, my dear; so let that comfort 
you. She won't meet your eyes, depend upon 
it; girls are always shy on such trying occa- 
sions as these." 

So endeavoring to rally her son's spirits, and 
to support his drooping courage, Mrs. Scrope 
remarked that she every moment expected to 
hear the sound of carriage wheels approaching, 
as it was rather beyond the hour fixed for the 
arrival of their guest. The crack of the riding 
whip was heard in the hall, the door of the 
apartment was flung open, and a lady attired 
in a riding costume, rapidly entered, excluimiug, 
" Down, Juno! down, Peto!" as two huge dogs 
leaped about her, creating confusion and dis- 
may in all the beholders, for if Mrs. Scrope and 
Sam hated one tiling more than another, it was 
a dog. 

With dismay nnd surprise painted on her 
countenance, Mrs. Scrope, turning to the do- 
mestics, said, in a hasty tone: "Turn them 
out! turn out these troublesome creatures im- 
mediatelyl" But Miss Elspcth Gordon — for it 
was she — peremptorily exclaimed: - 1 should 
strongly advise uobody to meddle with my 
dogs; they ore savage anil will bite strangers 
unless left alone, and never obey any one ex- 
cept mo and Mom." Shrinking from contact 
With the unruly animals, and in tho utmost con- 
sternation, Mrs. Scrope surveyed her young 
visiter. A tall, finely formed, though slender 
figure, was set off by n tightly fitting habit; 
while n pair of green spectacles, of antiquated 
make, aided by a slouching hat, concealed the 
upper portion of the stranger's face. The 
mouth, however, displayed a set of dazzling 
white teeth, although tho 'voice proceeding 
from that mouth nttered wonderful things for 
a timid young lady, but with a remarkably soft 

and musical modulation. Turning suddenly 
round towards Sam, who had retreated to the 
further end of tho room, the owner of the green 
specs, regarding him fixedly for u few moments, 
advanced wilh extended hand, saying: "We 
won't wait for a formal introduction, Cousin 
Samuel, will we? Come, don't be .-hy: hal ( 
hands nnd be friends. Now Juno, now Peto 
— here, let ine introduce you to your now 

But poor Sam was" desperately afraid of large 
dog ; and ho looked so scared and miserable, 
thai the gay lady indulged in an immoderate 
lit of laughter, which she vainly endeavored i" 
control. Recovering herself with difficulty, 
she said with much suavity and gentleness: — 
"You'll get used to them in time, Cousin Sam; 
I cannot live without them!" 

" And how did you come, my denrr" said 
Mrs. Scrope, willing to get awoy from the sub- 
ject "Sam and I were listening for the sound 
of carriage wheels on tho aveuue, but we heard 

" Carrioge wheels, indeed I" cried Ellie Gor- 
don contemptuously, nnd flourishing her whip; 
" as if I come to see my intended in so stupid 
a fashion. Not I, indeed. I rode over on 
Vixen, my beautiful mare, with Tom at my 
heels, and Juno and Peto for company." With 
uplifted hands nnd eyes, Mrs. Scrope repented 
the words: — "Bode over on Vixen! Why, it 
is n good eighty mile from hence to Miss Pa- 
melas, and you rode over on horseback!" 

"To be sure! what of that? Forty miles a 
day; and slepllast night at the Ellistoia'. Bob 
and James EUiston rode part of the way with 
me to-day, but I didn't want them, even thro' 
Hungiug Wood; for look here, ma'am. I never 
travel without these; you and 1 will have a 

Sractice, Sam;" and, so saying, the young lady 
row forth from a concealed pocket, a pair of 
small, elegantly finished pistols, pointing oue in 
Sam's face. He recoiled, saying, iu a scarcely 
audible voice: — "I hope, Miss, they're not 

"Why, Sam, what would be the use ot pis- 
tols if "they were not loaded?" replied she, 
smiling, and adding, in mi under tone, "except 
to frighten fools with." 

" I think, my denr," said Mrs. Scrope, coming 
between the pair, and gently turning aside the 
hand which graced the offensive weapon, "that 
you had better lay them aside now, with your 
traveling dress; there are no robbers or ruffians 
here to molest you." 

"Thank you, ma'am — thank you," quickly 
replied Ellie, "I prefer wearing my habit; anil 
if you've no objection, I'll return these pretty 
dears to my pocket," replacing the pistols; 
"It's all use you know — all use." 

Mrs. Scrope, roused to something like self- 
possession, now replied with dignity, "It is un- 
usual for a young lady to carry fire-nrms, nnd 
to wear a riding dress in n drawing-room. Has 
Miss Pamela Gordon countenanced such pro- 
ceedings ■ 



antr lunwr. 

«_*-.,••»./»*/•*,»>»/>,'».'»./"»<'». '*»<■>.*».<». **v-*V /*»**».'*»/"».'».'•*>• «#*V 


Thk subjoined incident is sent to ns by a 
Southern correspondent, as related by a Vir- 
ginia negro. If it is true, the parrot was cer- 
tainly a remarkable bird: 

" You see," said he, " dis parrot belonged to 
a baker in Richmond. Now, each bakers, lowed 
to make a certain number of loaves ebery day, 
and no more, ' cordiu' to how many customers 
he got; 'cause if dey bake too much, dey will 
be servin' out stale bread to de customers. — 
Weil, dis buker had baked more'n his share one 
day, and hid de rest ob 'urn under dc counter. 
De parrot was hangiu' in his cage, and see it 
all. Birac-by, in comes de inspector, and finds 
de bread all right, and is goin' out again satis- 
fied, when dc parrot cocks his eyo nt him, nnd 
sings out, Dcrc'a more bread under de counter !' 
So de inspector grabs it, 'cordin' to law, aud 
carries it off Well, den dc baker goes to de 
parrot, worry mad, mid takes him by do head 
and fotches him a twitch or two, and flings him 
into de butter for dead, 'lougside of a pig just 
dead of de measles. Bime-by, be parrot be- 
gins to crawl about, his feathers a stickin' out, 
and liis head lopped on one side, aud den he 
stoops and looks at de pig, wery pitifid, aud 
says he, 'did you say any ling about de 

Willie's father is a clergyman, and " tem- 
perate in all things;" so Willie had never seen 
a man chewing the "vile weed" until he was 

about three years old, when Mr. , holding 

his little son by his dimpled hand, stood in the 
street for a moment, to speak to an acquaint- 
ance. FWillie was aU eyes, as ho could not 
comprehend tho conversation: and, seeing the 
heavily bearded individual occasionally put a 
pinch of "fine-cut" into his mouth, was consid- 
erably puzzled and astonished. At last be 
could stand it no longer. " Pa," said he, anx- 
iously, " docs that man chew hair so as to make 
it grow out over liis face?" — Knickerbocker. 

Goon. — Tho following, which is clipped from 
an exchange, only goes to prove that — "some 
things can be done as well as others:" 

When lovely woman veils her bosom 

With muslin fashionably thin, 

What man with eyes, could e'er refuse 'cm. 

Cautiously, from peering In ? 

And when his ardent gnio returning, 

The muslin heaves to dii<p drawn idgha, 

Would not hU fioirerV ends bo burning 

To prew — ku hot down o'er his tyesf 

» • ■ • . 

■"Will you take tho life of Pierce or Scott 
this morning, madam?" said a newsboy to our 
good aunt Betsy. " No, my lad," she replied, 
" they may live to the end of their days for all 
me— I've nothin agin' 'cm." 

Tub man who attempted to look into the 
future, had the door slammed in his fnce. 

" Wood Is the thing, after all," as the man 
with an oak leg said when the dog bit it. 

[rjitffi's €mm. 

" AK^inpl tho end, and never stand lo doabl ; 

KoUdiqfi fn hardy but Utfrefa will And It out." 



£5?" Answer iu two weeks. 
We will forward the Rdbal three months, tree 
of charge, to each of the first four persons (resid- 
ing out of the city) who send correct answers 
to tho above Rebus previous to tho publicati"" 
of the solution. 

■ » ■ 

(Written for the RurU Nen-Yorkcr.) 


I am composed of 1"> letters. 
Mj :t. 9, G, 8 is something that grows. 
My 1, 2, 4, 4 is similar to grass. 
My 1. 12, 11, 15 is the name of a lass. 
My 13, 8, 12, 3 is a kind of fruit 
My 14, 9. 11, G, 8 is tho name of a brute. 
My II. 9, 8 is the name of a tooL 

My whole is n book much used in school. 
CuUlo, N. Y, ISM. M. C. 

Axsweii to niuptrattd Rebus No. 4. — A man 
liquidating an account passed a counterfeit bill. 

Arswkr to Philosophical EDigma. — Fog3 are 
produced by icalery vapor coming in contact irilh 
air colder than ilulf. 



feMor of Chemistry and IU aprillcaUomi to Agriculture and 
Ihc Useful ArU. 

F. E. Daki.x, Inftructor In Analytical ClierourtrT. 

TliL, Department of the University, having been perma- 
nenUy oalablUhcd, a spacious Laboratory wiU ba opoueJ 
for the rvecptlon of Student*, on Tuesday, Hi'- 10lh day of 
January in- 1. There will bo a (our- of Instruction in 
Practical rind AnalyUeal Chemistry, and a Course- of 1-ec- 
turci by Prof. Cahh, on tho applications of Chemiitry to 
Agriculture and the Manufacturing Arts, conUnuiug during 
n term of three monllis. Tho Laboratory rrUl be open 
from a. K. to 4 p. ». 

The lA'clures will bo delivered In tht evening, and vriU 
bo freo of charge. 

For Laboratory Instruction, $20 per term, or 310 per 
month, for a shorter period. Stndents wUl be charged with 
breakage and the Chemicals they consume. Pludi nl i . ill 
also have access to tho State Agricultural and Geological 

Analysis of Soils, Ores, Mineral Waters, &c, rruuio on 
reasonable terms. 

Address Prof. E. S. Garb, at Albany, or either of tho fol- 
lowing gentlemen: — Luther Tucker, office Albany Culllrn- 
l"r; n«,u. B. P. Johnson, State Agricultural Room-; Dr. 
J. H. Arrraby, 669 Broadrmy. 20T-54. 

Wn are receiving our sopply of Peruvian Goano, ner 
ships Rlanchard, Senator, and Gray Kentbcr, from the Clnn- 
clia Inlands, and are nov prepared to make cmlmcls for 
the spring supply. As the demand is large, wc would ad- 
vise all who maybe in want of this valuable manor., to 
mako early application. Price, 8-H per ton of 2,000 lbs. — 
Bo particular to obserro that every hag is branded — 
No. 1. 


GUA.N o 

mroRTrD rsrro tub c.vitt.d statidi bt 


for nut rantnriAN norcR.'VMETT. 

State Agricultural Warehouse, 25 ClilTsI, N. Y. 
January 2, ISM. (209-21) 






Sc-bsotsiptio.'V — 52 a year — 81 for six months. To 
Clubs and Agents as follows :— Three Copies one year, for 
$5; Sis Copies (nnd on© to Agent or getter op of dub,) 
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Copies for 825, and any additional number, directed to 
Individuals at the samo rale. Six months subscriptions In 

Lay Subscription money, prnperly encased, may be sent 
by mail at the risk of the Publisher. 

AnrKRTiHrxn. — Brief nnd appropriate advertisements 
will lie Inserted nt 81,60 per square, (ten lines, or 100 
words,) or 15 cents per line — 1» mJcanrs. The circulation 
of the Rural N i:\t-Yorxkr is several thousand grmter 
than that of any other Agricultural or similar Journal In 
America. Patent medicines, &C, will not be advertised in 
this paper on any terms. 

gjr All communications, and business letters, should 
bo addressed to D. 1). T. Moons, Rochester, N. Y. 

Tho Wool Growor and Stock Register is the only 
American journal deyoled to the Wool and Stock Grow- 
ino Interests. It contains a vast amount of mse/mJ and 
rtliobii information not given in any other work, and 
should bo in the hands of £rrry Ownrr of Domatie J«i- 
sufs, whether located East or West, North or Sonlh.— 
Published monthly in octavo form, illustrated, at O-tiT 
Fifty Cents a Ykar— 5 copies for $2; 8 for S3. Vol. 5 
commenced Jury, 1S5S. Subscriptions can begin with the 
July or January number. Back volumes furnished. 
Address D. D. T. MOORE, Rochester, N. Y. 

Now-SunseniiiiiRfl Into whose hands this number of the 
Rural may fall, are requested lo give It an examination, 
and, if approved, their support. So* prospectus, Premium 
List, fcc, on preceding page. 




{WHOLE NO. 211 

gtoort's gural Utto-gorlur: 


A:;-. !■ altoral, Literary, and Family Nowspapor. 

ASNISTKIi KT HARRIS, in Urn Practical !' i irlroei ' 
EDWARD WEDSTER, la Uu Literary and Ken Dop'ta. 

Corrvs|Joniling F.Ullora: 

J. H. Dixdv,— H. C. Wuitk.— T. E. Wbtmobe. 

Tiik RniAL N'Kw-YonKRR Is ilmlfrncd lo be nnl,|ue and 
bcuiUftil In firi|,«imnc.', and unsu rj>a.**cd In Value, I'urilj 
and Variety nt Conlcutii. Its conductor* t'aniciUy labor 
to in »'■>■ It a Reliable Guide on thu important Practical 
Subjects connected with llio biullneM of llm«e whose In- 
terval* It advocate*. It embrace* more Agricultural, Horti- 
cultural, S.-i, mine, Mechanical, Literary and Ncwi Haiti r, 
liiten'iH'n^.'d Willi many appropriate and hand-oni-' - 
logs, Uion any other paper puhllalied In till* Country,— 
rendering it a complete AauiCDLTOiuL, l.imt*KY and 
FAMILY Ni.whi-.u-mi. 

[Cf?" Foh Ti.tcMB, &C-, »r.r. laitt runn. JT£ 

Progress and Improvement 

The high price of hay invites our nlleiition 
lo the oft asked question, how can our perma- 
nent meadows he improved? The most com- 
mon fault of our permanent grass hinds is, 
they are too ice I. Most farmers appear lo 
think that gross land cannot have too much 
water; unit which, in reality, is partially true, 
they cannot well have loo muck, provided the 
soil is well underdruined. The idea of under- 
draining meadows will be new to many readers 
but we are convinced, in fact we know from 
observuliou, that undiTdruining pays quite as 
well on meudow luutl us on any other. There 
are thousands of acres of permanent meadow, 
that would yield double the amount of buy, 
from .simply underdrawing thorn; while the 
quality of the hay would be improved to a still 
greater degree. The next means of improving 
them, is by manuring. The best munucr of 
doing this is a disputed point. We have seen 
meadows very much benefited by un applica- 
tion of ordinary slid' soil, composted with lime, 
but 6till more, when composted with horse 
manure and allowed to ferment till all trace of 
the manure was lost before application. Good 
barn-yard manure, thoroughly decomposed by 
slow fermentation, and applied lute in llie full, 
and spread over the meadow, is, iu our opinion, 
the best and cheapest means of increasing the 
grass crop. 

Thy ROY, W. Clikt, or Stonington, CL, has 
receutly mude experiments on a live year old 
meadow, in which 80 lbs. superphosphate of 
lime gave an increase of 1,0-10 lbs, of hay per 
OCIC; while 20 one-horse loads of unfcrincnicd 
manure, applied iu March, gave au increase of 
900 lb*; certainly more than wc should Itave ex- 
pected from such uu application, and yet, it 
was attended with a lout of §7,20 per acre, 
while with the superphosphate there was a gain 
of $5,20. Eight bushels of hen mauure, mix- 
ed with eight barrels of plaster, and applied iu 
April, during rain, gave an increase of 1,020 
lbs. of hay per acre, and a gain of S3, GO. — 
80 lbs. of guano, mixed with 12 bushels of 
charcoal cinders, guve an increase of 80 lbs., 
and a loss of Sl.OO; while 100 lbs. of guano, 
mixed with charcoal as the other, gave an in- 
crease of 800 lbs. per acre, and a gain of ${,- 
00: From these experiments it is concluded, 
that the "superphosphate is among the cheap- 
est and best of manures." We have seen hidf 
a ton of superphosphate sown on five acres ol 
old meadow, produce not the least benefit; 
while half a ton of good Peruvian guano, sown 
on live ndjoiuiug acres, was very beneficial, 
greatly increasing both the quantity and qual- 
ity of the herbage. 

Mr. Cmft's experiments ore open to the 
same objection as those of Mr. Eastman on 
Indian corn. They wore on too small a plot 
of land. The estimates of the acreugo yield 
of buy, were mode from two square rods, 
weighed in the green state, and the amount of 
hay which they would yield, calculated from 
thut yielded by one parcel. Under such a sys- 
tem of experiments, wc arc not surprised that 
on one plot 80 lbs. of guano should give an 
. increase of 80 His. of hay, and 100 lbs. an in- 
crease of 800 lbs.; or, that 80 lbs. of super- 

phosphate should give an increase of over half 
a ton of huy. We have a great desire to 
know how to enrich our meadows in the cheap- 
est way, but such experiments as Mr. lift's, 
however frequently and carefully they may be 
made, can never instruct us. 

We huve seen meadows iu Cheshire, En- 
gland where 100 bushels of bones were ap- 
plied per acre, much benefited for five years 
after the application; but how fur this was 
owing to the phosphate of lime, or to the ni- 
trogen of the bones, wc cannot tell. The fact 
that superphosphate of lime is not attended 
with great and immediate benefit when applied 
to these meadows, would lead us to suppose 
that the nitrogen of the bones, of which they 
contain ten times as much as barn-yard ma- 
nure, was the most valuable. Wo have had 
considerable experience iu the use of all the 
various artificial fertilizers, nntl believe that 
next to well decomposed barn-yard dung, good 
Peruvian guuno will be found the cheapest and 
best mauure for enriching our permanent mead- 
ows or grazing lauds. When buy is worth 820 
per ton, we have no doubt that an application of 
200 lbs of Peruvian guuno per acre would be very 
profitable mid even ut 5>10 per ton, wc think 
it would pay, though the profit would not bo 
large. Any of our renders who huve used 
guano or superphosphate of lime on grass lands, 
would do us and the public a favor by giving 
us the results. Wc have not now space to 
notice the various means of improving meadows 
by irrigation, dragging, &C., Sec, but should be 
glad of the experience of our correspondents. 
« «> i i 


Where is the farmer's wife that bos not 
been troubled more or less with churning iu 
winter? We recollect baviug to help churn 
for two days, and, after all, wc had to throw 
llie milk away, for the butler would not come. 
Cows fed ou straw cannot be oxjicetcd to have 
much butter in their milk; the poor things 
need the whole of it to burn in their lungs to 
supply animal heat Wc opine thut this is one 
of iho reasons why butter will not come. 

It is well known that butler is held in emul- 
sion, iu the form of oily globules, encased iu a 
film of cuseinc, (curdj and that agitation bursts 
these films, when the oil or butter beiug speci- 
fically lighter than the milk, ri s es to the sur- 
face and concretes. This ell'ccl is always ac- 
companied by the formation of lactic acid 
from the sugar of milk. But below a tem- 
perature of aO ° this formation of luetic acid 
docs not take place, and consequently the but- 
ter will not come. 

To make butter come, then, wo would ad- 
vise Letter feed for the cows. In addition to 
the straw or hay, give some shorts, a few iiiuu- 
gel-wurlzel or beets, and, what is best of all, u 
little oil-cake. Then your milk will contain 
butter, and to get it out will not bo dillicult — 
Place the milk where it will not freeze, and 
the cream in a temperature of about GO ° , and 
keep it till it gels sour, which will uot be long, 
if the temperature is uniform. Avoid heating 
it iu the day and freezing it at night; such a 
course will turn the cream bitter instead Of 
sour. In churning, the temperature should be 
(in winter) as high as GO ° when the cream Ls 
placed in the churn, and about 70 ° when the 
butler comes. A good '• thermometer churn" 
is of great advantage in winter us well us sum- 
mer, not because it has a thermometer, but be- 
cause of the admirable means it affords of pla- 
cing warm water oulsidu the churn. Wc are 
surprised that they are not more generally 

used. • 

1 i » . . 


Tub value of bones in almost any form, as a 
manure for field or gardcu, should induce far- 
mura lo save them for tliis purpose. In Ihc 
Winter, especially, large quantities might be 
gathcr&d, to be broken iu spring and mixed 
with compost, or applied directly to the soil. 
For Pear trees — for gross Iamls, for most kinds 
of garden vegetables — nothing belter can be 
found. Then save thu old boues, and though 
you fail in making "improved supcrphosphute" 
you will not fail iu benefiting your laud and 
increasing its productiveness by tho applica- 


A pXtkxt has been taken out in Great Brit- 
ain for the manufacture of guano from fish. — 
The fish cither fresh or dried is treated with a 
small quantity of sulphuric acid, by which it is 
reduced to n pulpy slate. In this state it is 
dried either by direct application of heal or 
by mixing with it some absorbent substance. 
Analysis shows this (it ft said) to be equal to 
the best Peruvian guano. Il is staled thut the 
supply of fish, especially of unsaleable li.-h, i- 
prodigious; and that if $10 per ton were offer- 
ed for them, the fishermen would bring in enor- 
mous quantities. At present one-half to two- 
thirds of the fish is thrown overboard. Sprats 
arc frequently sold along the coast at less limn 
85 per ton, and waste fish nt from 84 to §7. 

Wc very much doubt the feasibility of con- 
verting fish into n cheap, dry, portable manure, 
that shall successfully compete ruth guano. — 
But of one thing there can Be no doubt: that 
the farmers on llie Atlunticslopc, where guuno 
is principally used in this country, would act 
v.i bly by encouraging Gshormon to save ull 

the unsaleable fish and bring then to sK , 

wheye they would form a most valuable ma- 
nure. Instead of treating them with sulphur- 
ic acid, they might bo incorporated with soil or 
even plowed under or applied iu the hill to 
com, in their green state, as is already done to 
some extent. If it will pay to convert thorn 
into an artificial guano, it will certainly pay to 
use them in their natural state; for the process 
of manufacture adds nothing to their mauu- 
rial value. 

It is a question with us whether a small 
quantity of sulphuric acid will thus dissolve 
fish It will arrest dccomrpuiGon, of course, 
but that it will dissolve them is, at least, new 
to us. 


Tub practice or feeding and leaving stock in 
the open fields, without shelter, or miy protec- 
tion from the winds and storms of winter, lo 
say the least, is u cruel one. Those who bftvo 
noticed them iu such exposed situations, shiver- 
ing and giving every indication of suffering, 
need no argument to convince them of llie 
truth of this assertion. If, however, any are 
disposed to qucstiou it, lot them take a turn 
out, some wiiii ry day, (if they are so fortuimle 
as not to find the evidence al home) lo the 
fields of some less fortunate neighbor, who 
Continues this practice, where they may see the 
truth fully demonstrated. If more evidence is 
desired, please number tho animals, u.'id note 
their condition. Anil again, by tho inidillc of 
April, do llie same thing, and let the difference 
in condition and number testify. Though pro- 
vided with sufficient food, stock cannot thrive 
under such treatment And that animals 
should become poor, or even diseased and die, 
id not surprising. It is true, strong animals 
may endure it, but what becomes of the young 
an I Ihc weak? It is needless to say, that a 
good animal cannot bo reared under such u 

Besides, it is not profitable. Some estimate 
tho quantity of food required wheu thus ex- 
posed, at double what is required when properly 
sheltered. I urn uot prepared to say, that this 
is too high an estimate. But, suppose comfort- 
able shelter saves one quarter of the feed, 
which would otherwise bo consumed. Formers 
who keep but a moderate stock would, from 
this saving, soon be able lo build all Ihc stables 
and sheds required. They could then greatly 

in. ii the stoek ou their farms, without on 

increase of expense for feed. Anil besides the 
profit from inci cased aud improved stock, there 
Ls a gain in the greuter value of the manure, 
when sheltered from the rains. Farmers all, 
provide good shelter for your stock ; instead of 
mud or suow, give your animals n clean bed of 
straw. It is more humane, uud more profitable. 
Keep ull ihc stock you cau provide feed for, 
and Ihus furnish manure for your exhausted 
lands. v. z. 

Peoria, N. Y., 1851. 

, ■ » i ■ 

Tin: Maine Farmer speaks of three premium 
com crops in Maine, of 102J, 06 and 78 bush- 
els per nerc. Pretty good, thai, for n way 
dowu east below sunrise. 


Ens. Rural : — In a late Rorau is an article 
from tho Country Gentleman, in reference to 
Tall mid winter plowing. As a result of plow- 
ing n piece of sod for corn in December, the 
writer says: — "Although the worms were nu- 
merous in the soil, thousands were seen perish- 
ed in the cold. Their winter retreat was broken 
up, nnd I lost but few hills of com by thein." 
I have elsewhere seen accounts of similar al- 
leged results of fidl plowing ; indeed, it Ls (he 
prevailing notion thut such plowing is destruc- 
tive lo the wire-worm, but is it so? I have 
had u good deal of experience with this little 
pest, to the decided disadvantage of my pocket, 
and it does not accord with that of the writer 
qii >ted. I once turned a few acres of sod late 
iu the full, which had been thirty years in pas- 
tille and meadow, and uevcr plowed, and which 
contained more wire-worms lliuii I hope ever 
to see iu a field of equal size. The work was 
finished late iu November, one bitter cold (lav, 
when the ground was rapidly freezing, and the 
worms which were brought to the surface by 
the plow, stiffened in a moment, apparently 
dead. I verily thought a good work was be- 
ing done, until a day or two after, in crossing 
llie field, I was induced lo pick up u few from 
the frozen surface, to sec whether they were 
really dead, or only " playing possum." The 
result was, that ten minutes in n warm room, 
restored them to life and activity. After the 
first thaw, I ugaiu took a look at the furrows, 
but no worms were to be found. Beep in the 
ground they had all secured themselves safely 
agaiust the next storm, as they will invariably 
do in a few moment.-; when the mercury is ubove 
32°. There weie enough of them the follow- 
ing season to have destroyed not a " few hills" 
only, but every hill, had the field been planted; 
mid not till it hod been twice in buckwheat, 
would it huve been safe to venture in with a 

Whether buckwheat will kill them or uot, 
I eun not say. Certain it is, I hat the worm will 
not destroy a crop of it Continuous plowing 
year after year, will eradicate them. The 
third crop will not generally bo injured much. 
Bare fidlow, from early spring to the time ol 
seeding in the fall, tho' injurious to the soil 
((crimps, will do something. A part of my lust 
year's fallow was broken up just as the frost 
was out and soon made dead; tho balance, lute 
in the season, and poorly dona On tho last 
plowing, tho wheat i3 injured vastly more than 
on tho first. Tho worm is certainly migratory, 
us, where ditches are cut through turf and loft 
to be filled some time during the summer, and 
between Iheiu fallowed, the strip adjoining the 
dilch, afterwards plowed, will be much more 
infested by them. Indeed, I have had the 
wheat on such narrow strip entirely destroyed, 
while thut adjoining was only partially injured. 
Wm. B. PitATr. 

PratUburgh, it. Y, Jan. 13, ISM. 

■ . • . » 


Tuat there is plenty of wnter for nil the pur- 
poses for which it is ueoded upon a farm, is 
evident wheu wo consider the amount folliug 
from the clouds in the course of a year. A 
writer iu the Albany Cultivator, goes into a 
calculation showing that on every surface o^ 
ten feet square, seventy-two barrels of water 
fall mutually. Tho roof of a thirty by forty 
foot burn, yields in the some time, eight hun- 
dred nnd sixty-four barrels, — more limn two 
barrels a day, for every day in the year. — 
From three to live times this extent of roof is 
found ou every farm, and with cave-troughs 
conductors aud cisterns to secure the supply, 
no one need luck for plenty of water at all times 
throughout the year. 

With cistern-room for one-sixth of the 
amount, a great want would be satisfied — thut 
of water during the Autumn drought, when 
streams and wells arc low. How much more 
convenient, too, n supply of pnre rain-water, 
always nvailublc, than ibis depending on wells, 
or distant ponds, — or chance showers, which 
seldom come in a very dry time. Let us have 
cisterns — good cisterns— and then make free 
use of water, never fearing that the clouds wilj 
luil us, or that rain and snow will cease to 
bless and gladden the earth. — a. 


A coRREsro.vnE.vr of the Ohio Farmer 
thinks thut sheep and cattle should not be fed 
three limes a day. lie says a cow when turn- 
ed into good grass, will out with avidity for an 
hour or two, und then seek repose, when, after 
an hour or so, the ruminating process Ls com- 
menced, nnd continued for three or Tour bouts 
more. The food is in this way thoroughly mas- 
ticated and mixod with saliva before it enters 
tho .second stomach to be acted on by Ihc gas- 
tric juice nnd digested. The digestive process 
will occupy four or five hours. We have, 
therefore, "allowing two und a half hours lie 
eating, one hour rest, four hours for rumination 
aud four or five for digestion, cloven or twelve 
hours between the times when nn nuimnl would 
naturally need feeding." He thinks from this 
that " feeding animuLs three time- a day is not 
only unnecessary, but positively injurious.'' If 
the animal is fed at G A. M., and ugaiu at noon, 
the ruminating process Ls not completed, ami 
if fed ut 5 P. M., it will not give the animal 
sufficient lime to masticate the food, even by 
keeping its grinders in constant motion, so that 
at the best there must be forced on the diges- 
tive organs a portion of the food improperly 
masticated, causing uu extraumountof labor fur 
these organs, and at the risk of engendering 

His practice has conformed to this theory, 
and ho thinks his stock at least as good as his 
neighbors', who feed three limes a day. lie 
asks those who think differently, to give a rea- 
son for their belief, und also to try a lot fed 
twice a day, against a lot fed three limes. 

We have always considered it advisable lo 
feed animals three times a day, and have ob- 
served animals so fed, on an occasion when tho 
noon's feed has been omitted, manifest all Ihc 
symptoms of real hunger, eating substances 
which, tinder ordinary circumstance*, they 
would not touch. But perhaps we are wrong, 
at all events let us have the crperimtnt. 


Mr. Moork : — Last spring, 1 had a stnull 
bed of about 45 feet square, unoccupied iu my 
garden, which Ihe old man, who worked the 
garden, planted in corn, in checks nt about I! 
feet, which gave about 18 rows each way 
The corn planted was n small white flint 'ho 
seed of which I brought from Northern New 
York, in 18-13, but which had much enlarged 
by 10 years' cultivation in our Southern climate. 
The com came up nnd grew well, Ihc ground 
being rich and well broken. On Ibcithdayof 
July, the corn then bcuig about three and a hulf 
feet high, suid just beginning to tassel, I dis- 
covered tlmt three rows of the corn assumed 
the appearance of having been scalded, nnd in 
a few dnyB dried up and died Tho balance 
grew finely and yielded a very abundant crop. 
1 carefully examined it, but could find no cause 
for its decline. The roots had not been injured 
by worms, nor had there bceu anything put on 
Ihe com. There was not another hill in «tbe 
squnre similarly affected. I had a field of corn 
ou two sides of tho garden, nnd immediately 
adjoining this square, in which was no similar 

I called tho attontion of many to it, but 
found none who hnd ever seen anything like it. 
Can you or any one else account for il 7 

Tho day before I discovered it and for 
several successive preceding days, we bad very 
severe thunderstorms, with much lightning and 
hard thunder, but with little or no rain. Could 
it have been the effect of electricity .' 

Chroliuniiliorff, Va, January 1Mb, ISM. 

■ » • » 

J. M. Cosodo.n, Chelsea, Mich, has three lost 
spring chickens, that are without feathers but 
well covered with n stiff down, which ut n little 
distance has Ihe appearanco of conrsc hair. — 
The wings nnd tails huve quills, which nppcar 
as if they had been stripped of tho feathor. — 
They nro healthy fowls uud part of a brood of 
pure Shanghais. 

In the Journal of the N. Y. State Ag. So- 
ciety, it is Btated that Joseph McOraw, .1 a., 
Tompkins Co., has a Short-horn cow which 
yielded G0J qts. of milk and 2J lbs. of bulter 
per day for 30 days in succession. 





Tiik following extracts from a private letter, 
from IC M. Oabp&ktkb of Rochester, N. Y., 
now staying in Snnhury, N. (.'., may l)e iulor- 
cstiug to our readers: 

"The modus operandi of farming hen.', is not 
i ■-.-' ■uiiiilly different from tlmt with us. The 
mule or ox and cart is used altogether, instead 
of the team and double wagon. If mules, for 
toughness, capability of endurance, easy keep- 
ing, Ac., are so much better than horses for 
fanning purposes, as is affirmed here, I wonder 
whv they uro not nsed with us? Pcrhnps 
pride has something to do with it. Onts, rice, 
cotton, 4c., ore raised here to some extent and 
sweet potatoes in abundance. In some comi- 
ties considerable wheat is raised. It is not, a 
grazing country, and the cattle are very inferi- 
or. The farmers turn their attention mostly 
to raising corn and hops. Many raise from 
two to five thousand bushels of corn u year, 
unci fat from 75 to 250 hogs. Corn is planted 
as with us, except that there is invariably only 
one stalk left in the hi|l. A sort of pea is 
sown with the com, and used also for fattening 
hogs. The custom is to kill the hogs when a 
year old, such pork bringing a higher price 
tliun older pork — the reverse of northern 
markets. At our late fair there were exhibited 
some splendid fat hogs. One, 11 months old, 
weighed when dressed 390 lbs.; three others of 
the same age weighed respectively 3G3. 374, 
and 367 lbs. The Rural ought to find its way 
down here to disseminate the practical truths 
and practical knowledge of agricultural science 
in its present advanced state, which its well till- 
ed columns arc fully nblc to do." 

. * i 


Ens. Rural: — I select a piece of dry, sandy 
or loamy soil, and plow late in nutunm deep 
enough to throw up some of the sub-soil, and 
effectually expe+c to the frost everything that 
can favor the preservation of the insect tribes, 
and, unless a grass sward, plow ngain in the 
spring, early enough to let it freeze. Sow 
from 3 to 5 bushels of good ashes and harrow 
well. Then select seed no larger than a hen's 
egg, but that which is fully matured — such as 
grew near the root of the plant, and matured 
early. Put one potutoe in a hill icilhout cut- 
ting — hills from three to four feet apart. Put 
on the seed in the hill before covering, a large 
spoonful of a mixture of 1 part plaster, in 2 
of slacked lime, and 4 of leuched ashes. Plant 
as early as the ground is in good order, and 
the seed safe from freezing in the hilL Stir 
the earth with the cultivator often enough to 
kill weeds, and keep Uio earth suitably moist. 
From the time the tuber is as large as a mus- 
ket ball, sow ashes broadcast tchen the dew is 
on, once a week till the growth of the tuber 

Unless the weather is unusually warm, they 
arc as Bnfo in the hill as anywhere, until in dan- 
ger of frost. On sandy or loose land they 
should bo pitted; on clay or heavy loam buried 
on the surface. In either case care should be 
taken to prevent water from settling among or 
near them. I have rarely found it necessary 
to toko any further precaution to prevent po- 
tatoes grown in tliis way from rotting, espe- 
cially when gathered dry. Sometimes, how- 
ever, when the rot was bad around the coun- 
try, I have sifted slacked lime on the potatoes 
in the pit. In this way I have never failed 
since 1845, of having the best quality of po- 
tatoes. Harlow Butler. 

Ctaiailcrflcld, Pulton Co., Ohio. 


Friknd Moore: — In the last number of the 
Rural you present your vast company of read- 
ers with a picture of the Arabian horse "Tar- 
tar," accompanied by a brief letter press. — 
Your remarks are true to the text, i. e., the en- 
graving; but 1 claim that I have a mare that 
will beat that /rfcture all to pieces. She has 
all the points which yon commend, fully equal 
to those of "Tartar," viz: head, neck, quarters, 
legs, Ac, whilo she has in equal perfection, 
those points which you decide to bo defective 
in him, in which decision any judge of a horse 
will fully agree with you. In ease and grace 
of action, in speed, in symmetry of form, and 
purcness of blood, I claim she cannot be bent 
in the Empire State. She has the Dnroc and 
Ilamiltoniun blood as fully, I think, as any 
horse in the Union. 

Yoa concede the banner to our county for 
the greatest number of subscribers to your 
popcr, and I claim the banner for the best 
marc in the State. 

I will give $1,000 for a match to her. 

C. R. Wilklss. 

Newark, W«jM Co, N. Y, Jim. IK, "M. 

« ■ • ■ • 

Dr. Lbr thinks that " as potash is very solu- 
ble in water, old ocean has gotten considerably 
more than either its fish or its plants need." — 
Potash is usually locked up in combinations 
which are very insoluble; aud we suspect that 
the ocean has no more potash than the Crea- 
tor designed, and, consequently, no more than 
is wanted for some useful puqxjse. 

In the Transactions of the New York Stale 
Agricultural Society for 1850, there is a prize 

My on agricultural dynamics by J. J. Thomas, 
which should be read by every farmer. The 
following extracts on the centre of gravity, will 
prove interesting and instructive 

The centre of gravity is that point in every 
hard substance or body, on every side oftvhich 
UiO different ports exactly balance each other. 
If the body be a globe or round ball, the cen- 
tre of gravity Will bd exactly at the centre or 
the globe; if it be a rod of equal size, it will be 
at the middle of the rod. If a stone or nny 
other substance rest on a point directly under 
the contra of ferovily, it will remain balanced 
on this point; but if the point bo not under the 
centre of gravity, tho stone will fall towards the 
heaviest side. 

Every farmer who erects a wall or building; 
every teamster who drives a heavy load, or even 
he who only carries n heavy weight upon his 
shoulder, may leam something useful by uu- 
derstnndiiig the laws of gravity. 

If any body, of whatever shape, be suspend- 
ed by a hook or loop at its top, it will neces- 
sarily hang so that the centre of gravity shall 
be directly under tho hook. In this way, this 
point in any substance, no matter how irregu- 
lar its shape may be, is ascertained. Suppose, 
for instance, we have tho 
irregular plate or board 
shown in the annexed 
figure, (fig. 1.) first hung d£__ 
it by the hooka, and the 
centre of gravity will be 
somewhere in the dotted 
line (i b. Then hang it 
by the hook e, and it Fio. 1. 

will be t-omewhere in the line c d. Now the 
point <-, when.' they cross each other, is the on- 
ly point iu both, consequently this is the cen- 
tre sought. If the muss or body, instead of 
being ilat like a board, be shapeless like a 
stone or lump of chalk, holes bored from differ- 
ent suspending points directly downwards, will 
all cross each other exactly at the centre of 

An imaginary line from the centre of gravi- 
ty perpendicularly downwards to where the 
body rests, is called the line of direction. 

Now, in any solid body whatever, whether 
it be a wall, a stack of grain, or a loaded 
wagon, the line of direction must fall within the 
base or part restiug upon the ground, or it will 
immediately be thrown over by its own weight. 
A heavily and evenly loaded wagon on a level 
road will be perfectly safe, because the lino of 
direction falls equally between the wheels, as 

Eio. 2. Fio. 3. 

shown in fig. 2, by the dotted line, c being the 
centre. But if it pass a steep side hill road, 
throwing the line of direction outside the 
wheels, as in fig. 3, it must be instantly over- 
turned. If, however, instead of the high lond 
represented ui the figure, it be some very heavy 
material, us brick or sand, so as not to be high- 
er than the dark part of the figure, the centre 
of gravity will be much lower down, or at b, 
and thus IhCjline fnlling within the wheels, the 
load will be safe from dauger, unless tho upper 
wheel pass over a stone, or the lower wheel 
sink into a nit. The centre of gravity of a 
large load may be nearly ascertained by meas- 
uring with n rod; and it may sometimes happen 
that by measuring the sideling slope of a road, 
all of which may be done in a few minutes, a 
teamster may save himself from n comfortless 
upsetting uud perhaps heavy loss. Again, a 
load may he temporarily pluccd so much to- 
wards one side, while passing a sideling road, 
as to throw the line of direction considerably 
more up hill than usual, und save the load 
which may bo adjusted ngaiu as soon as the 
dangerous point is passed This principle also 
shows the reason why it is Bafer to place only 
light'buudles of merchandise on the top of a 
stage couch, while all heavier articles are down 
near the wheels. When it becomes necessary 
to build very lurgc loads of hay, straw, wool or 
other light substances, the "reach,'* or the long 
connecting bar of the wagon, must bo made 
longer, so as to increase the length of the load. 
For, by doubling the length, two tons may be 
piled upon the wagon with, as much security 
from oversetting as one ton on a short wagon. 
Where, however, a high load cannot be 
avoided, great care must be taken to have it 
evenly placed. If, for instance, the load of hay 
represented by fig. 4, be skilfully built, tho line 

Fio. 4 Fia. 5. 

of direction will fall equally distant within 
each whecL But a slight misplucement, as iu 
fig. 5, will so alter this line as to reuder it dan- 
gerous to drive, except on a very even road. 

It is fnmilinr to every one, that a body rest- 
ing upon a broad base is more difficult to over- 
set than when tho base is narrow. For in- 
stance, tho square 
block, fig. 6, aud 
pyramid, fig. 7, are 
less easily thrown 
over, than tho tall 
and narrow block 
of equal weight, fig. 
■ 8. Because, in turn- 
ing thesquarc block 
over its lower edge, 
tho centre of gravi- 
ty must be lifted up 
considerably, in the 
Fio. 7 Fio. 8. curve shown by Uio 
dotted lino; but with tho tall, narrow block, 

this curve being almost on a level, very little 
lining is required. 

Wheel-carriages owe their comparative case 
of draught to the fact that the centre of gravi- 
ty in the load is moved forward, by the rolling 
of the wheels, on a level, or parallel with the 
surface of the road. Each wheel supports its 
purl of the loud at the hub. I [ence, on a level 
road, the line of direction falls precisely Where 
the wheels res) on the ground; but if the road 
ascend or descend, it fulls elsewhere; hence the 
reason that it will run by its own weight down 
a -lope. Whenever a stone or other- obstruc- 
tion occurs in a road, it becomes requisite to 
raise the centre of gravity by the force of the 
teum so as to throw the wheel overit, us shown 

Fio. 9. 

Fio. 10. 

by fig. 9. One of the reasons thus becomes 
very plain why a large wheel will run more 
easily on a rough road than a smaller one, the 
larger ono mounting any stone or obstruction 
without lifting the load so much out of a level 
as shown/by the dotted lines in the above fig- 
ures (figs- 9 and 10.) Another reason is, the 
large wheel does not sink into the smaller cav- 
ities in the road. 

When a load is carried on the shoulder, it 
should he so placed that the line of direction 
may pass directly through the shoulder or back 
■"^. «ra down to the feet, fig. 

■rhSw ^Vra\ "■ An inexnerien- 
H/i't^ ; 4- : I red )>crsi"in will sonie- 

[fy\ «Hp=' times place a bag of 

' * grain as shown in fig. 

12. The line falling 
outside his feet, he is 
i». compelled to draw 
downwards with great force on the othor end 
of the bag. A man who carries n heavy pole 
on his shoulder should sec that the. center is di- 
rectly over his shoulder, otherwise he will be 
compelled to bear down upon the lighter end, 
and thus add in an equal degree to the weight 
upon his shoulder. 


A correspondent of the Country Gentle- 
man writing from Jackson Co,. Iowa, says: 

As an agricultural county it is unsurpassed 
by any in the state, and probably nnequallcd 
for limber. The Maynoketa River bottoms 
arc the finest meadows I ever saw, and thou- 
sand of acres can be obtained at the Govern- 
ment price. Large herds of cattle nre now 
kept on them; yet, looking from the bluffs the 
spots from which hay has been cut to keep 
them, seems no larger than a garden on n farm. 
Cutting and stacking this hay can be done for 
one dollar a ton, when the scythe is used; with 
a mower much cheaper. This Prairie hay 
has ono peculiar property, curing heaves in 
horses. This has been ascribed to the coun- 
try; but a farmer near here who uses for his 
horses timothy hay alone, has the only horse 
with the heaves known about here. The fra- 
grance of it when cured, is delightful, almost 
rivaling the sweet scented geraniums. The 
present prices of cattle here nre very high, viz: 
< lows from S20 to §35— working oxen S70 to 
S100 — Calves 85 to S7 — coming two years, 
old, $12 to $20— Weldings from $70 to $150 
— Good brood mares, from $100 up. Provis- 
ions and grain are at present — Wheat, spring, 
50 a 60— winter, 60 a 75— Oats 20 to 25— 
Corn, shelled, 28 cts; in the ear 25 cts,— Pota- 
toes 20 cts,— Butter 20 to 25— Beef, 4 J a 5 J 
—Pork 4 a 4$— Cheese 12 n 15. Very little 
Hotter and Cheese is made here for the num- 
ber of cows kept, calves being ullowed to suck 
all summer, to induce tho cows to come home 
of themselves; and the case with which an ani- 
mal is raised, and the high price when grown, 
effectually prevents any being used for vcnl. 

» • i 


I am one of that class who do not allow that 
chemistry has done anything to forward the 
interests of agriculture, but deny it in toto. — 
I urn no chemist, but here is the receipt for 
making ammonia ad libitum. Lot a large 
dung pit or liquid manure tank bo constructed 
and placed so as to drain the ont-houscs — the 
dung-heap, the suds aud other slops from the 
house; — every liquid about the premises but 
rain or clear water. When you want and pre- 
vious to using, the liquid thus preserved mix 
with it in the tank, sulphuric acid. One 

auart to the one hundred gallons will cause 
ic ammonia to evolve — a greater quantity of 
acid to n less quantity of liquor will quicken 
the result— now, sir, you have it in your power 
to produce ammonia at your pleasure. 

The above is from a correspondent of tho 
New England Cidlivaior, who the editor 
says, " writes like one accustomed to do his own 
thinking, instead of blindly following the advice 
and directions gratuitously offered in many ag- 
ricultural works." It is strange that our friend 
having such little faith in chemistry, should 
undertake to teach chomistry. but it is not 
strange that ho should make a grave mistake. 
So for from sulphuric acid causing ammonia to 
evolve, it has just a contrary effect. It will fix 
nny ammonia existing in the liquid and ifenough 
bo added, check all further formation of am- 
monia. The practical advice is very good, and 
cannot bo too frequently urged on tho atten- 
tion of agriculturists. 

« ■ • ■ » 

It Ls said that a few drops of kreosoto, on 
brown pnper, put in the holes of rats, will drive 
them away. 


Hat, of some kind or other, is by common con- 
sent, considered tho most natural food for cattle, 
horscsandsheopduring the winter. Many persons 
think it would be almost impossible to winter 
horses without it Henco in the neighborhood of 
largo cities, where many horses are kept, hay 
usually sells for more thnn it is relatively worth. 
That is to say, tho same Amount of nutritious 
matter could bo obtained nt a much loss cost 
in ui her substances. Wo kuow that horses can 
do without hay. Ono winter after our hay crop 
had eutirely failed, we kept seven horses for three 
iiinntliH.oncutonts in lliostmw.a little barley meal 
and bran, ond as many ruta bagas as they woald 
cat The horses kept in admirable condition, and 
wo round it much cheaper than wintering with hay. 

Tho relative nutritious properties of food is a 
matter of great importance, and has occupied iho 
attention of nearly all the eminent scientific men 
who have written on rural economy duriug (he 
last century. It is seldom that any two of them 
agree, where they have not manifestly copied each 
other's figures. Thus Block, Pctri and Paust, 
each give 200 as Iho equivalent of oat straw, 
(meadow hay being 100) while Meyer and Weokr 
give 150, and Schwertz 400. Tho writers pretend 
to liaso their opinions on practical observation, 
yet Iho discrepancies are so great that wo cannot 
rely on the figures. Equally untrustworthy nre 
the deduction! of science based on tho per centogo 
of dry matter and nitrogen, which tho several 
foods contain, for thoy arc in conflict with the 
results of accurate experiments. Under such cir- 
cumstances, therefore, wo can be said to know but 
little on tho relative nutritious value of the several 
substances used as food for animals. Had we, in 
conjunction with the per centago of dry matter 
and nitrogen, the per ccutngc of available carbon- 
aceous substances, Euch as starch, sugar, oil, <ic , 
no think n tabic of equivalents might be prepared 
that would indicate, pretty nearly, tho relative 
nutritive value of the foods so analyzed. But for 
theso wo must learn to labor and to vail. 

" Have you then nothing to propose aa a sub- 
stitute for hay ? Is this column occupied to tell 
U3 that you know nothing on this subject 7 The 
fact might have been stated in fewer words." — 
Don't lose your temper, my dear reader. It is 
Hometimcs necessary to ascertain how much wo 
really know, and how much is more speculation. 
We have told you how much wo know, and will 
now offer you a few speculations for your con- 

Good I.:" is norr north. In tills city Sll.OO per ton 

Cum nt ,0 cents per umbel of 60lbi 2:1.33 do 

Onls ol 14 •• '• 32 "... . 27.10 do 

1)11 cake 2\00 do 

Shorts at II cents per bushel of to lb*.. . . 14,66 do 

Coarw middlings, lie " 21 " . 16.19 do 

Flno do 29c. " 28 " .. . . 20,71 do 

Extra do 42c. " 37 " 22,70 do 

Indian com undoubtedly contains more avail- 
able carbonaceous matter than any other food. — 
Wo have no hesitation iu saying moreover, that 
more can bo obtained for a given prico in com 
than in any other of the above foods. As straw is 
of little value on a farm it cannot but bo econom- 
ical to feed horses nud cattlo with corn meal, and 
cut straw, instead of giving them hay. A homo 
weighing 1,000 lbs. will eat about 33 lbs. of hay 
per day. Now what wo want, Ls to get the same 
nutritious matter and tho same bulk in a cheaper 
form. Wo believe 30 lbs. of cut straw and 8 lbs. 
of com meal, will auswer tho purposo better than 
nny thing else. If tho horses are worked much 
during winter, a few pounds of oil cake, peas, or 
(Kits, might bo substituted for an equal weight of 
com meal, inasmuch as they aro much moro nitro- 
genous, and would bo moro likely to supply the 
extra wear and tear of muscles, caused by hard 
work ; and, what is of moro importance than is 
usually accorded to it tho manuro would be 
greatly improved by substituting the nitrogenous 
oil cake, peas or oats, for tho carbonaceous corn. 
■ ■ ♦ ' i 


A Mr. CniuiEits selected two lots of Leices- 
ter yearling wethers, of 20 iu each; one was 
placed under shelter in u yard, the other folded 
in the field. They all received the same food, 
viz: 12 lbs. cut turnips, as many as they could 
cat, half a pound of linseed cake, half n pint of 
bnrley, a little hay, and salt per day, for each 
sheep. At first they each ate about 19 lba of 
turnips a day, but after three weeks, those in 
tho shed eat 2 lbs. apiece less, and in the Olh 
week, 2 lbs. apiece less again, and of tho Un- 
seed cuke there was a falling off also, of nearly 
one-third of the amount given, viz.: 13, 3 lba 
a day from the lot. Those iu the field con- 
sumed tho same quantity from first to last 
The respective weights of the two lots were as 
follows : 

In Iho shed, 
■tones. lbs. 
Jan. 1st, 163 3 
April 1st, 239 9 

In Ibe Held. 
»ts. lbs. 
184 4 
220 12 


60 6 

3d . 8 

The gain of tho shed fed sheep over tho field 
fed, was 19 stones, 12 lbs., consequently the 
sheep in tho shed, though they consumed nearly 
one-fifth less food, made above one-third more 

In another experiment of three Iofs ; one en- 
tirely covered in, one under a shed iu the yard, 
and one entirely exposed, all of them having a 
pint of oats a day upicce ; the first consumed 
on nn average between Nov. 18 of ono year, 
and March Dili of the following, b lba of cut 
turnips and othor roots per day, nud increased 
in live weight 23$ lbs. per sheep; tho second 
consumed 1 1 lbs. of the same food, mid in- 
creased in weight 25 lbs ; the third consumed 
17 lba, of cut turnips per day, each, and in- 
creased 23 lba live weight in Hint time. The 
several lots, it thus appears, did not differ so 
much in their growth as in tho case reported 
by Mr. Childcrs, but there was a much greater 
difference in the quantity of food eaten by them. 
These cxperimeiiuiwoukl tend to an assumption 
that twice as many Bhceu can be kept upon the 
food, under perfect shelter, as when entirely 

gnquitifs nnb gnstow. 


Ed& IttmAL : — I take the liberty, as ono of 
your subscribers, to make a few inquiries. And 
first 1 will say that in this pari of Chemung 
county, I, with most of my neighbors, have been 
Seriously troubled ui raising clover and timo- 
thy, Iho two grasses mostly grown here, and I" 
which the soil is considered best adapted, on ac- 
count of the clover dying out, or winter killed, 
after the first or at most tin- second winter, and 
tho timothy being killed by the severe drouths 
of summer. This uncertainty of hay and pas- 
ture has compelled many who formerly kept con- 
siderable stock to reduce their numbers, and if 
no remedy is found must materially injure thi fl 
branch of agriculture in this section. Now I 
shall not ask you for a remedy against drouths, 
or the dying out or winter killing of clover, as I 
presumo you have none, but wish to inquire if 
there aro no substitutes for these grasses. Sain- 
foin, it is said, is extensively cultivated iu franco 
and some other countries, but I am not aware 
thot it has ever been much tested in thus country. 
Lucerne has also been talked of, but I know not 
of its having been much tested. These grasses, 
it is 6aid, send their long roots deep in I he earth, 
which would enable them to resist the drouth, 
ond cold of winter, and if adapted to this cli- 
mate might answer the purpose, or supply tho 
deficiency of timothy and clover. If you can 
give mo nny information, or put ma in ihc way 
of obtaining nnyrolinblo information on these 
topics, and where tho seeds of sainfoin and lu- 
cerne can be procured, I shall be much obliged. 
G. B. Leaman. 

Red clover is a biennial plant, and conse- 
quently dies out before the third year. Tho 
clover often found in old pastures, is cither self- 
sown red clover, or some other variety. — 
Timothy is n native of this country, and we 
know of no other gross that is so good as this 
for our latitude. Underdrnining and deep 
plowing will prevent winterkilling, and greatly 
lessen the bad effects of drouth. I'rom what 
experience we have had with sum-foiu, we think 
it much inferior to timothy, and of little valuo 
except on rich calcareous soils. Lucerne is a 
valuable crop for soiling purposes in the neigh- 
borhood of large cities. It delights in n rich, 
deep, well tilled soil. It should be sown in 
rowa at least 15 inches apart. It must bo 
frequently hoed. The first year it produces 
little, but afterwards, if the soil is very rich, it 
can be cut several times in the season. Wo 
believe that in a 'common farming, it requires 
too much labor to make it profitable. We 
think the native grasses of the country will 
prove more valuable than any we can import 
from Europe; and it^is exceedingly dosirublo 
that tho subject be fully investigated. At 
present we ore deplorably ignorant in regard 
to the requirements aud relative value of the 
different grasses, aud shall be glad to rcceivo 
any information from our experienced corres- 

Analysis ok Soils. — Will you inform the read- 
ers of tho Bubal where there is a good Chemist, 
who will nnalyzc soils ? What the price of an 
analysis, (if there is any regular price,) and how 
much soil is required ; and what is the hot way 
for digging it, Ac? — N. J. Hall, Sweden, A r . K 

Wo will answer tho lost question first — 
We never took but one sample of a soil 
for analysis and therefore cannot speak with 
much authority on the subject. We look a 
wheelbarrow and cut a trench about eight inches 
deep, some fifty rods in length, whceliug tho 
soil into u heap. The heap was tamed over 
several times so as to insure its homogeneous- 
ness, mid then about 20 pounds was tukeu to 
the laboratory. It is rather expensive, but wo 
know of no better plau that will insure a fair 
sample. A good analysis of a soil— say du- 
plicate nitrogen determinations, which should 
agrco within one-tenth of one per. cent, and 
accurate determination of phosphoric acid, 
potash — not potash mid soda, combined, but the 
exact amount of potash alone, — alkaline sili- 
cntcs, &a, &c, is well worth fifty dollars. But 
you can get the amount of alicu, lime, alumi- 
na, potash and soda, organic matter and water, 
determined with somo degree of accuracy for 
five dollars. Thoro arc quite a number of 
chemists, who analyze soils, Ac, among whom 
wo may nientiou Prof. I'ortkr, of Yido Col- 
lege, Now Haven, Ot, Dr. Sam&iiory, of Al- 
bany, New York. We aro not personally ac- 
quainted with Dn. Endkrxtn, of New York, 
but we believe he is a most oxcellent chemist 
You do not ask our opinion of tho valuo of 
soil analyses or we might endeavor to persundo 
you to make experiments with the money which 
an analysis would cost 

Bnoou Cor*. — Will you, or some of your cor- 
respondents, please nnswer tho following ques- 
tions? Is Broom Corn a paying crop'; What 
soil is it best grown upon? Whnt is tho best 
fertilizer for it? Is it a sure crop usually? Mow 
much is the usual yield per acre? Whnt is tho 
process of cultivation ; time of planting, hoeing 
and harvesting? How many brooms can bo 
made from 100 lbs. of corn prepared, Ac. Ac — 
J. C. K.xait. See. 15, 1853. 

Will some of onr experienced broom corn 
cultivators answer the above inquiries? — Epa 



Dnfmri) aitb (Sartttn. 


native beauty and perfection, describes its 
characteristics us follows: 

Expf.BIKNOB alone can cnnblc tbc Horticul- 
turist to understand the art and mystery of 
Pruning-. " No definite rules ran be laid down 
fur guidance in many of its details," says one of 
(lie initiated; and, indeed, an examination of va- 
rious authorities convinces us, that gardeners 
as well as doctors "disagree." All Unite, how- 
evor, in considering it a subject of great impor- 
tance — one demanding constant and careful 
alleniiou in order to the production of good 
trees and line fruit It has of late attracted 
much inquiry and research, and the general 
principles of Pruning bid fair to become in 
some degree established by tho general agree- 
ment of results arrived nt. 

A recent writer on this subject,* gives a 
theory of "the conditions upon which a tree 
exists, and the modifying influences to which it 
is subjected'' by pruning, &c., which seems 
very just and reasonable. Lie says the first 
effort of u seed in germination is to send down 
roots, mid this " is immediately followed l>y cor- 
responding upward elongation, forming the 
stem and leaves. The seed contains within 
itself all the elements required for this process; 
but 08 soon as leaves are developed, the plant 
changes its source of nourishment, and is now 
depcudent upon the soil and air for support. — 
The elementary substtuices absorbed by the 
roots undergoes decomposition in the leaves, 
and the new matter thus prepared, passes down 
the stem and roots, extending their formation. 
Tho roots have no iuherent power of extension, 
but are dependent on the elubomtory functions 
of the leaves, and their increase will be in an 
exact ratio to the amount of folingc retained." 

A beautiful system of reciprocal action has 
been established between the roots and branch- 
es every check upon tho latter exerts a deci- 
ded iuiluenoe upon tho future condition of the 
tree. Their correlative action is such, "that 
bv diiaiuish'mg the extent of foliage a corres- 
ponding check is given to the roots. Their 
power of action being circumscribed, there is 
less absorption of watery matter into the sys- 
tems of Uic plant, and the wood is in conse- 
quence solidified and well matured, which is 
indispensable to n fruiting condition. This 
effect is produced by pruning when the plant is 
in full foliation and vigorous growth. If de- 
furred until the leaves perform their allotted 
functions, a contrary effect is produced. By 
reducing the branches after tho fall of the 
leaf, the balance of power is destroyed, and the 
rout- have the preponderance: new shoots are 
then produced with increased bizc and vigor. — 
lieu .e, it is a well known axiom with success- 
ful cullivators, that summer pruning weakens, 
while winter pruning strengthens a plunt. The 
whole art of priming is comprehended in the 
proper application of these principles." 

If these principles nrc correct, it will readily 
be admitted that the operation of pruning will 
be more correctly performed wheu they are 
taken into consideration, than it cau be by fol- 
lowing any definite rules without experience— 
If the tree be youug, a healthy, vigorous and 
extended system of roots is generally the most 
important consideration. Foliage must be en- 
couraged nud preserved during the summer, to 
be removed before the earliest commencement 
of the growth of another season. When 
healthy, strong roots arc secured by wiuter 
pruning, then summer pruning to check the 
production of wood, and secure the greater 
elaboration of the sop and thus promote fruit- 
age, may be practised with favorable results. 

The season for winter pruning, or that in the 
intermission of growth, has been decided In- 
competent authority, to be that wheu the se- 
vere frosts of winter are over, and immediately 
before the swelling of the buds. If performed 
in autumn, or early in winter, in this climate, 
the ends of the cut shoots dry up, shrivel and 
die. losing tho buds that are intended to make 
leading shoots, and having dead points that re- 
quire much labor to prune off afterward; or if 
large branches ore cut, leaving a broad, fresh 
surface? — the wood and bark dry up and require 
a long time to heaL 

We shall refer to this subject again — giving 
the best light we con gather on the art and 
mystery of Priming — though, as remarked ul 
first, we do not expect to instruct Experience. 


•Mr. W«. Sxcsi.rxs, of Baltimore, In the HorUrullurl.t. 
■ ■ • ■ « 


The Horticulturist for Jan. has an article 
from Mr. Mbehax, of Philadelphia, recom- 
mending the Sweet Gum, Liquidamber slyra- 
cijlim, as a new and valuable shade tree— one 
entirely free from insects. It is eulogized as 
havimr a claim to picturesque and simple beau- 
ty which no other can eclipse, besides combin- 
ing many traits of interest only found separate- 
ly in other trees. Mr. M. after speaking of 
the proper places to find the Sweet Gum in its 

TDK SivnET fiCM, {I.u/uu!anbtr ityraeljtua ) 

" 1 1 is a very rapid grower, and will attain a 
height of eighty feet, and a circumference or 
seven feel, under favorable circumstances, and 
has n widely spreading, roundish, conical head. 
The branches nave a rigid, though much divari- 
cating mode of growth, and are covered with 
that Corky-barked appearance, so much sought 
after and admired in some varieties of elms, 
maples and nettle tree* The leaves and frail 
resemble the buttonwood in all except size and 
hue, mid there is, indeed, a suit of distant rela- 
tionship between the two families. The leaves 
are not one-third the size of the buttonwood, 
deeply lobed, star-like, and produced in abun- 
dance, (see annexed figure.) The upper sur- 
face shines as if varnished; and as the foliage 
moves with the slightest summer breezes, gives 
the tree a playful and pleasing character in its 
succession of light and shade. This is height- 
ened at the approach of full by its brilliant 
colors, It has no compeer in this character 
The leaves change to every describnble shade 
of orange, yellow and red. 

The Horticulturist endorses this tree, re- 
marking that it isone u that arrests the attention 
of even common observers at all seasons, — in 
summer, its starry, shining, tremulous foliage, — 
in autumn, its gorgeous hues — and in winter, its 
peculiarly furrowed bark." It i3 not entirely 
new, having been somewhat in vogue some fif- 
teen yenrs ago. A great recommendation is its 
freedom from insects — which it owes to a resin- 
ous principle abundant in it. Neither Mr. 
Mkkiian, or Mr. Barky have ever seen any in- 
sects upon if, though Loudon says, that sever- 
al species of moths feed upon its leaves. This 
was probably observed in its more .southern 

The Liqiiidamber is easily propagated. — 
The seed can best be gathered before the first 
severe frost, and may be sown then or early in 
the spring " in a loose, loamy soil somewhat 
shaded." Plants will appear hi a few weeks in 
the spring, (sometimes not until the second 
spring,) and grow a foot or more the first sea- 

These are its merits — now, what arc its de- 
fects? It is not adapted to nil soils — it grows 
in perfection only in a cool, deep, rich loam. — 
In poor, dry soils, it is o.f slow growth, and 
short duration, and will not do well in the 
confined uir of a densely built city. It is not 
sufficiently hardy fur high northern latitudes, 
and here, probably, would fare hardly in the most 
exposed situations. We hope it will be tried 
mure thoroughly, and if it succeeds, that it will 
be extensively introduced. We have many na- 
tive trees that would udom our lawns and walks, 
and refresh our spirits and our patriotism, — 
and those as beautiful as any country can 
boast Let us search them out, mid honor 
them as they deserve, instead of ransacking the 
"ends of the earth" for those of for less value 
and appropriateness. — n. 
■ ♦ , » 


That Queen of Plants, tho Victoria rrgia, 
was first introduced into the civiliswd world at 
Kew, though it first flowered at Chatsworth. — 
It swims in state in a moderate sized apartment 
kept sliding hot — feeling tho closer for the 
roof being so low — but most plants thrive the 
better for the glass being brought near them. 
It is truly u vegetable wonder, putting forth 
alternately a blossom and a leaf, the latter not 
the less carious of the two, and looking, as it 
begins to emerge, very like a hedgehog swim- 
ming on its back. Tho leaf attains here its 
curious rim, and also perfects the pnnoy^.am- 
bed air chambers in tl bcc, by which 

its buoyancy is inorcrlsed, 'enabling 11, with man' 
"i nt — that is, by equalizing the pressure— 

•Continued from page IS, UU» volume. ''" 

to support as much as one hundred and fifty 
pounds weight. The plant is dormant in win- 
ter, unless it is to be forced j and the forcing 
that will make it a nice task for the gardener 
to avoid boiling it. 

Tho Pontederia crassipes, is another float- 
ing contrivance seen in a corner of the same 
tank, the footstalks of whose leaves are swol- 
len into bladders. In the Palm-stove one can 
form some idea of a tropical forest; a tiger 
might start out from among the tree-ferns, a 
boa-constrictor be climbing the trunk of the 
cocoa-nut pidm,nud humming birds dart amidst 
the leaves of tho bananas. Every plant has 
its own interesting history — the reviewer glan- 
ces at a few of the most remarkable. 

The Hibiscus — rosa Sinensis, is a tall shrub 
with crimson holly-hock-like flowers — its blos- 
soms arc used in China to black shoes with! 

The Xyhphilla falcata, that is, the scythe- 
shaped wooden-leaf, from the Buhamas, is an 
exaggerated instance of what might be colled 
vegetable malformation, which yet works well 
in the long run. It has yhylloid bunches, or 
green branches flattened aud resembling leaves, 
even more deceptive than those of the Now 
Holland Acacias, being inserted horizontally, 
in the usual position of loaves on the stem, in- 
stead of vertically. The flowers, and occasion- 
ally, though rarely, true leaves, appear in what 
would be the serratures in a true leaf, but 
what in the metamorphosed branch must be 
considered as axillee. Things useful as well 
as passing strange grow in the Palm-stove at 
Kew: The Chocolate-nut Tree, Theobroma 
Cacoa — " food fur the gods" — puts forth flow- 
ers from the thickest part of its woody trunk, 
to be succeeded by nuts in the same situation, 
instead of on the twiggy branches. And the 
Mango Tree, Mangifcra Indita, with its 
fruit pendulous at the end of a long stalk, plays 
the most tempting bob-cherry; for though bad 
varieties ore no better than tow and turpen- 
tine, first rate numbers leave a delicious taste 
in the mouth, which is remembered for years 
and years, like the cream-tarts by which the 
widow of Nourkddi.v Am recognized the 
neighborhood of her cruelly mystified Bedked- 
oen. Each fruit here is secured in a little bag- 
net, to pre vent accidents, and to make hereaf- 
ter a dainty dish to set before a Queen. 

Among the creepers, is the Jlristolodiia 
gigas, with flowers shuped like a helmet, mid 
so huge that the children in South America, 
according to Humboldt, wear them as hats. 

That deadly plant, the Jatropha urens, was 
formerly found at Kew, but it has either been 
killed off lileo a mad . dog. or starved to death 
in isolation like a leper. Its possession nenrly 
cost one valuable life, some twenty-five years 
ago. The present curator was reaching over 
the Jatropha when its fine bristly stings 
touched his wrist The first sensation was n 
numbness and swelling of the lips; the action 
of the poison was on the heart, circulation was 
stopped, and he fell unconscious — the last thing 
he remembered being cries of "Run for the 
Doctor." Either the doctor was skilful, or the 
dose of poison injected was not quite, though 
nearly, enough; but afterwards the man in 
whose house it was, got it shoved up in a cor- 
ner and would not come within arm's length of 
it He watered the diabolical plant with a pot 
having an indefinitely long spout; mid who 
coidd blame him, if he watered it not at all, or 
if it. disappeared very unaccountably? — n. 

Petjmnic $x% &c. 

.••_'■. *-v.'i, •■.■-.. 

,«•-»**» .'Kf\S\.'\r 


Issued from tho United States Patent Office, 
For Uic nock ending January 10, llSo^. 

£)0iitt$tit (&canonm. 

Plum Punm.\a without Baca — Pour over 
twelve crackers, nfter they are broken, one 
quart of milk : let it stand over night; strain it 
through a cullender. The next morning, add 
a quarler of a pound of suet, a pound of rai- 
sins, hair a pound of currants, n little salt and 
a teacupful of molasses. Boil it three or four 
hours. To be eaten wilh u rich sauce. 
■ ♦ ■ » 

To Insure Health for CmumES. — Give 
them plenty of milk; plenty of flannel; plenty 
of air; and let them have plenty of sleep; and 
they will seldom, if ever, uil anything. That 
is. milk is their best diet; they must be warmly 
clothed; must be much out of doors; anil must 
be always allowed to sleep on till they awaken 
of their own accord. 

To OWE Butter a fine flavor. — To a peck 
of line salt, add one ounce of crude sal ammo- 
niac, unci two ounces of salt-petrc, both finely 
powdered, mix them well with the line salt; 
work your butter until the buttermilk be en- 
tirely extracted. Then put it into wooden fir- 
Itius, salting it wilh the sumo mixed salt, until 
it is palatable. 

1 . ♦ ■ « 

Mustard Poultice. — Into a gill of boiling 
water stir one lablespoonful of Indian meal, 
spread the paste thus made upon a cloth, and 
spread over the paste one teaspoouful of mus- 
tard as it is prepared for the table, instead of 
inusturd flour. 

Tq Oi.AB.rpT Ho,var.— Melt tho host kind 
with Safer over a water bath, add the while 
of fft |fljlg, mid boil) u to throw up the scum; 
when vie scum is seinoYod; the water must be 
evaporated, and the honey brought to its for- 
mer consistence. 

David Clark, of Philadelphia, l'a, for improve- 
ment in oil cups fur steam engines. 
Lucian A. Brown and Jeremiah W. Brown, of 

Uorlfurd, (.'I., fur improved |.r.^x fol veneering. 
Leonard Campbell, of Columbus, Miss., for 

iiiiiirnvi'iui'iil hi eiit'.. ii i: ii-. 

Dan'l. »>. Durliug, of Brooklyn, N. Y., fur im- 
provement in preventing dust from entering rail- 
road cars. 

D. M. OummingB, of North Enfield, Ma, for 
improvement in machinery for mortising frames 
nf widow blinds. 

Charles W. Fillmore, of Coral, 111., for im- 
provement in clamps for holding steel plates 
. liilc being hardened and tempered. 

F. C. Oottiii, of New York, Ibr improvement 
in attaching cross-bar fastenings to vault and 
safe doors 

Uenj. D. Gullelt, of Aberdeen, Miss., for im- 
provement in cotton gins. 

II. Halvoreon, of Hartford, CL, for improve- 
ment in machines for pegging boots and shi - 

Jos. J. Johnston, of Alleghany city, i'a, for 
improvement in heaters for smoothing irons. 

John Johnston, uf Alleghany city, l'a., for im- 
provement in self-heating smoothing irons. 

Ebeuczer A. Lester, of Boston, Jla--s. for im- 
provement iu machines for squeezing aud com- 
pressing metallic bodies. 

Harry H. Matteson, of Buffalo. N, Y., for im- 
provement in flexible cordage. 

Win. U. Merrell, of Auburn, N. Y., for ma- 
chino fur cutting ellipses. 

Henry E. Pierce, of Charlomont, Mass., fur 
machine for malting the ends of blocks, in ma- 
king matches. 

David Pierce, of Woodstock, Vt, for improved 
gold separator. 

.1. P. Bpofford,ofBrackeft's Bridge, N. Y„ fur 
improveni'iii in saw-glimmers, 

Caleb ('. Walworth, of Huston, Mass., for im- 
proved float-valve for discharging condensed 

S. D. Wilson, of Heading, Pn., for improve- 
ment in valves aud valve-scats of steam engines. 

Jno. H. Barili, of Indianapolis, Ind, for Im- 
provement in bedsteads. 

Harvey Brewer, of Fast Boston, Mass., fur im- 
provement in torch lamps. 

Jno. Kcdzic, of Rochester, N. Y„ for improve- 
ment in filters. 

J. W. McGaucy, of Philadelphia, Pa, for im- 
proved mortising chisel. 

H. B. Smith, of Lowell, Mass., for improve- 
ment in mortising machines. 

Jas. Swain, of Philadelphia, Pa, for magnetic 
toy, called the magnetic cupid, 

Tho*. h. Jones, of Poiighkecpsic. N. Y„ assign- 
or (through Horace Dresser,) to Jas. B. Jones, ol 
Now York, for improvement in feathering pad- 
dlo wheels. 


T. W. Allen, and C. W. Noyeu.of Orcenbusli, 
N. V., fur improvement in stuffing boxes. Pa- 
tented Nov. l>, 18-lh. 

Junius A Alfred Judson, of Rochester, N. Y., 
assignors to Junius Judson, of same place, for 
improved valves for governors. Patented Nov. 
5, 1S50. 

Welsh, J.S , Shcuantlosl illlln, Clark Co., Va.. (I..*no- 

crU ft i .. .,,i.-. ul-, .s. \ . , I ■■<• luperior quality of K«m- 
llv unci Market Klour, "peei.dlf adapted for geucrol uao. 

For Uio week ending January 17, 1654 

Perry O. Bates, of Waterbury, Ct., for spiral 
or worm-joint hinge. 

F. Davison, of Liberty, Va, for improvement 
in saliva pumps. 

Jno. Jay. Qreenough, of New York, fur im- 
provement iu machines for pegging boots aud 
-In. i •-. 

D. T. Hitchcock, of Warren, Mass.! for im- 
provement in diaphragm pumps. 

E. C. Hyatt and Christopher Meyer, of Mill- 
town> N. J., for improvement in the manufacture 
of boot and shoe soles, of gutta pcreha or India 
rubl er. 

Abraham Mcliiturff, of Liberty, Va, for im- 
provement in machines lor mincing mt; t. 

I.ori.ston 0. Merrell, of New Bedford, Pa, for 
improvement iu frill machines. 

Tho* J. Sloan, of New York, fur iniprovc- 
iii. nt in apparatus for indicating tho action of 
tho feed-pump to steam holler.-. 

C. W. Slitupeon, of Cleveland, Ohio, fur im- 
proved photographic plate-vises. 

Ira Warren, of Boston, Mass., for improvement 
in tonsil instruments. 

Goo. W. Griswoldi of Carbondnlo, Pa, for im- 
provement in amputating apparatus. 

Chas. T P. Ware, of New York, assignor to D. 
C. Morehcad. of same place, for improvement iu 

Lewis B. While, of MOSCOW, N. Y„ for im- 
provement in trusties. 


AVe have received a pamphlet of 98 pages, 
containing the official awards of premiums at 
the New York Crystal Palace. As it is im- 
possible to give the whole, we select the most 
important, or highest awards, in the principal 
classes — giving the names, Ac, of those to 
whom SiLVEB Medals were awarded. We 
may hcrcaftc^givc further extracts from the 
reports of thejjuries: 

Itatchelor, J. >f,(J«ll Illll*, Mine., IT. S, for Cotton of 
atiplo uii.l i- -I » orVlng quality. 

Ucdi ivirli, Von Lin;: tMs alluia, for the Onwt aped- 
men of Wool in Oilman dVpnrlniriil. 

l.raux, M. MuucUamp, Kirjjc*. for superior apocinii-o of 
comtiioc Wool. 

llnfruun, Anthony, Pino i'laln., N\ Y., U. S., for the fl- 
■ iiien of Wool In U.S. department- 

I.-ir.Kr. I <1.- Count, Tuaowy, for Uoraelc arid. 

I'.. I ., John, the ttalM, Tcnu.-vev, I*. S., (or CutUm of sta- 
ple uuJ bt»l working quality. 

American Linen Thread Compare, MochanleiYillP, X.Y., 
for raperlor txe*Ueoce In funjioyUou, (duelling and color- 
ing thread. 

Kdw.inlS A. 11. 4 Co., fund.*, Scotland, Klax and Tow 
Thread. § 

Alklnt, JKarum. Ohioairo, IlllnoU, for an eieecslingly in- 
nnioua aeU-rrtliig I^aper, exhibited by J- 8 Wriubt, nf 
Chicago. lUlnuia. The nilvcr mi-ual is awnidcd fm the new 

naufoal pnuriple at hero exhibited in its' adoptnUon lo 

thr«niAton Bake*. , _ 

KuiKh-s, NouimL lia*on Aj CO., Uoaton and WoreMter, 
5l<i*»euu«eU»,-»!-Uie ailcntiDc principles which have been 
niwctleall) peru-cled !.-. Ih. Ir nrti.t, .-.unui-i A. Knox, and 
ailapled to the wrli'* of «od and atubuto Vlowa f ihibitvd by 

Salmon, George B, Elgin, lUiacda, for hfc patent Grain 
and Grata Scod tep*nilor._ 

lionli-n Gail, Jr., GalvcOon, T.xaa, for Meat ntealt. 

longworth, S, CuKiiuirtO, Ohio, for •isirtUnc lobelia 
Wine, aery mpcrntf q tidily, made frai tho Isjaballa 
r\nd dceuocd lo be »f great commercial ralue to our couni 


Hocker*; Brother, Kew York, for Flour ..Caitraordlna- 
rj fino qwdlty, and of auparior manuXumro. 

jtoussar-1, Aloxta, Paris Knnro, firr af r*ry beautiful and 
... i.jbdayaieihlbiUngiuuch 
skill and tolU in Jl IU ■': poinfmenta. 

Colt, Samuel, II irtfonl. Conn, for varlon« kfr-*-> of R*- 
rnlvlng Yin Inn riio i.-idi-«pread reputation and tx- 

i ndi I t i arm* entitle the inreuUir.ln lb >n- 

lon ol the jury, 10 Iho higliiMl dlaUncUoa which Uieycaa 
tu.iu.l. riiooranpi „i. i ii Uic ixhlWllou aio of ►upo- 

■ , . m kmanaj ud dnl h. 

Delano, U.S ... ji i oral lor, for* model of a War 

Sle I m.i ill i.< highly approrwl oa coailrinln R all 

ll„. ,l, •,,.. i, u . Iiipairtwl oftbalolaaj, riz: liuoy- 

nnry, atablllty, rpea twlth amplo roomforatotw, (utrr.are. 
[.avion, Qapl iln, l"r « lempoiary KuJdcr, of much aar 

prnvcl Loii-l.-.icliou. 

.-, for model of Yacht "America." TUIa 

model l» superior to all Iho .libera pre/wnled. 

Cliamere, .Ir, Rid* Rranee", for ncaaoof highly Dul«b»«l 
ind in: . nlni ' Inalmmeiita. 

Hoqj _, , tblblti .i by J. U. lticbanla, N. York, U. 3, 
fir Him ...., i,|. graph. 

I u r, Am/Una, Parta, Franco, for .Surpcal lu/lrumenta, 
original Mid highly Anfvhc t. 

Mnmi., Prof S. F. n, exhililtod by W. M. BwaJn, V. 3, 
for Morwe'- Tvlegropb« 

I'.ihn. i, Frank B, PnlladClptUa, U. S., for boat Artindal 

Spencer, Ck.\i. A, V. 8. for Microscope and Improved 

■ tGIa 

Whipple, John A., Hoaton, Una., U. 8, for CryAdlotype, 
a new art. 
Troll, Stanley 0, New L-ndon, Conn, U. S, for Ab- 

Ixitl'a IIuromet.T, 

Ncw|«rt Silk Factory, K, iiln.' ■ , Or Mriiaetlon aodgon- 
eral '• ' llenpc To the mj/iufaicluiv of ^ilk of native pro- 
ductiou, fiom tire ooaion. 

FreneliGor.-ninient iUliufaclory rf .Gotfcllnaand Bi'au- 
i iry of I'arir, for originality and great beauty of 
fin ir .ji- dmi ' 

■torero, W. <;., london, Orott flriulo,.f»r auperb aped- 
ineiia of\ hlg iu *.oo-t. 

3m in. A. J., IV, m taruis N. Y, U. S., for noTelty of 

Invenll lej i ., , . ... • dij of ula- 

U ud. fce, in ino-ply ingraTn iai«atrr evi •■ - 

>milli. Or. Wlllum, Philadelphia, I ■ .">, fo- tllo appllca- 
linii n, ii. (>,l poipolGI of the rviuso alagu ot Clo Jrou Ko- 
•luciji>; Kuruiice. 

Shirt Scarera* Union, as n nL\rk of apco/al hoflor RMfl Bx> 
|i.. '. ii ..1 Kami sympathy in llnn-xlruffvl'va iXr mXMsat. 

VonSkclUn, y..:m Droadiray, Sow Hot* CU/, '- the 
Invention of Mirioua Dym cxhlbllod io Artiiicial VJaarira, 

liy which in, tin li-ivi it and petals reOt'lve .'ic'^of 
the naluiul llowers they rvpr, -. nt, 

Cornellux, Biker ft Co., PhJUatfrlpnh, for the gr»-at nv'> 

ell an I I-.- 1 .Ii-; 1. 1-. ,,| lix* (!i.ui.l. Iiur», fcc. 

Ui> .V. .s.-ael, 5S0 Broadway, Now fotk, the vrlarl- 
n. in.,, mi, i_. and dm .1 iiii., ..I Iho Ponutoptle Bank l.<v >■. 

Japy, Kr.iiln n> A- fjdaui .-, Hanee, t raoa , Ibr t io «op\- 
rinr .[iiilii. and Le.iuiy .if ilni-t, of their enamelled and 
Uj I Wuuigbt Iron Ware, and new and peculiar proccoa 

nf lii.imif.n luri rig. 

Men. .I. i, .1 \ -'. n , W. I Troy, Now York, for a Peal 

01 Bell*, alio Factory and Steamboat li.-lli. 

Nt Bngland Bam Couiit.ny.l'rovldence.RhnduI.-land, Improvement iu manulactoring Gimlet and l'nllera 
Screwa, aupoHorit} of dni.i!i,und cx^ftleLcc of workman* 

Sin rwoo I .>: Pitxgerald, Gold atmt,Near York, for on- 

quallfled am Ii. nru ol I • lii.ulii.-raidu ReaBrvoir Safo" 

aa prool agslntl lire, wilh mora than ordinary token of 
apeclal app^oliallan, 

Blmmox*, Pemborlon A- Sons, Birraingitam, En-rland, A. 
Full.r, run -;n ,i, New York, agent, tor Uio b.«t alaoUy 

I .1. . I I ... I ,i . l;ipriAIII;- tur- 


Uin linn .-. Iim • Bi-ll Pull . I -] rioga, fie. 

ThO Colllnx Coropiny, llarlford, I' .: nt, f,,r k ._, 

nl excellent., and supti-nri'i ,n In ihe mannCicturo 

of Axis Adze*, c I. ... .-,. in I .,• ,, r heavy edgo tool*. 

The Swell) and Johnaoil .Manufacturing Compauv, Wa- 
terbury, Conni-etlcut, for l^e great variety and tvat dln.Ur 
of Sletal Bultona. 

ThoSodct) of LaVlcllS Montxgne, lluo Klclier, Parla 
for Hie various Fancy GrouM arrd articled In Zinc, Zinc 
Stalucltca, &c 


rai'itf ol 

year. Chariot, New Haven, Connecticut, for npeel- 
i India Rubber Fabric-... 
Tho North American Gutta Pcrcha Company, PO Cedar 
-tri.'l, .New York, for UulUi I'ereba Goods manufactured 

under llic'.-r'H Patent. 

Brooklyn Flinl Glan Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., for 
IbolT '!i- ".ii} in eonipouniling malorlola for making 
i.luas, by which aauperioi brillianoy »f coloi i- produoea, 
iUid fur [heir l.uiliful display of rich cut Flint i.lriw. 

Brooklyn FUnl Olnu Company, BrooUyn, New York, 
for thoir dlacovery in making 1'n -*-> l ijlx<> Diojilri,- 1 ■,... 
es, and Signal Lamp Gla^ea for Ra;livaya,.ShlpjandSleam- 

CorUldge. Clu-rlca ft Co., Green Point, New York, origi- 
nality in the manufacture of Porcelain Door Knot-, and 
Uoor IT an '. 

Herbert, Minion ft Co., Stoke-upon-Trent,, 
England, for Patent Fucimlic Tilea, an original and t«iu- 
tlful arli.Te. 

linker, Godwin ft Co New York dly, for Fancy Job 
Printing, and Pre*a Work with hnuor-ildtTminlion, 

Brown, Ilelivin F., Ilrooklvn, N. Y., for W-<t ipedmcoa 

of nir-iiaiei ( mertjal and iim 'in. iii. .I Panm inibTp arid 

Pen-drawing, with ftj>ccLd approbation fnr unequalh-.l aklll 
in bla art 

Baglcy, A. 0. ft Co, New York cily, for bent Gold I'cna 
ami Pencil I 

lb. L-x Rue, Trioinna ft Co., London, for excellent Paper, 
in 1 commondaUon for variety and excellence in nil porta 
of iln, in,.. 

tl nh... Wm., New York city, for excellence In Book- 
binding, with s]-ecxal approbation. 

Cnrtla, Jas. D, Now York, for the manufacture of Iron 
and -i" I "f excellent quality from '• Kranklimlo." 

Zienogel, W, Director of Die Gemmn PennaylvnnU Cool 
C,..,Trc-'kow, Pa^ for coll.-rUon of ore*, half mel ll po 

fure m.itnl, ftc^ illusU&tiug a process for aeparatlng sil%*er 
rom copper. 

. . » . 

W\tf.r Gas. — The water gas diseovery 
would appear to be genuine, though I fear it 
will be ;iu illusion, like that of Mr. Paine, in 
America. The inventor has proved his ability 
in Paris, to extract a thousand cubic quails of 
hydrogen from twelve quitrls of water. Tho 
hydrogen needs purifying, but tho cost is little 
or nothing. The machine by which tho opera- 
tion is effected is on eleotro-magnelic battery. 
Sea water is preferable lo fresh water. A gas 
company in this city is in treaty with the in- 
ventor for the privilege of lighting the capital; 
iind a southern company of capitalists has 
made overtures for the application of tho in- J 
veiition upon the Mediterranean as fuel upon 
ten screw steamers. There is no doubt about 
tho fuels as I have given them; but whether 
the inventor, the speculators and tho capital- 
ists are not the victims of a delusion, is an- 
other mutter. — London Cor. Com. Ado, 
. . » i ■ 

Formkr for Hoot l.t: ATiir.v. — John Chill- 
cott and Robert Snel), of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
have invented mi instrument which they de- 
nominate a former, whiak is intended lo be 
used as a stick, or mooHj Or^ block, on winch 
to fold o piece of leather of siutnblo size to 
form the whole uppfer" of a boot iu such a man- j 
nor as to avoid the. usual process of crimping. 
Ii constitutes a variable mould or block which 
can bo adjusted aofl'voried in its si» and pro- 
portions, so. thai Iho whole of the uppers of 
various sizes may Bi formed bj oJBpb lapping 
tho leather around it, anil SMiuing the uecos> 
sary ports together. It somtwlmt resembles 
som« of the implements u«*t fi)r crimping, but 
while theystn-ti-h tin leather, tin i simply pres- 
ses into shape. Thiwtoventors Imvo applies! 
lor a pulcut — Scientific American. 

; . i «> i ■ 

A STKAMsnip nearly one-eighth of a mile fortir 
is imihling at Liverpool. Shu is to hare side 
wheels atid a propeller. 



,'*.i'\, •■.'•.<*»•■ 

franklin 2Vniul}frs;irij. 

....,,.,.... .■.,-..■ ..■•." .■.-•'.••..'.••.■-■■••.••■•-..-•."- 



Tiik 117th anniversary of Hie Birth-Day of 
Bexjamin FkaȣU wna oppwp ritttc, y cele- 
brated at the. Blossom House, in (Iris city, on 
Tuesday oToning, Jan. 17. under the an*] • 
Bad Rochester Typographical Union. Tilt first 
edition of the Cclcbrotion-^tllC Banquet or Sup- 
per—which commenced about k o'clock, was 
participated in by Bovornl hundred Indies and 
gentlemen. After a feast of good things for the 
refreshment of the inner ninn, the occasion was 
, , rcned by sentiments, speeches, Ac until a 
late hour — to the general satisfaction of tlic 
large and respectable auditor)'. 

Regretting that wo ore unable to give the 

entire procKCdmgs, wo cdndonso the following 
ByiiopeJB from the reports already published : 

The head of one oJ the tables was occupied 
bv D. 1) T. Moobk, Esq., President, assisted by 
Messrs. A. Strong, W. S. Fulls, J. E. M«rey, H. 
C. White, J. Curtis, K. W. Hill, and A. Bonnet, 
Vice Presidents. When the guests had taken 
their Bests, the Presid-nt of the Union, Mr. 
Moons, pronounced die word* of welcome : 
Ladies and Gentlemen — 

Ix behalf of the Rochester Typographical 
Union, I extend to you a cordial welcome to ihi. 
Banquet in commemoration of Fbankus— the 
Patron Saint of our Profession. Our desire is 
that it may prove of far more value nod import- 
ance than a mere refreshment of the physical 
mnn— that it may cement the bonds of friend- 
ship and brotherhood, and enlarge and strength- 
en the mind— thus truly becoming a " feast of 
reason and a flow of souL" That our festival 
will result thus auspiciously, no one can doubt 
who properly estimates tho grace and go, dnos , 
wit and talent, logic anil eloquence, or those who 
have honored us with then- presenco on this 

As a people and nation. Americans devote loo 
little time to recreation and amusement; Out 
holidnya nrc too •• few ami far between." In 
our race for the " almighty dollar," and personal 
aggrandizement— in which, by the way, we are 
proverbially "up to time." and more than a 
trifle in advance of "all the rest of mankind" 
—we arc prone I" neglect or forget the require- 
mouts of both our physical anil roontal consti- 
tutions. Editors, publishers and printers, more, 
perhaps, than any other class, appreciate the 
necessity and benefit of relaxation — for tiieir la- 
bors, mental and physical, are nearly constant 
and almost Herculean. Hence our Union, rep- 
resenting the craft generally of this city, have 
thought it eminently proper to revive tho cus- 
tom of commemorating, in an appropriate man- 
ner, the natal anniversary of tho Printer, Philoso- 
pher and Statcsraao who contributed so largely 
to the establishment and prosperity of this Re- 
public, nud its Republic ot Letters. 

That we are entitled to the privilege of greeting 
each other and our friends on such an occasion, 
we think none properly informed will gainsay. 
Though one of the junior cities, and ranking as 
the fifth or sixth in population, Rochester circu- 
lates many thousand more periodicals than any 
other town in the .State— New York alone ex- 
cepted. TliLs assertion, which may surprise 
many present, is bused upon statistics recently 
obtained from reliable sources. The aggregate 
circulation of our Rochester journals, — daily, 
weekly and monthly— is estimated (on the best 
authority, and we think entirely within bounds) 
at iW,30l),— making about G.OUU.OUI) single copies 
annually I and embracing a greater amount of 

tower and influence upon the prosperity of man - 
ind, than all the engines of the various Rail- 
roads represented at tho celebration this evening 
in the " City of the Straits." The circulation of 
our papers is over thirty thousand greater than 
those of Albany— aud about IJU.OOU more than 
those of Buffalo — though Rochester has far less 
population than either! 

Whether this great superiority in tho circula- 
tion, influence anil wo trust usefulness of our 
journals is attributable to the fact that Roches- 
ter is located in n rich country, inhabited by an 
intelligent and appreciative people, or to the su- 
perior talent and tact of the craft, we leave oth- 
ers to determine, la our opinion the credit 
should be divided. Certain it is that the pro- 
fession embraces many tried and worthy mem- 
bers. For instance, the political press— which 
is pretty certain to aid in saving the nation every 
four years, aud the commonwealth twice as ofi- 
cn — is always Strong aud generally Man-ly — 
embracing a conservative JPariuT, and a veteran 
Major, skilled in the use of a weapon mightier 
than the sword. Though ifs and nods are some- 
times serviceable, a " genuine " Hulls is oftener 

"Tub tiiuxdsii-s or A uioiitv aob. 
May dhown the voices or ran past, 

But Time, Tnc Piu.vtkr ayd Tnc Saor, 


of Franklin. The toast mentions him as labor- 
ing for the press. He might speak of him. and 
his character, and his achievements. Wo ought 
not to meet to make distinctions between classes, 
to magnify one nt tbo expense of another. All 
noblemen who desire to bo anything arc worker* 
Men work in all departments. Hue are repre- 
sentatives of every pursuit and calling. We are 
here as workers, to do homage to the memory of 
a worker, whnSC name would be immortal, even 

if we did not honor him. Truth must be work- 
ed out. The mind is in its soundest state il 

tween multiplying books by means of the steam 
press, and writing them out with a pen. It 
would lake one man a day to copy in a lair read- 
able band, on an average, one page of the New 
Yuri Tribune, which would bo eight days' works 
on a Single sheet ; and yet one of tblE'S eight 

cylinder presses would print oif on both sides 10,- 
1)1)0 sheets in an hour; « Inch is equivalent to the 
labor for a day, with the pen, of 80,000 men.— 
Other facts equally surprising were stated. 

The apoakur then exhibited a book which he 
held in his hand, printed 200 years ago. and con- 

II* IC||«WIWV1I) ...... « — . j » J 

Dewy fields, aids in prosecuting the peaceful 
campaign— while all broken vessels are repaired 
by an excellent Cooper, who, unlike his illustri- 
ous namesake, eschews fictions and contributes 
items of fact Our Religious journals aro also 
progressing, thanks to the efforts of an ascond- 
mg Hill aud n reclaiming Marsh. Tho Rural 
press has abuudant Zw-way, aud is so //arm- 
ing the enemies of " Progress and Improve- 
ment "—at the. same time securely Carry-cading 
its own outposts— that on easy Ptefc-tory is an- 
ticipated. On this point it would be superflu- 
ous, if not egotistical, to add a syllable More 

Good Friends — pardon our prolix and per- 
haps egotistical digression. Meraliers of our 
profession so rarely "speak in public on the 
Mage," that we may perhaps be allowed to talk 
somewhat of ourselves. Though specch-nmking 
is not our forte, yet if Demosthenes was correct 
in his definition of what constituted oratory — 
action, action, action — we ought to be the most 
eloquent class in tho world. We again tender 
an earnest welcomo to strangers and citizen 
(mini*— with a fervent aspiration that " you and 
I, and all of us" may not only enjoy the pre-- 
out, but that He who coutrols all may vouchsafe 
u« the privilege of meeting ou many similar 
occasions. To the ladies who have favored us 
with their presence — thus endonudg our Ban- 
quet beyond tho fear of protest, aud stamping, 
wo fondly trust, indelible impressions upon 
many hearts — one of the exclusive righlt of 
woman — wo bow, however awkwardly, iu grate- 
ful acknowledgment. 

The Rev. Dr. Dewkv said Grace, when ample 
justice was done to the fc*-t. 

After the Supper was properly dispatched tho 
President announced tho First Regular Toast : 

1 Dtnjamin Franklin— WorkiuR »t bin JirlnUog ptw» In 
PhUxleliihla, he ra loo JIccJuKile of Truth, thu CrafW 
uu, of Liberty. 

Rev. Dr. Van Ixoek appropriately responded 
to this sentiment. He would not detail the life 

l-U lilt" ,111,, u ,., ... •>.> - - -— - , . ' . • > ., 

working out truth. We are called to work m trusted it with the printing of the present day. 

' and then closed with a justly merited tribute of 
praise to the craft. 

4. Education— Without It, all tho rentlmenU »c have 
uttered would be hut n» tho wind, idly hluwiDR over the 
[.unci Dead Soa, ffhvro no k-ir>n»e* bt«r conimorcfl inlo 
I'lmv |H»rts ot Yv;d"t from shuiu lo nhon* the LlrcUingB of 

aiDgrcevtvo mind. 

It. D. Josks, Esq., Superintendent of Schools, 

made an eloquent response, remarking on the 

dependence ol educators upon the Printing Press. 

6. Authors and Printers— The men or letters imd llm 

men of type* — the natuiaJ co-oncrstu "' tbo eomjtle. 

uicnts ol iovh other. B« "horn wo comnnniunite i» a 
wonderful instance of the facllin n llh which Ibe two uuile. 

Prof. Ravmoxd responded. He thought if the 
ball of yarn was rolled up at length, a it had 
been, that it was a grave qucstii n what should 
become of the ball that is to follow. He then 
alluded to tho " errors of the Press," making a 
number of Incetious hits. 

0. Science— Befonj printing the poKossIon of the few — 
lino prinUnj the heritage of Ihe luanj ; Uieu Iho (word 
,,( tin prli it— no* thoiuield or UiorwpW. 

I;,\. Dr. Uk.wkv spoke of the distinguishing 
trails of Franklin's character, particularly with 
reference to the application of bis mind to sci- 
ence. Some have wondered thnt ho should ha\ e 
held so high a place iu literature aud science, 
and they have said that it was by the general 
consent arid concession of his cotemporurics. — 
But this is wrong. Frnnkliu was really eminent, 
ns a natural philosopher before all of his day.— 
Iu political economy, and in literary nnd moral 
writings he held no ordinary place. He became 
a great man though he started as a Journeyman 
Printer, because ho had a rially great mind.— 
Till he became a typo, bis education was imper- 
fect. Then ho grew to lie a writer, for there are 
f,-w better places than tho priming office _ for a 
man to learn, unless he is a mere machine.— 
Franklin cultivated bis moral character, and tho 
private virtues. He was governed by strict rules. 

7. Mini—The mother of Gutenberg's miDllmo necessity. 
[I . rnnl, and nude beulGeiiiUy omnlpicseul by the 

i;. rman discovery. 

J. IL Bskxt, Esq . responded, but he would 
not speak nt length. Ho was in favor of putting 
buck the clock, and putting forward the main 
business of the evening. 

S. ll'aMngtm—.\ m«n and a principle. A lioro nnd mi 
Idea. I M'd in the revolution as its Oliampiou, and luuce 
,'.. eln ■ , lldopte I il* revelation. 
Drank in silence. 

0. Our JgrinJturaland Horticultural Pros— The prid" 
ot our rllj. 11 cium'j. Ihe diwll place to rt'juicv, and Uie nil., lo blOMOni a.1 Olo rOAD. 

Mr. ."Tab. Vick, of the Horticulturist, said :— 
Travel from Maine to Georgia, from tho Atlan- 
tic coast to the shores of the Pacific, and in nl- 
m.. -i every village and hamlet, at every country 
post-office vou will find the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Journals of our goodly city. No 
city ol" our Union, with perhaps one exception, 
sends out as manv Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral Journals, as Rochester. We are of late be- 
coming more celebrated for our Rural Literature, 
than for our Genesee wheat and Rochester Hour. 
Intimately connected with this interest, are our 
Agricultural Warehouses, Seed Stores, and our 
celebrated Nurseries. Rochester is becoming 
the garden of the country, nnd tho nursery of 
the continent. 

A few years since and wo had but one Agri- 
cultural Journal, struggling for a feeble exist- 
ence, but by well-directed skill and unbounded 
energy, this interest has been advanced to its 
present high position. And to no ono are we 
more indebted for this result than to our, honor- 
ed President. 

And wbnt a flood of light and truth are these 
Journals shedding over tlio land. Their fruits 
are every where to be seen. The appearance of 
farms and houses, barns nnd stables, gardens 
and orchards, in almost every neighborhood. 

every position. When Franklin recognised I bat 
he had no capital but. his brains andliis sinews, 
be recognized the truth about himself. Every 
aposl lo "f truth must be a worker and a mechan- 
ic of truth, as the toast styles Franklin. Frank- 
lin was earnest, because ho had great simplicity 
.if character and a love ol truth, from which 
nothing could seduce him. Ho was always 
Benjamin Franklin — tlio same everywhere. 
Nothing could add lo his glory, to his chaste 
beauty, to his calm, self-understood beauty. 
The motives that governed him and the princi- 
ples which swayed his life, made him what he 
was. His ruling principle was to do bus day's 
work well. Ho foved to conquer obstacles, 'ihe 
maxim that illustrated his life was the homely 
ono of "Mind your own business.'' He would 
not let the work of the day master him. He 
would finish it before his head touched his pil- 
low. His was the maxim of order and vigorous 
efficiency. Such a man would attain the high- 
cst elevation of which man is capable. Ho 
would stand before kings. 

2. The Memory of Gutenberg — The lead that formed 
even one of UU loucuv uxpoD<feu upon human mind, has 
been mom potent i.> totfeil 8 the dcttiny of mankind, 
lhan all the lead expended np ., human l.n<llcA from the 
time or Va.lboroueh. thi creat lluko, doon to the in-riod 
of our <iav. Ilia alphabet il the Material Goupct of Uie 

Prof. Kexomck responded. He commenced 
with n string of witticisms, of which he kept up 
a running lire from beginning to ond of his 
speech, putting the assemblage in a vastly good 
humor. He related how Franklin proposed to 
a young lady, who very properly rehired him 
to her mother. The old lady refused Franklin, 
because lie was only a printer, and there wi re 
already Mo printing offices in America, and she 
did no't see how they could be supported. This 
suggested the story of the Scotch clergyman 
who told his daugb'ter it was a solemn thing to 
get married— sho replied that it Was still more 
solemn not to got married. Dr. KexdIUCK then 
referred to the history of Outtenbiirg, who was 
born, about the year 'MOO, and printed his first 
book in 1 -110. lie referred to the ignorance and 
superstition of the age, which persecuted the 
printer, and alleged be was in league with the 
devil. He then paid a beautiful compliment to 
the craft, for the obligation under which Greek 
literature is to the art of printing. Socrates 
congratulated a friend because he owned a full 
copy "l" Homer — now Homer can be bought for 
a half dollar, and printed on fair type that may 
be read by any eyes, Tho civilization of the 
world was overwhelmed by the fall of Rome, 
and the subsequent darkness of the middle ages. 

times serviceaoie, a genu.ue *-« »»^» omtcburR came to the rescue and saved letters. 
,n, and » balmy Jew, joined 1 with k ^ Annl o( fa( ^ 

placing them high upon an Ararat ol safety. 
Printing saved the remains of classical antiquity 
and made them imperishable. 

3. The I'rea cf America— So matter how in mmeeuM, 
it ie said to lie, Truth, on In a well, lice at the bottom. 

ovory plant,— every tree— is n friend with whom 
l„- communes. Ho has watched over its infancy 
— supported it in its weakness — given food in 
time of need, and water when it was parched 
with thirst. He has curbed its disposition ttj 
ramble, and under his guidance it has grown up 
with a line form and good habits. In return, il 
has pound into his lap its offering of gratitude; 
It lias delighted him with its beaut; and iia- 
crrauco ; and, as this was not enough, it is daily 
inviting him to partake of its fruitB. A man 
who thus erects Nature's temple oround hil 
home, nnd worships her there, will not be apt 

to relinquish those pleasures i"r a w home," 

in a strange land, or the gold of California ; and 
should stem duly over compel him to desert the 
much loved spot", it will be dear to his memory. 
Ho will o ten my in spirit — 

"An cxllo from honfe, splendor .tunica In vnin, 
And 1 clph for my lovely tluitched cottage o^iiii." 

One word to the ladies, and I sit down — de- 
volo a portion of your lime to gardening. It 
will not only afford pleasure, but health. It 
will furnish the luxuries— the poetry of life, and 
the health essential to their enjoyment. Work 
among your flowers and plants every da du- 
ring tbo season ; it- is tho best cosmetic in the 
world — it will drive away thnt sallow, bilious 
look. It will give you n color more beautiful, 
more lasting than rose or carmine. It will -end 
the glow of health to tho cheek, and joy to the 

10. The Hrolhcrhood of Aulhort and Printer!— Like Die 
union of Ihe jroaroond the luunltu, thej join MBpuitwiUi 
the |,r...iiil, anil throw upon Iho enu of limo the min^h-d 
I m iiu of llowen and fruits — of rational mirth and philo- 
sophic usefulnrft*. 

Mr. Baory, who was called for to respond to 
thLs sentiment, was absent. 

11. The Coralilulion of the United Stalei— Printed on 

Kpor, It i* more durahlo than the ulaiut.a of Urexco or 
imo; for irrnvcn a* they were on Incd cranite, (he 
|j mnCl Kittle nxe could splinter them at a blow, or Unie 
could moulder Uiein into their original du»t. 

Maj. HuMniiip.v was called, but declined speak- 
ing, owing to the lateness of the hour. 

12. The Democracy of Right— The Despot's plea for 
tyranny, the People's plea of power. The E Pluribua 
without the ('num. 

Mr. C. B. Hill responded in a neat speech, 
closing thus : 
Sous of FranLlin — ye who toll as once did he, 

To Meed the truth, Willi earnest might, 
"All thing" good and true," still lol your motto bo 
Your sacred watch-word — Uod and Right. 

13. Woman — How sliall we sine; herpraiso? 'Tis sung 
at home, where children ne*llo near her ..hieldinir heart; 
'tl> punt: in .-in ill -, v. I., ii ^-.uiu.« flip* in the rocmorv of a 
until, r i teaching; 'tis sung vhen mm panoplied hinuclf 
for life's hard battle In the guarding genius of berlayo. 
ll.r spheie i* Earth and Heav, ii. 

C. P. UnwKV responded. He alluded to the 
example set by the Union in gathering the ladies 
to this banquet of tho craft. Woman was ad- 
mitted and the wine cup discarded. Tbo exam- 
ple set by tho Union is appropriate to the birth- 
day of l'Vanklin. He owed much of Itis after 
fame to tho fair Miss Reed, who watched him 
from her father's doorway as he trudged along 
the streets of Philadelphia. This no doubt is 
ominous, and some here may perhaps date their 
happiness to Ihe experience of this evening. 
The present is a new era for Woman. Her place 
is home. She is shrined on the domestic altar. 
Hut there is a chance for Woman to find a new 
sphere of activity. She may Income a printer. 
Let way be made for her at the cato and sho 
will beat man with his own Mick. She shall bo 
prominent in Typographical banquets, to which 
gentlemen will lie admitted. She will mollify 
flic bitterness of editorial strife aud mitigate the 
acerbity of writers for the press. Tho toast 
mentions Woman as Mother and Wife. We all 
have mothers, but not all wives. Still there is 
encouragement anil hope for bachelors — the girls 
are not all married. Indeed, the last census 
showed that there are 17.UUU more marriageable 
females than males in this Stale. If this nial- 
proportion is allowed to exist, there will be a per- 
petual Leap Year decreed, and then the bach- 
elors will bo crowded with tempting offers. 

Mr. ErrwAnb WEosrnn, of tho Rural New- 
Yorker, resjKindcd as follows : 

Mr. President, and Ladic* ond Omllnncn : — 
Gentlemen of the Pros ; and I might add also, 
Ladies of the press. For if the wives and daugh- 
ters, the sisters and sweethearts of pressmen, 
compositors, ond editors, aro not entitled to thnt 
name, then indeed there is no lifo or potency in 
the cause of woman's rights I 

It may be asked by some, why an older and 
an abler mnn is not called upon as the respond- 
ent of a toast like this. And il may be asked 
by others why a Pressman or a Compositor — 
oiie who wields the icier in the press-room or 
the rule nnd stick in tho composing office, in- 
stead of ono who wield- the pen ond scissors in 
the sanctum, is not called out for n reply. As 
the l«iy said to an outsider who was witnessing 
some impressive mortuary ceremonies, nnd was 
weeping over them as if his heart would break ; 
" What arc you crying fort 'taint none of your 
funeral |» " 

But, sir, tho cause of the Pressman and the 
Compositor, is the cause of tho Editor ; and the 
cause of both, in tho exercise of their legitimate 
functions, is tlio cause of civilization — the cause 
of humanity — the cause of Ood I Every man 
except n tyrant, who sneaks of, and for the on . 
is in his own proper place, and is pleading his 
own cause I 

The speaker then congratulated the assem- 
blage tiiMiii meeting on tho auspicious occa- 
sion, and drew a parallel between I'bowetiiei-s 
and Fbankux, drawing fire from heaven ; slat- 
ing that the latter tonic Ihe tirt-t step in that bril- 
liant train of discoveries, which bavo since yoked 
the lightnings as willing nnd working slaves to 
the car of progressive humanity. 

Tho spcalccr then contrasted tho difference be- 

speaks their praise in language not to be misun- 
derstood by tho most careless observer. 1 he 
slovenly, ill-managed, unproductive farm of 

other years, has been succeeded by one that is n'source of prido and profit to its possessor. 
The barns und dwellings whoso loose boards 
wore shaken like reeds by the wind, have given 
pl.ico to others that afford safety to the crops 
and comfort to tlio inmates. The "yard." so 
nnsightiy to behold,— the receptacle of refuse 
and rubbish, has in many cases been transform- 
ed into the llowcr-garden, or lawn, delighting 
the buholder with beauty and fragrance, and 
denoting tho improved taste and increased hap- 
piness of tho owners. The Agricultural and 
Horticultural Journals are doing much to im- 
prove the unstable and roving disposition of our 
people. A well kept gardeu and orchard, next 
to wife and children, gives home its charm. To 
him who loves his garden, or orchard, or farm. 

The following letters among others were read : 
D. D. T. Moor.i:, Esq., 

PoEsior.XT Printers' Banquet : 
Circumstances having transpired to forbid my 
being present nt the Festival this evening, and 
taking part in the exercises, I cannot refrain 
from sending you my heartfelt desire that it. may 
be "a feast of reason and a flow of soul," and 
operate as a bond of union to those whoso busi- 
ness it. is to be engaged in the "art of all arts." 
In lr-lG, I commenced the art, trade and mys- 
tery of Printing in ihe village of Rochester, and 
from that time till 11*33, followed the business, — 
certainly through a period when as little could 
be gleaned out of it, a* any poor mnn could de- 
sire ; for readers and advertisers too wero " few 
and far between." Though long retired practi- 
cally from the business, I have ever felt a warm 
interest in the much augmented and respected 
body who still pursue il in this city, and beg 
through you to acknowledge tho honor intended 
to be conferred upon me, wiih the assurance that 
1 regard myself as one of your body, and iho' 
not present in person, shall be in spirit and feel- 
ings. Your ob't. serv't., 

Enwis ScnANTOM. 
Permit me to offer the following : 
The Printer at Iho Old Hamage Press in 1816, 
and lite Printer by Lightning in 1854. — The dif- 
ference is as great as tho heavens are high above 
tho earth J and the rcsidls more thou tho dif- 

Lockport, Jan. M, 185-1. 

Genti.kmen : — I regret that tho 6tate of my 
health will not permit mo to attend tho Printers' 
Banquet in honor of Franklin's Birth Day, in 
accordance with your kind invitation. It would 
nfford mo sincere pleasure to interchange sonti- 
ments with you on 6o interesting an occasion, 
nnd to unite with you in celebrating the virtues 
of the immortal Patriot and Sage. Among the 
igrcat characters which History presents for our 
consideration, there are none, perhaps, which 
can be contemplated with more unqualified sat- 
isfaction than that of Benjamin Franklin. To 
Ihe youth of our country, his career from boy- 
hood to old age, furnishes a noble example tor 
Study and imitation. His name is justly regard- 
ed as a perpetual testimony in favor of industry, 
perseverance, self-culture, self-reliance, and a 
manly devotion to principle. If the patriotism 
of mankind endeared him to his own country, 
in • , on. | ii, -i - in the domains of science attracted 
the attention ol the civilized world ; and the 
concurring voice of many nations has placed his 
name high on the roll of philosophers and bene- 

That the Printers, as a profession, should cher- 
ish the fnmo nnd memory of Franklin with pe- 
culiar interest and pride, is alike natural and ap- 
propriate. May we not indulge in the hope that 
tho craft will ever continue to emulate his exam- 
ple, and in the exercise of their art nmko it 
equally conducive to the interest of liberty and 
virtue? I remain, with great regard, 

Yours truly, 
Washington Hunt. 

To D. D. T. Moore, and others, Committee, 

Several olher interesting letters were received, 
which we should be glad to publish, but want 
of room in our columns prevents it. Wc there- 
lore give the sentiments contained in them: 

ByHlWBT O'liiii.i.v. — Franklin Ihe Editor — 
Whoso integrity in vindicating the Rights of the 
Public Press, formed a worthy prelude to his 
patriotic assertion of Americnn Independence. 

By Hon. T. C. PrcTEius.— The Editors and 
Printers — The head of the one nnd the baud of 
the other, rule the destinies of our country. 

By A. Hollt.— Printer:— May tiny press des- 
potism out of tho world, chase aristocracy to the 
verge of annihilation, «Wi royalty to the ground, 
lockf-ttp oppri ■ -ion and wrong, embrace indepen- 
dence nnd truth, multiply Impression* of rirtno, 
and in evcrv way honor the calling thnt has been 
consecrated by the illustrious Franklin. 

By J. Clement : — The American Prrts — May 
ii continue, to tho end of time, as fne as our 
mountain BtreaillS, and its influence be as fra- 
grant as our prairies. 

By Rev. Jorrx B. Rome, of Buffalo -.— The 
Printer* of Rochester — May impression*, always 
beautiful and Baviflg, be made upon their hi ai ts. 

By H. A. Dt-DLEV. — A Printer's Union for 
Wot at n -V<-<" York — Let it be id up at once and 
locked up in tho chase of mutual regard. 

Voi.vnterb Toasts, 

Of Uie many ire liave only room for the following : 
By A. Strono : — The Preiidml and Faculty of 
the Unirertily of Rochester — Noble type* of in- 
tellectual greatness nnd moral worth. We greet 
them as the friends of progress, and co-workers 
with the press. May Ihey rear up many "bright 
particular stars." who shall go forth with radia- 
ting light to bless our country and the world. 

By Rev. R. W. Hill :— The Press of our City 
— Its influence upon tbo political, ai;ricullur:d 
and religions interests of Western New York is 
incalculable — May it ever be satisfied with tho 
education of the fiend and the heart, whUc oth- 
ers take care of tho bands and tlio feet 

By Wm. S. Fails : — Woman — The most beau- 
tiful specimen of Nature's handiwork. A type of 
the Garden of Eden. UnsuUicd, uee impression* 
are enduring as eternity. 

By A. Bennett -.— The Telegraph— Franklin's 
thought was to connect Heaven and Earth by a 
flash,— -Morse unites by a spark ibe uttermost 
parts of the world. 

By Wm. H. Beach : — The Mechanic Arts ond 
Sciences — A noble gift from God to man. The 
Mechanic — (Jod's nobleman. 

By 1!. D. Jones :— Public Seliools— The power 
press of freedom, whereon is to be worked tho 
future edition of American citizens and stalcs- 

n. May each impression be dedicated to 

" Liberty. Equality, fraternity." 

By J. M. Winsi.ow : — Henjawin Franklin, the 
Patriot, Printer, Philosopher and Statesman — iiin- 
inently distinguished while living for his many 
private and public virtues, and equally remark- 
able for habits of industry, economy, and self- 
reliance, he has left i,s right examples, which it 
will become not only printers, but all others to 

By 3, P. Fooo : — lite Newspaper — Tho store- 
house of the mind ; ihe garner of facts and fan- 
cies ; giving immortality to thoughts ready to 

By C. P. Dkwev : — To LtuheJors— Keep your 
"cases" well distributed, ond you will novcr bo 
" out of sorls." 

By E. C. Williams, Ship-chandler and Sail- 
maker : — To the Rochester Print/ rs, a messmate 
would touch his tarpaulin. They are a gallant 
crew. The mess they bavo provided, is fitting 
for an Admiral. May their toyago upon tlio 
ocean of lifo bo prosperous nnd happy. 

By W. Hkuc.iies: — The Type-Selling Machine 
— When perfected, it will be driven by perpet- 
ual motion and lighted with Panic's gas. 

By B. Frank. Enos :— Our Lady Guests— The 
types of purity, set up in forms, jusiifictl and cor- 
reeted; whose every impression makes a perfect 
proof sheel, which furnishes copy for the mdlion. 

By a Lady Guest : — May the craft of Roches- 
ter publish many Mo(o)re editions of this Fes- 
tival, and keep us, as on this occasion, uutil 
Dewey morn. 

By a "Sub:"— Tlw Fugitive Edilorr— They 

fled to Canada by the Underground Railway, 

but they are not beyond the reach of the "bill" 

for this Banquet. 

The folloivinp from Ihe ofoeo of the Rural Now- Yorker: 

By D. D. T. Moore :— Western New York— Tho 
best edition of " Progress and Improvement " 
that has been " worked off " during tho last 

Tlw Plow and Ihe Press — The twin levers of 

(ihysical nnd mental prosperity and wealth. — 
iVithout them, wo are powerless — with them, in 
proper hands, botli wealthy and wise. 

By JosErn Harris: — Printers' lxulits — Al- 
though we hove not, like our sister city, Albany, 
lady-printers nt work upon a Qountru Gentleman, 
yet wo have printers' ladies for beauty and ele- 
gance unsurpassed. May they increase till Ihero 
is not a bachelor printer in the city. 

By EnwAuo Wedstfr :— The Printer, the Edi- 
tor and the Critic — the Executive, the Legislative 
and tho Judicial departments of Civilization — 
Mental darkness vanishes before them, as the 
shades of night ore scattered at tho coming of 
the god of day. 

By J. H. Bixrv. — Tlie Good Compositor— He 
seeks a clean proof of this life's pages, for no er- 
rata can be added in the next. 

By H. C. White:— The Sword and the Pen— 
The one. a weapon always potent in the cause 
of humanity ; the other, too often the geburgo 
of tho people. The one writes with ink, the 
other with blood ; tuny the fountain of the for- 
mer never flow again, and thnt of the latter 
never dry tip. 

By A. H. Sidlet -.—Mailing Clerks — The power 
between the Press and tho People, too often 
thwarted by Undo Samuel's miscarriages. 

By Wm. M. Lewis : — The present Organized 
Militia of the State of New York — The bulwarksof 
the State, and the right arm of its Government. 
By R. A. NlcnOLSV— The Printers of Rochester 
— bfay the period of their existence l>o distant, 
their pockets well lined with quoin, nud when 
forced to "shuffle off the mortal coil," may it be 
done with cases clean, and forms well revised and 

Our Printers' Devil— Though a small ' now, 
he ma\ by /irrju-iiig onward || those of tho first 
magnitude — becoming, pcrba|>s, a Fbanklin. 

Tho festivities of the occasion wore concluded 
by the representatives of "Young America," 
who practiced the Terpsichorean art. Those 
who participated report that tho short hours 
passed rapidly — being chased away by twink- 
ling feet, while all went " merry as a marriage 
bell." And thus ended the second edition. 





[Written fnrMonro'it Rural| 


A bctlv ro POPOlaB Aw, "00 Xinst uiss mk at Home?" 
nr j. w. iuiikkk. 

yjn 'i" ratal tlieo at homo, ! wo inbw Uaee, 

Thy Imago t« -1111 in nnr [ltJirU ; 
And ice linger with fond r»-«-«>llixtioo, 

« h i Uii mrm i- a ••< lymi abj "tartA. 
We am (Milking how sweet rai Uiat moment, 

Whan you «Iood at the h'-iJ ur our bund, 

Hon .1.- ir were the words thai »ero «notao, 

And liotr warm wjj the claip of Uio haud. 

Bat nnn when the ilnulotM or evening 

llUnj on nOlej and bill, 
An. i I ii - i' loni i i melody, filling, 
i. .., on nni irnlrin dUUIl: 
i note In Uiat ranlnroui meaiuro, 
Ti.ii to in i i ll« -' '"'•- ' '■• m °l 

I ■ i -' i I ■ . 

And mournfully trllliner* of lUco. 

Tl.l- ranini ut ire tearfully miss thco, 
. | round ii. old family hearth, 

Willi i ..'i.i n membmnco wo gather, 
And Join in tin Dtvddo mirth; 

Bui Uicre'i » •©»< Uiat is vacant. 
It cOTCnl our K|dri!» Willi glnnm,— 

TUis arcarnwrae momont, wo DUW thco, 

Wc mtM tlui', ro inbu UlOO at houlo. 

(1 1 when dojt thou wearily wnndcr, 

For in in v ii long weary day ? 
Boy, why from Uio friendl that now love Uiee, 
. ... , liit.r the world, do«l thou utray i 

Kay, II I nM <-.i» note* forjret thee, 

WlieroVr Uiou mayrft thnughtlualy roam. 
And it, will thou ever remember, 
W. ii.'- *h -■. WO "ii..- in--.- ut linme. 
KeadaU Mills X. V, 1861. 

. •—- o— • 

(for the Kurd NVw-Yorkcr.] 


served for coses of more extreme non-confonn- 
ity, for tlioso souls of superior veracity, who 
cannot lend second-hand lives, bat must give ft 
r.ii. iiini report of what lias been revealed to 
themselves personally. The man who rejects 
such forms mill observances as to him have not 
only no significance, but are positively false, as 
utterances of big individual perccptiou of the 
spiritual meanings of tilings, receives as he 
willingly hears ft name conveying, Uiough often 
blindly, the fact of such Easting off Eccen- 
tricity, then, rightly considered, is but the 
"limbs and outward flourishes" of an individ- 
uality too strong to be repressed, too self-re- 
specting to be moulded into a soft compliance 
by the smoothing plane of conventionalism; 
and in its highest, screiiest condition aifording 
Uio example, worthy of imitation by less lite- 
ral natures, of a cheerful accordance to others 
of all the freedom it demands for itself, a. 

Sooth Livonia, Dec., W5S. 



There ore some strange people in the world 
yes, u great many — something like twenty- 
four millions in the United States alone 1 
think; though I am not certain whether even 
that estimate covers the entire whimsical pop- 
ulation of all colors or not; by the way, do 
vou happen to be acquainted with an individ- 
ual who docs not appear to you possessed or 
some eccentricities? Of course, yon have none 
— you are conscious of moving in the exact 
sphere Nature assigned you— but others seem 
to have a comet-like tendency; a disposition In 
play vagrant — to wander beyond limits. You 
arc sometimes fortunate enough to meet a per- 
son who seems to yon remarkably sensible — 
free from those odd conceits, fantastic notions 
extravagances of opinion or disposition which, 
in some degree, distinguish all your former ac- 
quaintances, and to which you have such an 
aversion that you are thereby repelled from all 
close intimacy with the subjects of them; but 
bve and bye you detect in this new friend cer- 
tain mental angularities— i shurp points of char- 
acter, which experience teaches you are very 
likely l'i wound whatever comes in too sudden 
or riolent contact with them. Perhaps it is 
only a slight determination to egotism, unof- 
fending enough, but that your own — not ego- 
tism, but «4/"-r«p«i« — whispers you not to ad- 
mit his rather too complacent assumption of 
superiority; or, may be, it is a mere outward 
fancy or his that first strikes you as peculiar, 
a preference for some particular color or fash- 
(in in dress, to, the constant exclusion of all 
other hues and modes, and if the perception of 
(hi trange regard to trifles comes upon you 
in an ungenial mood, and especially with the 
aggrnvntingoircnnistanceof dislike on your port, 
to the favorite style, it annoys you; you really 
think he might be less capricious; you do not 
deny that you have a pretty decided choice in 
such things yourself ; but then with yon it is 
matter of taste, while with him it must be 
purely whimsical. 

What is, then, this eccentricity? One never 
hears it used as a term of serious reproach; it 
is ucver employed in reference to such marked 
mmmiabilities as selfishness, ingratitude or the 
like, though the manner in which it is sonic- 
times applied indicates that those exhibitions 
of singularity made by the individual charac- 
terized as fiuiciful or eccentric, arc regarded 
rather as freaks of a cynical waywardness than 
as honest, hearty utterances of a truthful na- 
ture. And yet it is not difficult to discriminate 
here between-what is natural and what is as- 
sumed. Those studied variances from ordinary 
usage which make up all there is distinctive in 
the characters of certain artificial people, rare- 
lv pass themselves off as expressions of genu- 
ine, common sense, radical dissent from the 
ideas involved in such usage, but are most com- 
monly, as most truly, known for counterfoils or 
affectations. True diversity, in effort as in 
manner, is explained by the fact that the opin- 
ions of an individual never fully coincide either 
with die aggregate Bense of the community in 
which he lives, or with the views of any other 
individual. Hie elements of character are 
never mixed in precisely the same proportions 
for two; and in whatever respects one differs 
from all others, those circumstances constitute 
his peculiarities— his eccentricities; they arc 
the poiuts seized on by historians to give pi- 
quancy to biographic narrative. The unlikc- 
ness is in thousands of cases eo slight, or so 
lessened by a weak fear of standing alone, as 
to be. overlooked; mid the epithet which, in 
truth, if upplkable to any, is to to all, is re- 

Thb maimer of trimming the beard mid 
hair, is a matter of mere taste and fashion. — 
There is nothing intrinsically distasteful in suf- 
fering tho beard and moustache to grow in 
untrimmed luxuriance; nor is there anything 
shocking to natural propriety in allowing the 
hair even, to flow in uncurtailed profusion. — 
But, on the other hand, it requires long famil- 
iarity with the opposite custom in either, of 
these ca«es, to render the masculine counten- 
ance at all prepossessing to tho eye. The na- 
ked head of the pointed savage, robbed of its 
natural covering except the scalp lock, the -in- 
gle pig-tail of the Chinese head, or even the 
shaven crown, saving the narrow ring of hair 
around the base of the brain, which is charac- 
teristic of the Roman Catholic Friar, are any- 
thing but ornumentid. 

Neither the Jew nor the Turk is stigmatized 
as a dandy because he wears a beard; the 
moustache of a Tartar does not brand him as 
a fop, mid why should it indicate such a char- 
acter among civilized men? The God-fearing 
Puritans who landed upon Plymouth rock, mid 
their immediate successors, sported moustaches 
and imperials which would put to shame the 
most contemptible puppy of Broadway. The 
portrait of Governor Wxsturop, one of tho 
earliest and best Governors of Massachusetts, 
looks down from the walls of the State 
House in Boston in nil the luxuriance of 
an unshaven face; and one of bis immediate 
successors, whose picture is beside the former, 
is adorned with mi imperial, the like of which 
has never been seen in this city. 

The reason why an idea of dandyism is con- 
nected with a profusion of beard, is undoubt- 
edly because it is the custom of grave and in- 
telligent men to shave the face, or nt least to 
dress down the beard to a moderate and well- 
I rimmed whisker. It is the delight of fools 
and fops to appear the antipodes of men of 
sense; mid if it were the criterion of reverend 
and grave men to retain a natural flow of 
beard, tho dandy would undoubtedly appear 
immediately with a clean shaven face. He 
would invnde the natural sphere of woman, by 
imitating as closely as possible her smooth and 
beardless cheek, instead of leaving such an ig- 
noble contest to gentlemen and scholars. 

The time has been when a clergyman with a 
whisker would stand in peril of arraignment 
before mi ecclesiastical tribunal; but now it is 
neither undignified nor unclcricul to wear a 
whisker of very respectable dimensions; nnd 
the tendency in the community is at present 
undoubtedly in the right direction, viz— to id- 
low nature a little more latitude and longitude 
for netion in a cupillary way. It is shocking 
to good taste to make au instantaneous mid 
great change in dress or anything else, which 
habits and association have made familiar; and 
as a consequence, a revolution even in wearing 
beards is necessarily slow. Every one will now 
acknowledge Ihat three-quarters of masculine 
humanity looks better with whiskers. 

"Oh! uncle,"' said a young lady to a friend 
of ours, who shaved off his whiskers lost spring, 
" let them grow again. I canuot bear to look 
at yon now, you are so Utntcm-jaiccd!" It 
was a remark more true than complimentary, 
but had the desired effect. If a man was not 
designed to wear a beard, why was one given 
to him at nil? If it was intended like a weed in 
the field, as an incentive to labor only, why 
will not long and painful cutting and cropping 
and winter as well as summer fallowing, effect 
its eradication? The throat and nostrils, the 
natural gateways to the lungs und stomach, re- 
quire protection; and that living protection 
furnished by nature is far preferable to the 
death shroud of a crawling worm. The testi- 
mony of the medical faculty and the political 
economist, as well as common sense, stand up 
in the defence of home production. 

Making money by speculation, without re- 
gard to the established laws of trade, is a mat- 
ter thai con be compared to nothing bo well, as 
to the dealing in lottery tickets, or BOniO other 
species of gambling where no sagacity is re- 
quired There may be one chance in a thou- 
sand, or one in ten thousand, for success, but 
the odds stand too fearfully against one to ou- 
courage the practice. There are apparent 
speculations which are based upon tho closest 
calculalions of demand and supply. Let a 
merchant ascertain jusl bow much of any giv- 
en article there is in Ihe market, and also just 
how large the demand will be, ami lie may soli - 
ly purchase the whole with the certainty of 
realizing a profit If one of the eariicsl ad- 
venturers to California could have foreseen the 
population of San Francisco, and thereupon 
purchased the whole Iract of laud upon which 
ihe city now stands, his profits would have lien 
beyond calculation. Such as these musl bo 
considered truly legitimate operations. Bui 
the folly or rushing blindly into risks which 
may be 'managed by skillful operators, is too 
absurd for anything more than a passiuu alio- 
SOU. Such mi- the tulip mania in Holland. — 
"While this raged, men were known to give 

their whole possessions, amounting lo il - 

sand-- of florins, for u single favorite bufflc— 
The Mississippi was another, in which reckless 
gamblers succeeded in fascinating a whole na- 
tion. The South Sen bubble is not forgotten. 
The huudreds of companies incorporated for 
all sorts of imaginable purposes have all been 
described iu full, but the ruin and miser)' by 
Ihe filial explosions have been terrific beyond 
description. Yet men will seldom Icon) wis- 
dom from their own experience. The same 
reckless sceues are enacted every year. The 
laud speculations in the State of Maine nearly 
beggared the Stale. Men left their ware-hous- 
es, counting rooms, and stores, and rushed off 
to townships, village-lots mid mill privileges. — 
So crowded were the mushroom cities, that 
barns, sheds, and Ihe privileges to lean against 
the gate posts, were in requisition for lodging 
places. This affair did not end in a mere bub- 

ble, it ended in the ruin of more than nine- 
tcnths of all who caught the contagion. For 
many years after, the question was invariably 
asked by the prudent Boston merchants of 
applicants for credit, " Have you had any- 
thing to do with the eastern laud specula- 

Some fifteen years ago, more or less, there 
was an effort made lo build a city at the junc- 
tion of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, which 
was to be called Cairo. Streets were graded, 
house and store lots were laid out for miles up 
the banks of both rivers. Elegant colored 
maps were exhibited in flic eastern cities, most 
minutely particular in design. There was to 
Ih- a bank here, a custom house there, n church 
in another place, and fine brick and stone 
dwellings in every direction.' A hundred 
steamers were lying nt the wharves " painted 
like life," and merchandise was piled about in 
|. il'ii looseness of confusion. Brays were in- 
dustriously engaged in removing the merchan- 
dise back Into populated streets. Men, women 
and children were thronging the squares and 
ride-walks. Indeed, from the picturesque de- 
scription, one would suppose that both Cincin- 
nati nnd New Orleans were to be removed and 
combined to make Cairo. Such was what 
Cairo was to be, according to the representa- 
tions of the speculators. No wonder that 
ninny shrewd men who have never seen the lo-) 
cation were taken in by the purchase of shares 
and lots. On the map mid on Ihe plan, a more 
desirable location for a city could not be found. 
However, after all the rage tor speculation, the 
city of Cairo remains to be built A dilapidat- 
ed old wharf boat, a long portico with a shan- 
ty behind it, culled the Lulled States Hotel, a 
lean pig, mid a donkey — these make up what 
Cairo now really is. The location of Cairo is 
everything that'could be desired for a city ; but 
unfortunately, there is one disadvantage not 
mentioned; the water overflows the place for 
fifteen miles back, every spring freshet. Large 
operations were really commenced one dry 
season, but the first freshet carried all the build- 
ings down stream, except the aforementioned 
portico wharf boat — Hunt's Magazine. 


Mas. Mackenzie gives us an insight into 
the state of things in a Mohammedans 'fami- 
ly,' in the following extract from her Eastern 
journal: — » From my frequent visits to Hasan 
Khan's family, where 1 can go when il i cool, 
i . ■ as vou may suppose, a good deal of 
'Life in the Harem,' and would undertake to 
refute authoritatively, as I always foil inclined 
to do on prinut facie grounds, the fine theo- 
ries of Mr. Urqnhart regarding the superior 
happiness of Mohammedan women, what 
can a man know of the mailer? Did hi go 
about visiting in the. form of an old woman? — 
Had he friends and acquaintances in half a 
dozen Zenanas? Would any Musalmam wo- 
man apeak freely to a Feringhi, even if he did 
obtain speech with her? or are the Turks to ln- 
takcn OS competent and impartial witnesses as 
to the relative happiness of their wives? It is 
presumption for him ever to talk of n Mnsal- 
nmni's feelings: I will Hap him out of the field 
with the end of a purdah. I do not think 
I heir secluded life makes them objects of pity. 
They are hardly more devoid of excitement 
than 1 am myself; they see their female friends 
ami their dearest male relations, and the tie 
between brother and sister scorns to bo very 
strongly felt by them; lint it is not in human 
nature to be content with being only the fourth 
part of a man's wife. They urt far from view- 
ing the mntter as we do, and 1 should suppose 
Hasan Khan's Zcuana a favorable specimen, 
as both Leila Bibi and Bibi Ji seem very 
good-tempered, and very friendly to one anoth- 
er. Still, as no man can love two or more 
equally, and as no woman can bear that anoth- 
er should share her husband's affections, I 
plainly sec there arc heart-burnings innumera- 
ble, even in this family. Leila Bibi is the fa- 
vorite: she is a very pretty, merry, clever little 
creature, who laughs and talks with Hasan 
Khan much as an Kncrli-h wife would do. He 
is evidently very fond of her. bnt lie lakes not 
the smallest notice of poor Bibi Ji, who says 
nothing, but has au expression sometimes in 
her face which pains me to see. Luckily for 
her, she does not seem at all a sensible person; 
she is a good, warm hearted creature who is 
very much obliged for any little kindness, but 
not" very' bright. But then she has a little 
girl, mid Leila Bibi, who has been married four 
years, has none. It is the old story of Han- 
nah nnd Pcniunah over again: the one is so 
anxious for children, and the other indirectly 
boasts of hers, by always talking of children, 
and pitying people who have none. Given a 
very slight knowledge of human nature, and 
we may penetrate the cloFely veiled walls of 
seraglios, and economically save our curiosity 
I he expense of a journey to tho East. Sellish- 
in and tyranny, disguise them as polished 
Orientals or cruuO Welsh Mormons may, will 
have the same result." 

[Written for Sloore'a Rural New-Yorker.] 


CnxE rtill urtnr lo my pillow, 

I'Lice thine hand u|>ori my bmw; 
COW On ,! mil • "' death arc creeping 
O'er !t# mivrlilc. mirfor.' nun, 

fl, Uial touch flo iinfi And df-ar I 
Would that I might linger here I 

Dear one, I luul hushed my yearatng*, 

Still on earth lo dwell with tliwi; 
But thine accCnU I.i. I roe hov.-r. 
Trembling o". r llfc'i ebbtnJJ »eo; 
Death atone ran hrenk the fpeli, 
Heath will forec a but farewell. 

•Fold mo elosor !'■ thy Uwoai, 

Shield ma fmm th<- dcath-klD£*l power; 

0, I •■"', 1 OOl leave thee I 

Dark the aluuluvfl o'fcr ma lower; 
•TU not that | f lW - n,o tomb, 
Dut Ikon can'rt uot «har« Ita gloom. 

All l« d; my rr«iry spirit 

Wail* thai list and mlcmn call J 
Husband. dearCM, "" Ihv l-o'oro, 
Swcily l'i in. .-le-p I'll fall. 

Then In Heaven forever re«t, 
GenUj on my Savior's broaat. 

Do not weep I thy tears are falling, — 

Drops of Ore upon my heajt; 

Do not dgh for her thou loveat, 

God lias colled her to depart; 

Thou uili meat me In yon Hcav.m, 
Ho will Join wlml death baa run. 

Y> I another wish Is rising, 

Wildly from my failing soul; 
I bate reeled on thy bnsnin, 
I have f.-lt Iu. llfe-Udc mil. 

'I be hour to me, 
Aa mine own would be to thee. 

Do not It I another pillow 

Ou tlial breast a cherished head; 
•Tls my place nnd wlU t«! ever, 
E'en whvn I am cold and dead. 
Carting ntT Oils robe of life. 
Do.- mil make roe lera Uiy wife. 

Raise mo in thine arms still higher; 

Press those lljw unlo mine own. 
Leave them there till death ahall can me 
To my Maker's mighty throne; 
Earth la falling from my sight. 
Dear one, 'tis my last good night 



TnF. Home Journal gives this little bit of 


Tire young city of Lawrence is n prodigy. 
Twenty-sis miles on the Boston mid Maine Rail- 
road—a road of iuimeusc business, by the way, 
and of admirable arrangements — brings you to 
Merriniac. Here is the monster dam, forming a 
young Niagara; and here is the mushroom 
city. ° Such factories! The new one, the IV 
cific, just receiving its looms, is full 500 feet 
long; the rooms are of this length. I paced 
200 steps iu marching through these industrinl 
halls. Is not this a room " with a witness?"— 
And the neatness and perfection of all the ad- 
jacent buildings, dye houses, &e., ore very re- 
markable. The canal, or raceway, extends on 
the north side of the river, a mile below the 
dam, and is about 100 feet wide. It leaves a 
space between itself mid the river or 400 feet, 
and this is the area for the mills. 

A similar canal will, at some time, be made 
on the south side. The power is estimated to 
eipial eighty good mill privileges. The dam 
cost 9260,000, und the canal, with its appur- 
tenances, about S'200,000. The Bay State Mills 
mid the Atlantic Mills are immense establish- 
ments. The Lawrence Machine Shop employs 
750 hands. Tho population of Lawrence is 
somewhat more than 13,000. It is not a 
crowded place, but spreads out finely, anil all 
the municipal regulations have been well stud- 
ied. It is likely to be a very healthy place.— 
Kverything is on n liberal scale, nnd promises 
comfort as well as ocenpatiou. — Correspond- 
ence A". 1'. Mirror. 

Prentice has been to tho spirit rappings. — 
His first question was whether he would be 
any better looking in the next world than in 
this — which, much to his gratification, was an- 
swered in the affirmative, 

. , ♦ ■ . 

IIaiti-vess is not inn cottage nor a palace, 
nor iu riches, nor in poverty, nor in learning, 
nor in ignorance, nor in passive life; but in do- 
iug right from right motives. 


Oliver Wendell Holmes and John fi. Saxc 
came near meeting the other day. No sooner 
had Holmes vanished from Broadway, than 
Saxe appeared in it. What if they had met? 
Would they have neutralized or stimululed one 
another? Apart, they are Ihe funniest of men, 
and wittiest of poets; together, wc fear, they 
would prove too much for any spectator to sur- 
vive to tell the tale. We had Saxc to ourselves 
the other day, and he said more good things than 
we can recount; but he said nothing better 
than this, which is recorded in the Bo ton 
Post: — Base, in a recent lecture, spenkiug of 
the artistic imperfections of our female poets, 
notwithstanding all their wealth of fancy and 
sentiment, says, "It seems impossible for Pe- 
gasus to trot"handsomely under a side-saddle." 
Saxc has gone homo to Bttrlingtou again. — 
Wo may as well finish the Comic Three, and 
say something or Prentice, Well, Prentice 
has been exulting over the twenty-third birth- 
day of the Louisville Journal How many 
men, besides Prentice, can use such language 
on such on occasion, ns the following? "The 
thought of the twenty-three years wc have 
passed here is so pleasant to ns, that tee should 
love to live them over again. If permitted to 
do this, we would ardently pray Heaven for 
the privilege of correcting many errors which 
time aud reflection huve pointed out to our 
mind; but if that blessed privilege were not 
vouchsafed to us, we should thank God for tho 
privilege of once more living those years just 
as we have, lived them. Oar youth has passed 
aud our manhood's prirmr is passing, but we 
are at happy now as trhen tee first entered 
Loiusville in 1H30, icitk high hopes and buoy- 
ant spirits" Prentice should tell tho world 
his secret 


M n. Pkextick, of the Louisville Journal, 
thus touehinglv alludes to tho death of his as- 
sociate, Mr. Shrove: 

" We, tho surviving editor of the Journal, 
feci that the prime ol life is scarcely yet gone; 
vet, as wo look buck upon our long career in 
'this city, we seem to behold, near and far, only 
the graves of the prized and lost. All the nu- 
merous journeymen ami apprentices, that were 
in our employ when we first commenced pub- 
lishing our paper, are dead; our first partner, 
our second partner, and onr third partner are 
dead; our first assistant nnd our last ussistaut 
arc also dead. When these memories come 
over ns, we feel like one alone at midnight, in 
the miilst of a church-yard, with t\te winds 
sighing mournfully around him through the 
broken tombs, mid the voices of the ghosts of 
departed joys sounding dolefully in his cars. — 
Our prayer to God is that such memories may 
have a chastening mid purifying and elevating 
influence npon us, imd lit us to discharge, bet- 
ter than we have ever yet. done, our duties to 
earth mid to heaven." 

Wish you a Happy New Year, Mr. Moore. 
We hope you had a good visit with " Uncle 
John and the cousins" — and hope you left nil 
your cares nnd lnbors behind, had a Merry 
Christmas, pleasant holidays, good cheer, warm 
fires, (for it was very cold last week,) and ar- 
rived safely home with abudget of knick-knacks 
for the '• editorials," found all well and a long 
list of now subscribers 90 your desk for the 

How we missed lhat snme Rural last week. 
Wc do indeed feel as though we could hardly 
" keep ho ise" without it, for verily it hatli a 
" pleasant countenance." It has ever " a word 
fitly spoken," for tho farmer, mechanic mid 
teacher, and nlso for the house-wife, which fa 
like "apples of gold in pictures of silver." 

Many a pleasant hour have we spout with it, 
and much information have we gathered from 
it, which wo hope has made us wiser and bet- 
ter. However, we were willing to forego the 
pleasure of it for a season, that you might 
seek that recreation for mind aud body which 
you must very much have needed, and which 
ull editors of good papers should have occa- 

We shall hail your Rural ugnin this week 
with renewed pleusnre, und shall, no doubt, in 
the"" Ladies' Department," (to which we always 
turu first, nnd in which we always find some- 
thing good.) receive a neir year present iu 
something timely and interesting. For, while 
our "lords*' are receiving a full share of bene- 
fit from your pages in the way of inventions, 
experiments, pntents, manuring, draining, pru- 
ning, planting, reaping, building, and all 
that sort of thing, we are by no means for- 
gotten; nnd, thanks to you, sir, we have stored 
many good hints, gathered from the Rural, 
with our stock of useful information, — and 
more than one nice dish have we placed upon 
the table, which has been playfully dubbed 
" Rural J\'cw-l'orkci:" 

And now, we wish for you nnd your Rural, 
long life; and may your children's children en- 
joy nil of the pleasures and benefits arising 
from tho ennobling pursuits of Agriculture and 
Horticulture, in which your Rural has l«'en 
so great n stimulus to improvement Again, 
sir, Happy New Year, from a 

Farmer's Wife. 

Fanner, Senaca Co, N. Y, Jan. U, 1843. 

Love fa the key of the human heurt. Once 
get it in, mid you may sonn open the door. — 
Live will use gold, silver, kind words nnd win- 
ning'deeds, aud thus get acce* to the heart 
that was locked against truth aud against God 
. . ♦ ■ « 

A oextlemak praising the generosity of his 
friend observed: — "He spends his money like 
water." Then of course he liquidnU* his 
debts," rejoined a wag. 

Flowers. — Flowers iu all ages have been 
made the representatives of innocence and pu- 
rity. We decorate the bride, and strew her 
path with flowers; we present the nndefiled 
blossoms as a similitude of her beauty and un- 
tainted mind, trusting that her destiny through 
life will be like theirs, grateful and pleasing to 
all. We scatter them over the coffin, tho bier, 
and the earth, when we QonogU our mortal 
blossom- lo tho dust, as emblems of transient 
joy, fading pleasure* withered hopes; yet rest 
insure and certain trust that each indoceea- 
son will be renewed ugain, 

A Hint. — If the girls would spend as much 
time with encyclopedias as they do with 
milliners, they would soon find their heads oa 
attractive as their hats. 



Agents and Friends « in pl« i e n member tluit wo are 
puWUhlng n large extra eJltlou, nnd am therefore furnlnh 
Uici uumlaini of lhl> roluma Ki ull new miliscriben.. Those 
riUpoMHl, and ire hope they number hundr.-.ti nml thou- 
MliiLs can jri-I rorm no* lint* or mxkv addition. (Finely, 
or in DvM, lutU, twenties, fir Upward*,) lo i)...- dread) 
started. Yi't ar.' prepared, Mil- . . r, for tin- "long pull, 
BtronK pull, and pull all loircllirr," which the friend] of tUo 
RDIUL on niving, mid tlmll honor all order* forthc com- 
plete volume uulll our wlillim in exhausted. Hut as wo 
are receiving hundreds of lit. JllbtCrlbonl dally, those ivlio 
vrbb Luck numbers should not delay. We .end from the 
beginning of tlio lolume, unlou otherwise direoUsl. 
tyt'ora variety of pnrUculnra rvlaUvo to lenus, &<•-, 

"10 I'lllllldHrV .N.iIh. II.'! (. ;;. .Villi )l UIIMIIT in. .It 

of tin' .|uo§tionj pro|Kiuud--il bj agenU and other friondl, 
.Wo shall soon publiidi a Hit of buobi (with prices) from 
which those who are, or may become, uutitlud to Premi- 
urns, can uiuko Boloctiona. 

A Few Words to Advertisers. 

Is answer to inquiries and complaints, we are 
constrained to again tlefine our position on the 
subject of advertising — and will do so as briefly 
■ possible. In the first place, wo never intend- 
ed to make the llritAi. an advertising sheet, only 
so far as it was nettially nccis-nry. Frnm the 
first we have refused to publish, at any price, 
any and every thing pertaining to patent medi- 
cines, and other quackery — including deceptive 
advertisements of nil classes. Ju this matter wo 
havo acted consistently, — being governed, vre 
trust, by a principle which neither tire, water nor 
money can eradicate — having often been tender- 
ed pecuniary rewards which would havo proved 
of great temporary advantage, for even the Ru- 
bal has not always been profitable. 

Hut. what wc more particularly wish to say 
now, is this — Wo desire to publish such adver- 
tisements, and such only, as arc brief and appro- 
priate to the objects and character of the Rural. 
Preference is given advertisements particularly 
interesting to Farmers, Horticulturists, Teachers, 
Country Merchants, Ac. — such .is the cards of 
dealers in Agricultural Implements and Ma- 
chinery, — Nurserymen nnd Seedsmen, — Hook- 
sellers, and Publishers of standard, school and 
other valuable works, — Inventors, Manufacturers 
and wholesale dealers in the most useful branch- 
es of business. We want no lengthy notices — 
none exceeding 25 or 3D lines — and shonld pre- 
fer to give no advertisement more than four in- 
sertions. Wo publish this paper for the benefit 
of suliscribcrs ax well as ourselves, — and there- 
fore wish every advertisement to interest the 
reader, as well as pay tho advertiser for his in- 

A word in regard to our terms, and we have 
done. Many seem very obtuse on this point — 
don't see why wc should charge moro than 
" other papers," and so on. Now, tho simple 
reason why we ask more than ordinary papers, 
is becauso the publication of a card in this paper 
is irorth far moro than the difference demanded. 
Tho circulation of the Rural is at least, twenty 
times greater than the average of country papers, 
and more than four times larger than that of the 
Agricultural journals. Those interested can 
compare prices, and figure accordingly. There 
arc other advantages, obvious to tho intelligent 
render, wliich wo need not mention in this con- 
nection — especially as wo have no occasion to 
solicit advertising. In conclusion, those who 
wish to advertise in tho Rt-'it.M. Ni.w-YonKtn 
must make their notices brief and appropriate, 
and accompnny them with the money according 
to our rates, to secure insertion. 

Disastrous Conflagration. 

Our. of the most destructive and di.sastcrous 
conflagrations that ever visited our city, occurred 
on the morning of tho 21st instant The lire 
was discovered about 3 o'clock in the brick block 
corner of Maino and North St. Pnul street, and 
soon swept with devastating rapidity through 
tho fine range of brick buildings known as the 
Blossom block, as far as the Crystal Palace 
block. Here, through the indefatigable oxcr- 
liuiih of tho firemen, aided by rx dead wall which 
separated the blocks, and a lire-proof roof upon 
the latter building, tho conflagration was finally 
in i. d ; wliich, destructive as it now is, would 
if it had progressed farther, have devolcd long 
ranges of other buddings, including churches 
and private dwellings, to utter destruction. 

The wind was at the time of the alarm blow- 
ing a perfect gale, and as the souud of the fire 
bell struck upon the drowsy cars of our citixens, 
it told too truly that the devouring dement was 
reveling in nil ils resistless fury. How the fire 
originated is n mystery, and the exact locality is 
undetermined. Watchman Vance was passing 
along St Paul St. about three o'clock in tho 
rooming, nnd detected tho presence of the lire 
by the smell. At this time the Bhoo store of 
BBUIHiniKR it Gravis, as also tho drug store of 
Lyxdk A OsBoiiNK, and the eating saloon boncal li 
the two stores were on fire, which seems to in- 
dicate that it must have originated in tho place 
last named. In the 4th story of this range of 
building was a largo daucing hall, and when the 
tiro ascended to that portion of the building, it 
swept before the wind with tho resistless force 
of an nvalanch. Blinded by tho smoke and 
scorched by tho roaring flames, the bravo tire- 
men were borno back, and it was Providential 
that some of their number did not perish in the 
buddings. Largo flakes of tiro were carried by 
tho force of the wind to tho extreme eastern 
limits of the city, and all the buddings in that 
direction had to be watched to prevent them 
from taking fire. Tho cntiro loss caouot fall 
short of $150,001). 

Tliis disastrous conflagration is au especial 
warning to our citizens. Crowded as ninny of 
our best blocks are with stores, offices) and shops, 
he carelessness of a single individual may result 
in the utter ruin of many others, who cannot 
control his actions, but who must sutler for his 
criminal neglects. Let all men who have at 
slake either thoir own properly or the property 
1 of others, guard it especially against fire ! At 
this inclement season, when many and frequent- 
ly intense fires are necessary to render shops 
and offices comfortable, a double amount of cau- 
tion is called for nt tho hands of all. 

How little did wo imagine while preparing 
for tho ..hi 1. 1- of this paper nn account of the 
Printers' Festival, that it would bo our lot to 
chronicle upon the inside of tho self-same sheet 
an announcement of tho destruction by fire of 
tho noble hall in which that festival was held. 

Our Albany Correspondence. 

Ar.nATT, .Ian. 93, 1S44. 

A verv good week's work has been accom- 
plished by tho Legislature. Tho Canal Bill refer- 
red to in my last, passed tho Senato unanimous- 
ly, nnd in tho House with only one dissenting 
vote. It provides for n special election on the 
third Wednesday of February, and details the 
manner of notices mid for tho canvass of votes. 
Tho Stale Canvassers nrc to moot within 15 days 
of the election, which will make quick work for 
them. As tho vole of tho people wdl iu all 
probability be entirely on tho affirmative .-id., if 
the question, further remarkB nro unnecessary. 
The ballots aro to be of the following form: 

" For the proposed Amendment in relation to 
tho Canals." 

" Against the proposed Amondnicot in rela- 
tion to the Canals." 

rjlrtus jjjjani graphs. 

Congressional Proceedings. 

Use of Rain Water to Prevent Cholera. 
— Prof. Jonx Lea. of Cincinnati, writes to the 
New York Commercial, stating as a verified fact 
which will stand tho test of the strictest investi- 
gation nnd eventually obtain universal credence, 
that rnin-wntcr, used for drinking, instead of 
tho bard mineral water of wells, acts as a prophy- 
lactic (or preventative) in cases of cholera. He 
says: — "The calcareo-magnesiun properties of 
the water unite with the miasma of cholera. A 
dinrrha'a ensues, more water is taken, nnd death 
soon closes tho scene. It appears that compara- 
tively fow cholera cases occur on ships coming 
from Bremen. This will bo found to proceed 
from tho pure quality of water furnished at that 
j>orL" Ho says further, thnt " no city exclu- 
sively supplied with rain water, as Charleston, 
or with soft pure water, as Mobile, or district, as 
West Tennessee, suffers from opidemic cholera ; 
and in tho same category may bo ranked all the 
small islands of the West Indies, whero nouo 
other than rain water can be obtained. A very 
small portion of the New England Slates suffer 
by cholera ; primary formations prevail general- 
ly, and tho water is rarely imbued with calcare- 
ous elements." This statement is worthy of no 
little attention. 

■ «> . . 

TnANSAOTioxs of the N. Y. State Au. Society. 
— Wo aro indebted to It. I', .louxsox, Esq., for n 
volume of Transactions of the State Agricultur- 
al Society for 1852. It is somewhat smaller in 
sizo than usual, and contains fewer portraits of 
animals, Ac, yet on the whole, though not what 
wo could wish, it is an improvement on its pre- 
decessors. Tho Agricultural Survey of the 
county of Essex, by W. C.WATamf, is a valuable 
article. Breeding Animals, b/ Sawfobo How- 
ard, wo have read with much pleasure. Tho re- 
ports from tho various County Societies aro; as 
usual, roplotc with interest We will notice at 
greater length in a future number. 

In Senate, Mr. Douglass gave notice that ho 
would move to tako up tho Nebraska bdl on 

Mr. Walker reported a bill for relinquishing 
to Wisconsin tho lands reserved for Salt Springs. 
Nothing of importance was done in tho House. 
Jan. 18. — In the Senate a number of confir- 
mations for Collectors, Pension Agents, Receiv- 
ers, dVc, were made 

Mr. ltcdfiold's nomination has been up, but 
was objected lo by Mr. Benjamin, on the ac- 
count of tho absence of Mr. Leward. Laid over. 
House.— The House this morning adopted the 
resolution to appoint n select committee to con- 
sider n report on Mr. Ewing's Amendment of 
tho Constitution, altering the mode of voting for 
President and Vice President 

Jan. 19.— la the Sexate a resolution of in- 
quiry was adopted as to tho propriety of extend- 
ing the law regulating tho pension of widows of 
Revolutionary soldiers to tho widows of tho sol- 
diers of 1812. 

Mr. Gwin offered a resolution of inquiry as to 
the disposal of the naval forces of tho United 
States at the time the Sonora expedition left 
California, on which a warm debate sprang up. 
In the House tho Committee on Military Af- 
fairs were instructed to inquire into tho expedi- 
ency of constructing a military road from Great 
Salt Lake to California. 
The house adjourned over until Mondny. 
Jan. 23.— Senate.— Mr. Douglas asked leave 
to make a report from the Committee on terri- 
tories. He said the attention of tho committee hnd 
been directed to the fact that tho south bound- 
ary of Ncbrruika as reported in the bill, would 
divide the Cherokee country. To avoid tin*. 
the committee had determined to recommend 39 
as the south boundary. 

Amendments hnd been prepared by the com- 
'"<« '■■■■ in the shnpo of a now Bill. The one bill 
willprovido territorial governments for both Ne- 
braska and Kanzas. ^ Tho committee desire that 
this new biU bo printed — the motion to print 
was agreed to. 

House.— On motion of Bernhisd, the Com. on 
Territories was requested to inquire into the ex- 
pediency of extending tho provisions of tho Ore- 
gon Land Law over Utah. 

On motion of Mr. Benton, the Com. on ag- 
riculture wero instructed to inquire into tho ex- 
pediency of establishing an Agricultural Bureau 
to be connected with the Department of the In- 
terior, and that they report by Bill or otherwise. 
■ . ♦ . . 

The PexnstlvakiA Senate has passed unan- 
imously, the bdl to repeal the charter of the 
Franklin Canal Company. It is on the charter 
of this company that tho railroad is built from 
Eric westward, to tho Ohio State lino. If this 
chnrter is repealed there is an end to the south 
khuro railroad connection. 

Tho two houses go through with their rcgular 
order of business daily, that is to receive peti- 
tions, introduce bills, reports, resolutions, <te, 
etc., which is doing very well for this early day 
of the session. The opposition to tho Maine 
Law, headed in the Assembly by Mr. Dewev. of 
Jefferson County, nro busily engaged in prepar- 
ing a minority report in which they hope lo pre- 
sent a milder plnu of accomplishing tho desired 
end. That report will probably be handed in 
this week, when tho discussion wiU fairly com- 

The Senate havo been considering tho propo- 
sition to increase tho salary of the Canal Audi- 
tor, and to provido for his election by the peo- 
ple. Ho is now appointed by tho Commission- 
ers of the Canal Fund, nnd is simply their clerk. 
But as the duties have become very arduous and 
responsible, it is proposed to elevate it into a 
full department, and make the salary $2,500.— 
The importance of raising his salary seems to 
be generally conceded, but many desire lo keop 
his election from the people, while the progress- 
ive elements in parties desire to bring the 
popular franchise to bear in this ease as in 
of the other officers. Tho debates on thus item 
havo been conducted with some spirit, but those 
who put their trust in tho people will probably 
succeed. Shoidd this mcasuro prevail, it will 
be tho second department organized from clerk- 
ships in the Comptroller's department The 
other is tho Superintendent of the Bank depart- 
ment, which is now a separate office under the 
appointing power of the Governor nnd Senate. 
This may show tiro world how easy it is to 
accomplish an object whero money is to bo 
made by it The Banks have their separate bu- 
reau, and so will tho Canals, for tho moneyed 
men ask it But sec how it is with tho School 
System. The business of this department is 
performed by a singlo deputy under the Secre- 
tary of Slate, and ho is often obliged to wait a 
week to got even the Secretary's signature to 
letters and officiid documents. He has tho su- 
pervision of over 11,000 school districts, and the 
distribution of moro than $1,000,000 annually. 
Yot no separate department has been secured, 
because it is only the Uachert and those interest- 
ed in schools who desire the change. Every 
Secretary of State for some years pasl has urged 
this change upon Ihe Legislature, and the pres- 
ent Governor has joined in tho recommendation 
Teachers, through their Conventions and peri- 
odicals, have prayed for it, but to no purpose- 
There is hope, however, that somo progress will 
be made this winter. If the people would agi- 
tato tho matter, and send on their petitions, the 
object would be immediately secured. 

Tho Mt. Vernon resolutions have been far- 
ther discussed, and the Wooly-heads have had a 
slight tussle with tho Silver Grays on tho amend- 
ment to prevent tho estate from being cultivated 
by slaves, in case the U. S. should purchaso it 
Tho House has also been discussing tho samo 

Resolutions have boon introduced proposing 
testimonials from the Legislature to tho gallant 
Captains of those ships engaged in the rescue Of 
tho passengers and crow of the San Francuco. 
They propose to givo the commanders of those 
three vessels n silver speaking trumpet Tho no- 
ble acts of these menhnvo struck n vein of grati- 
tudo in the American people, and these testimo- 
nials will be but a fecblo expression of tho sen- 
timents of New Yorkers. 

The greatest excitement, prevailed during the 
session of tho Canal Board for the purpose of 
making the Canal appointments. The city was 
filled for several days with hungry npplicnuts. 
But it is now all over. Somo went home rejoic- 
ing and some cursing — as usual. From what I 
can learn, the appointees are worthy men. 

Tho semi-annual examination of tho State 
Normal School will commence soon. The Hon. 
S. S. Randall addresses the Literary Societies 
on Saturday. Of these and others in future. 


ty The New Haven Register says that in 
pulling down a very old house in North Haven, 
belonging to Harvey Stiles, coins were found in 
the crannies, one of" which, n little larger than a 
silver dollar, is of a mixture of metal!-, but looks 
like iron — having a lion (ram pari) for a device, 
and bearing date in 17. A small gold coin, sup- 
poecd to be of tho reign of George First, and 
several old coppers, are among those found. 

•^TThn jail in Gencsco caught fire on Tues- 
day ovening ..f last. week. The fire was so lo- 
cated thnt all attempts to get at it were hatllcd, 
nnd it spread considerably boforc it was check- 
oil. Finally it was extinguished, with n [of • of 
not moro than $300 or $100. Tho prisoners 
were shackled and preparations made for their 

XW Tho Fitchbnrg Sentinel says that during 
tho nuow slorui of Monday, Dec. 20. a flock ol 
robins, some 50 in number, mndo their appear- 
ance, and passed the day in Ihe south part of 
tho town. A much larger flock was observed 
on the samo day in the vicinity of Princeton. 

E5J~Tho number of students in attendance 
upon the lecture at the four Medical Colleges in 
Philadelphia, is between 1,300 and 1,100, viz: 
620 at the Jefferson, about 500 at the University, 
and about 200 at the other two colleges— the 
Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia. 

2)rtus UlrfbitiM. 

Tho Great Western Railroad will l*. 

completed in about n week and opt n for travel. 

Thursday, Aj ril in, bos been appointed 

Fast Day in New Hampshire 

There aro 1,406 physicians in Massachu- 
setts, which is I to every 707 of the inhabitants. 

The population of tho Russian Empire 

is said to be (55,190,598. 

A ship canal from Cayuga lnkc to I,ako 

Ontario is talked of. 

_ The cholera is raging frightfully nt St. 

Thomas. West Indies. 

'There aro five persons now confined in 

the Erie county jail charged will irder. 

A Professor of Chinese has been added 

to tho University of Oxford, England. 

To Editors. — Our warmest thanks nrc due 
nnd tendered to the hundreds of our friends of 
tho press who havo recently commended tho 
Rural New-Yorker, in the most positive nnd 
complimentary terms, to the nttentiou and sup- 
port of their readers. Such a reception as they 
haVO i-iven our now volume is indeed gratifying, 
and sincerely appreciated. Wo shaU endeavor 
to reciprocate such kindness, whenever oppor- 
tunities arc presented. 

— As an instance of tho generosity of the 
press in this direction, tho New York Observer— 
whose ability, influenco and circulation place it 
at tho head of tho Religious nnd Family News- 
papers of tho day — voltailarily publishes our 
Prospectus, and thus remarks editorially : 

Moons'- It'-r ii. N'ew-Yoiueeb commence" a new rear 

with a ncv, I ■- mliful drwos and, as ever, rich in Its' ad- 

drcM. It i* i ' ' f variety, original and select. No paper 
on our 1U1 of exchanges cornea to near our Ideas of porfec- 
tlon, for a secular family paper, aa tho Rural. Iil.i ,.!- 
waja nulQlaiixsl n high moral utandanl. No pmfinr Iri- 
Olng or auccn at rcllgioo,.uo allowed a place, on I la pagea. 

Tho mercantile navy of tho United States 
is at present greater than that of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, and tho tonnage of 
the single city of New York is within n trill.- of 
being equal to that of London and Liverpool put 

£5T"The weather nt St. Louis. Jan. 22.1, was 
very cold and the river bo frozen that teams 
enwwed it with safety. About 200 boats were at 
Cairo, wailing for ihe river to open. A large 
number of emigrants were also there in a desti- 
tute condition. 

J3T The subscriptions in New York, Jnn. 21, 
for ihe San Francisco testimonials amounted tn 
nearly $1 .'1,000. Iu Boston also five thousand 
dollars have boon already subscribed for the 
noble fellows who rescued the San Francisco's 

jy The passenger depot of tho Michigan 
Central' R. R. at Detroit, took lire at 12 o'clock 
on the night of Jan. 23. All tho offices in the 
building wero burnt, but the flames were pre- 
vented from spreading to the freight depot- 
Loss about $5,000. 

•y The preliminary survey for the ship ca- 
nal route, was commenced on the 10th Inst The 
route, as contemplated, will commence on the 
Niagara river at the foot of White's Island, and 
continue to the Eighteen Mde Creek, near Lock- 

^S" Omar Pacha, tho Turkish commander of 
lie iket destroyed by tho Russians at Sinope, 
was found lying on Ihe deck of his frigate with 
his leg broken, and his head terribly wounded. 
He is now a prisoner in the arsenal nt Scbastapol. 

Z£~ Gov. Ligon was inaugurated at Annapo- 
lis, Jan. 11. Iu bis Iuaugural Address, which 
is short, be takes ground in favor of the Public 
School system, and iu other roforms of tho now 

jy A Proposition has been started in New 
York, to niter the mode now adopted by physi- 
cians in making their charges. It is that (hoy 
abandon the credit system entirely, and require 
paymont for each visit at the time it is made. 

t%~ Two hundred and thirty-six and a half 
miles of Crotou pipes underlie tho dirty pave- 
ments of Nvw I ork, carrying through all the 
crowded streets and reeking gutters a ceaseless 
tide of pure, health-giving water. 

gyrhe District Court of the United States 
has granted nn injunction to restrain tho con- 
struction of a bridge across tho Mississippi at 
Rock Island. This injunction will, in aU prob- 
ability, be rendered perpetual. 

»y Gov. Ujhnxy, from his Western home, has 
recently declared his readiness and that of his 
son, to place themselves at tho disposition of 
Kossuth, nt any time wheu their services may 
bo required. 

ty Gov. Clifford, of Massachusetts, was a 
poor boy". The daughter of a millionaire re- 
jected his suit when a youug man, und lived to 
sec him Governor at tho age of 12. Ho is ouo 
of tho most accomplished men of these times. 

^IfTTho whole, number of accidents of all 
kinds, to steamboats, during tho year, was only 
31. There were only 819 killed nnd 150 wound- 
ed — an amount much smaller than in preceding 

J^~Tho nwards of tho juries at the Crystal 
Palace aro announced. Tho whole number of 
silver medals awarded is 115; of bronze. 1,186. 
The number of exhibitors who rccci\cd honor- 
able mention is 1,210. 

".yTho bdl to repeal tho Rhode Island 
Liquor Law nnd substitute a license, with no 
liquor to be drunk on the premises, was laid ou 
the table iu the Senate Jnu. 20th by a te->t vote 
of 17 to 9. 


The MilleritCS are about to slnrt a paper 

Lowell, Mass., called Ihe " World'* Critu." 

A clergyman in Cleveland, in his sermon, 
recently remarked that property was as well 
protected in Honolulu as in the cities of Buffalo 
and Cleveland, and much better than at home 
points between the two cities! 

^y The timber seized since July 1st on the 
Wisconsin nnd Chippewa rivers, as having been 
feloniously cut on government land, amounts to 
sixty millions of loot, and is valued at from 
$250,000 to $500,000. 

£gP Considerable excitement attended the 
departure of the Baltic, owing to the rumor that 
I'.i'.lini, the Pope's Nuncio, was going out in 
her. Several thousand were on tho dock, but 
nothing was heard of the Nuncio. 

Cy It is reported thnt tho brig Mary Jane, 
bound from Dublin for Now York, with passen- 
gers, has gone ashore near Halifax, and that out 
of 150 souls on board only six were saved. 

jy The Roman Catholio Bishop of Montreal 
has issued n pastoral condemning table moving 
as a practice, if not absolutely sinful, nt least 
dangerous and liablo to lead to abuse. 

■yTho fashionable boots now worn by Pn- 
risiau Indies are mado of morocco, with kid (dps, 
high heels, thick soles, and buttoning up nt tho 
side like gentlemen's. 

Tho New York Times says that ono of 
Uio Mutual Marine Offices, discouraged by the 
recent disasters by tiro and shipwreck, is alwut 
to wind up its affairs. 

A train of forty-tw6 cars came down 
from Columbus, over the Columbus and Xenia 
and Littlo Miami railways on the 5th inst, hav- 
ing on them 2,76 1 hogs. 

Cant Wntkins, the heroic Commander of 

tho San Francisco, is a native of Maryland. 

lien. Armstrong of Ihe Washington Union. 

IS reported to he very ill. 

There aro thirteen papers published in 

Constantinople, six in Smyrna, and oni iu Ah ..- 

£ — M. Alexander Bodisco, the Russian Minis- 
ter, dud at his residence in Georgetown, D. C, 
Jan. 23. 

— Women aro still wanted in Victoria, Aus- 
tralia, as an excess of 55,000 men appears in the 

-Thostcamer Geo. I aw for Aspinwall.and 

■star of the West for Sau Juan, sailed from New 
lork on the 21st 

Nathaniel Blake, Whig Senator from Ar- 

oostook, reached Augusta, Me., by traveling ton 
miles on snow shoes. 

-A baby scarce two months old was re- 
ceived in Louisville tho other day by Adams £ 
Co.'s Express. 

It is said thnt a pendulum, to vibrato 

mice an hour, must be 85 miles longer than the 
diameter of the earth. 

There are three Slates which have no 

debt, viz: Vermont,' Delaware and Florida 

Pennsylvania has the largest debt— $11,512,875. 

•• Knchl'oonv " is the name of a new 

county just formed in Georgia l.v the legislature 
of tho State. 

A DowD-east editor asks his subscribers 

Jo pay up (hat he may play a similar joke upon 
ins creditors. 

Tho Californinns pronounce the "old 

" halves " and ■■ quarters " which they havo re- 
cently made, " inconveniently small. "' 

— A regular passeng;cr train commenced 
running Monday between Niagara Falls and De- 
troit, over the Great Western Railroad. 

A Monument to Franklin is to be erected 

in Boston. The mechanics of lhat city have la- 
ken Ihe preliminary steps, for that purpose. 

The amount of duties collected at tho 

lort of Hamilton, 0. W., during the year end- 
ing January 5tb, 185-1, was £120.000. 

. . : . Tho , 8Iua U pox is prevailing to a con- 
siderable extent m various places iu Massachu- 

——There wero two thousand participants in 
the Railroad Banquet at Detroit, on Tuesday 
evenuig of last week. 

The tJtica papers say the Central R. R 

Company intend erecting in that, city au el, -ant 
station house 1200 feet long. 

A "'"I 1 and woman have been arrested in 

Davenport. 111., for passing counterfeit Sit) bills 
on the Roclmtcr Bank. 

It is estimated that 1.500,0011.000 cgs 

are consumed annually by tho populntionof 
Great Bntoiu— or about 75' to each person. 

—-There has been a revival of religion in 
the Kentucky State Prison, and Rev.T.H Black 
baptized seven prisoners ono Sunday. 

."S — A """"> cemetery has been provided for 
at Sau Francisco, nnd 225 acres of laud purchas- 
ed for that purpose. 

- — The Governor of Louisiana is reported 
to be strongly in favor of the annexation of 

Culia, and urges it in his Mes i c. 

— -Immense icebergs have been fallen in 
Willi, in the Atlantic, lat 1455 n., -Ib.riO w One 
of them towered above the water full 100 feet 

~ — Tno cil >' <>f New Bedford is to be lighted 
with od instead of gas as heretofore, as a matter 
oi economy. 

The New York Central Railrond Com- 
pany have declared a dividend of fivo per cent 
paynblo on the 1st of February. 

On tho 20th of January, n dry goods 

store in Albany, was robbed of silk, 'and vel- 
vets to the value of $5,000 or $rj.llll0. 
. ; A petrified man is attracting the atten- 
tion ol tho curious in Baltimore. It is tho body 
of n man found buried six feet in guano, on the 
Island of Ichaboe. 

The remains of the brnvo Count Pulas- 
ki, who fought so gallantly in behalf of Amer- 
ican liberty, have been discovered at Savannah, 
Ueorgia, alter a long search. 

— — One of the bridges built by tho Nicarau- 
gua Transit Company on the road hading from 
Lako Nicaragua to San Juan del Sud is mado 
entirely of mahogany. 

— - It is said a "fund of $100,000 has been 
nused at V\ ashington, by ihe assiguecs of three 
patont rights, to induce Congress to extend them 
lor seven years longer. 

. Go* Hunt has given tho Genesee CoUcce, 

ntuatcd at Lima, $100 to be applied to the Li- 
brary Fund. Tho Governor is one of the Trust- 
ees of that Inslutition. 

Tho collection of letters written by 

Charles tho First during his imprisomnonl at 
Cnrisbrooke Castle, to Sir Wiliinni Hopkins, havo 
been sold for fifty-one guineas. 

A suit is now on trial against the city of 

Philadelphia, to recover tho value of propertn 
destroyed by fire in cojujequoncc of tin oity 
neglecting to secure the (Ire-plugs from freezing. 

A private letter to a gentleman in Port- 
land, Me., states that during tho late terrible 
Storm a mail-carrier between Ellsworth and 
Machias was devoured by wolves. 

Two Scottish ladies travelling in Austria 

were recently nrrosted by tho police, and nar- 
rowly escaped imprisonment, foi having in thoir 
possession a copy of Punch. 

——The mob at Erie, Jan. 21. hung in effigy 
J. 11. Walker, one of the directors of th. EKo 
and North East road. The effigy was labeled 
" The Fnthcr of the Gauge Law." 

A despatch to the Buffalo papers, from 

Pittsburg, states that Kilpatriok, and other lend- 
ers of the Erie Rioters, have boeu discharged 
from custody, probably upon bail. 




lamp Intelligent.. 

California stilus. 

Arrival of the Niagara. 

Halifax, Jan. 23.— The Royal Mail Steamship 
Niagara. Cant. Lciloh, frcim Liverpoolj .Ian. 7lh, 
arrived at this port thin A. M., and reports unusu- 
ally heavy weather during her passage which 
has been prolonged !•• sixteen days. She will 
bo it Boston on Wednesday noon. 

Great Britain, Helginni and France have been 
visited with the heaviest snow GtcriD experienced 
for several years 

Tho Collins Slenmslnp Atlantic, from New 
York, Saturday, Die. ilth, arrived at Liverpool 
at 2 P. M.,Jnn.5fli. 

Tho fscrow Btcaruahip Andes from New York 
Iho. 17th, arrived at Liverpool on Sunday, die 
1st inst. 

Tho intelligence from Constantinople and St. 
Poteraburgb. continues to be a-, coutrndictory ils 
cvor, but the latest rumors are of a character to 
leave, in the estimation of tho public, scarcely 
any hope tlial tho 0*0* will accept tho propogt- 
i on ol the Westcru Powers, oud this view (if tho 
matter is very universally entertained at Con- 
stantinople. As a natural cbnscqae'neo of tho 
greatly increased probabilities of a general Eu- 
ropean war, the English mocks and breadstuff 
markets have been greatly excited, and Consols 
closed, on Friday, at a decline of J 8 per cent, on 
i In- week. 


The l'/ar is indisposed to accept the new note 
<if (ho great powers, but -will bear the pro] osi- 
ii'in- of Turkey for a settlement of (he difficulty. 
He holds the 18800 to be one wholly belonging 
t., Turkey and Kitssia. The Sultan hoattccopt- 
0(1 II, c note Of the allied power-. [{is council 
were not harmonious on the subject, and a pub- 
lic outbreak at Constantinople was soriouslj 
threatened, but matters weresubscqui nily quiet. 
The Sultan continues to insist that tho Princi- 
palities .-hull 1)" evacuated by llussia as a sine 
gua nan to new negotiations. 

I'h,. Limdiui Observer kivh agents arc on tlie 
«vnj to the United States to purchase ships and 
arm-, privately, for Russia. 

Up to Dcc.!&, the allied fleet- had not entered 
the liliick Sen, owing to tempestuous weather. 
The instructions to the uVeLs are, that in the 
event of meeting Russian ships of war, they will 
in the names of their respective governments, 
re, p.. ,-t the Russian officer in command to return 
with his ship or ships to Sobastopol, where ho 
will find further instructions from his govern- 
ment, t'n refusal to comply force will be used. 
Russian statements assort the entry of the 
fleets would be the signal for simultaneous out- 
breaks in India, Algeria, Greece, and a Greek 
insurrection throughout the Turkish Empire. — 
All being already organized by agents of the 

The Trench Government has addressed a cir- 
cular to all its European reporters, in regard to 
the threatened wars. 

The Tunes correspondent reports that when 
required 70,000 Frenchmen will be ready for the 

A report from the War Department states that 
the number of men available for arms in France 
in tho event of a general war is 1,250,0110 for 
land service. 

The l'atria and Bulletin gives arcport that the 
Gear had given onters for immediate prepara- 
tions for crossing the Danube , if Jhis bo true it 
indicates that, the Dear hail rejected the propo- 
siti f the Four Powers. 

In England the utmost indignation has been 
aroused against Prince Albert, who U openlj 
accused of betraying tho secrets of the Ministry 
to the Cxar of K'ussia. 


Tho breadstuff market through Great Britain 
has been more excited than at any previous time 
Mine the great famine in Ireland, and prices had 
largely advanced. 

The advance on flour, for the week, is quoted 
by ionic respectable commercial houses nt 3s 

Iier. bid., and none quote the actual advance at 
ess than :ts. 

Wheat has also advanced almost beyond pro- 
cedl -ft. ranging from lUd. to 1 -Id. per bushel of 
70 lbs. 

The market for Indian corn is less excited than 
the flour market, but prices have bconadvanci d 
since the sailing of the Europo, from lSd. to20d. 
rx r quarter of 430 lbs. 

Tho cotton market continues firm at previous 
quotations, with transactions to the extent of 
about 0,000 boles for the week. 

The provision market continues quiet without 
any material change in prices. 

Arrival of tho Northern tight. 

New Yore, ,Inn.2-lth. — Tbesteaniship North- 
ern Light from Snn.luan arrived here this morn- 
ing With California dat« to tho 3lsl of Dccon - 
her, 313 passengers and $350,000 on frei i 
brought down the Pacific by the Bro, Jonathan, 

The steamer Sierra Nevada with the New 
York passengers of Doc. 5th arrived at San Fran- 
cisco Dec. 3 1 t-i. 

The steamer Oregon left San Francisco on 
the 31st nil. for Panama with 100 passengers 
and §100,000 in gold and the mails. 


In Klamath Volley there is pretty strong feel- 
ing for the formation of a new stale, to reach 
from the Truquo to Cape Mendocino. 

There is boi tcitomont prevailing on the 

subject of land speculation practised under the 
school land warrants, issued by the Slate, and 
memorials will ho addressed to Congress on 
the subject. 

The fnrnicrs are sotting a great deal of wheat, 
especially i" the southern part of tho Slate, 
which now begins t" prosper as a farming coun- 

A singular mortality is raging among birds 
nnd beasts. 

The surveying party sent out by the Railroad 
Convention, who examined the Sierra Nevada, 
at the head of the Stanislaus, have reported that 

,arh.ct Intelligence, ftc. 

Itim ii. Nkw-Youkkb Omen, I 
Rocbwiiert Jan. 25th, 18M. j 

Tmrtit has been annUicr enormous rise In bmulstouV, In 
eonjeqa&uc* of the now. rcconUy brought over by the Ni- 
agara. Hour row at a elnglu jump, in uur market, n dot- 
lira ban i, u d IVTii al Iweoty-Ovi cenUa buibel; w ttiai 
ibo former may now bo quoted nt SO, and tho latter at :-' 
wltii no sale* of any amount at tliat- The renders of the 
KpralwIII recolleclour market rcriortsand remarks Ihoro- 
ou have pointed to such a result. Taking tht greatest 
pains to make our reports reliable, and using all available 
means in our power to mato our statements, conform 10 
facta, il in alt.ays gratifying to observe them lusUined by 
results; farmers may depend upon no pains being spared to 
give trui- quotations. 

Uaea Fork. l.« quoted a dollar p« barrel higher, and pork 
In tho hog is also going at belter prices, selling to-day at 


Bochcster Wholesalo Prices. 

fttblwijer's Hoticcs. 


there is a practicable pass there. Alu tho Paci- 
fic R. K. Surveying parties have arrived. The 
engineers speak highly of the .Southern route, 
ami general opinion in the Stafc was in its favor. 

Lieut Parke has started overland, by the Oi- 
lo, for Washington. 

The exports of gold for the year, as manifest- 
ed in the Custom House, were sLtty-ieven mil- 
lion*, eiqIU hundred and twenty three thorn and. Jive 
hundred and five dollar*. 

Tin: Mim-'s.— The weather has been delightful 
during tho fortnight, except one or two days of 
rain. The minors are very much disappointed, 
there being for Iron) enough water to fill the 
canals, or to permit washing in small gulches.— 
The dry weather, however, has driven the mi- 
ners to work in the banks, which in some places 
have been found to be very productive. 

Loweu California. — We have dates to En 
Sable to the 10th. The accounts received are 
very contradictory. All agree, however, in say- 
ing that the filltbusters were besieged in the 

Adobe House, by about 100 Mexicans and Indi- 
ans, from the 5th to the night of the 14th, when 
there being a cold rain falling, a party of the 
fillibuetcrs, attacked the chilled and drowsy 
besiegers, who fled, leaving arms, horses, a 
brass field piece, and all their camp equipage. — 
The lillibttstera deny having robbed and pillag- 
ed the natives. 

It is expected that companies to reinforce the 
Filibusters are in the course of formation at 
several points in the interior. Reports in circu- 
lation that another vessel is being fitted out, but 
it is doubtful, since public opinion and the press 
arc disposed to consider tho expedition and its 
objects as criminal, not by the letter of the law 
only, but likewise by the spirit. 

. . ♦ i ■ 

Tun M acquis of TunooT has iiFE.t rewarded 
by Louis Napoleon with a higher rank in the 
Legion of Honor, fur his chivalrous conduct in 
the Soulo affair. There is no reason for giving 
credit to tho rumor that Mr. Soule had fought 
unother duel with the Duke of Alba, euding in 
bis own death. 

(!L o m in e r : t a I . 

Front AND lilMIV. 


VVhoat, bu 2,01x40,00 

Com TOaWe 

OaU. 10842c 

Rye. 00QO0 

Barlej KMftSOc 

Buckwheat ou^cs 

Henna. 91 

Mi-am. ' 
Pork, memlibl S1C.00 

Do, ewl G,7o«0,no 

Deof, mesa obi . .10,00©10,50 

Ho cat 4,00,1 i 

Mutton carraCT, 4,1 I I i 

llaous *inuko.l tb OffillO 

Shniildora fi', ,:',,: 


TaHieyi SitOc 

Daiiit, &e. 


. ,i:. 1- 



I.anl, tripd 


Ilo. leaf 




Kegs, dm 


' iii.ll,—. box • . ■ . 

. . . H.'i 

Apple*, l>u»h M 

Do. dried 51,1.1 

PotnlOCJ 37S«bWe 

Hiues AanSKisa. 
aiuigiioi 4 Si 

OaU '-'„ 10c 

s|„. |, pelbi Sli l,i 

Ijimb do 7i'.«01 


Hover, bo $$,:•" '■ ' '< 

Timothy 2,a0oa,S0 

Has l^i 

I rti. 
Wood, hard 4,00 

Ou. .oft -, 

Coal, 1-ehlRh, ton... 

Ho. Scmnloo 8,iS 

[llo».l,urj ",00 

Do. Clior SSJ.10C 


Salt, Mil 81,02 H 

II is. i,ii 601i;l 

Wool, lb as l4Sc 

While O.'h, bill. .RJt,6089,fi0 

Codlish, f quintal .4,50 

Troat,bbl 8,00 


A Dctteskd Toast.— In making up our out- 
side pages, the sentiment given by the foreman 
of the Rboal office at the Franklin Anniversary, 
teas omitted. As it embraces an admonition to 
those who complain of errors of the press— in- 
cluding some of our good friends — we publish 
for the edification of all interested : 

By SaiICRI M. Rayvokd. — Tlic Anlhnr aad 
tht Compositor — If the former be not critically 

exact, in bis compositions, he casts tho bl a lor 

printed errors upon the latter. His hieroglyph- 
ics in English, which none but himself can de- 
cipher, nnd " quod-tracks " in foreign languages. 
Which would scarcely be recognized by the best 
linguist, subject the compositor to unrequited 
mental toil, exhaust his patience, and rob him of 
rime which is to him almost invaluable. Let the 
copy alieays be faultless, and the printed page will 
approximate bo tho author's idea of perfection. 

■ i » ' ■ — 

Railroads. — The Railroad Journal for Jan- 
uary, 1854, states that the aggregate length of 
Railroads in New England is 3^U7J^ miles.— 
New York roads 4-1, aggregate length 2.173 
miles ; l'ennsylvania roads 50, aggregate length 
1,316 miles; Ohio roads 30, aggregate length 
1,757 miles; Indiana 1* mads, aggregate length 
1,208 miles; Michigan roads C, aggregate length 
031 miles; Illinois roads 14, aggregate length 
759 mill B ; Wisconsin 1 road, 80 miles in length ; 
Virginia roods 21, aggregate length 1,077<.. 
miles. In the United States there aro 17.776 
mill s of Hailmad in operation. Tho number "f 
miles complotcd .January 1, 1853, was 13.266; 
January 1, 1852, 10,8-13. 


Aecor-oixo to the foreign inHlll|rcnco brought by the 
NIoRarn which arrived at HullCit on Monday, tho prospects 
of a general European war, are much mora imminent; and 
llriliiui Covurnmnnt securities declined In coruoquenoo in 
the market, one per ccuL on lhi> evo of the Bloomer's de- 
pirturo. The lendoncy of these oti.ii la may bo, Uie turn- 
ing of oltcnUon to American wcarilles, ns thegoverune-nl 
rnwt lllicly to maintain both its credit nnd ibinontrallty. 

Dullion, of on amount scarcely worth mentioning in 
comparison with tho usual immense buxioeiw In transatlun- 
Uc evehanges, baa left our shores during the r.-mt week. — 
Tho Canada, from lloston on tho lEUi, took out but S131,- 
000 in specie, and the llaltic, fiom New York oo Saturday, 
bad but HOO0 on her manifest. Tho feverish excitement 
and bjgb price of brcstbtuOt, and tho pro«|)e«Uvo fiirelgn 
demand ror them, will have a tendency to check Hie Oow 
uf specie obroml. No arri train of gold from California 
since our tut. There haa now intervened a period or aome 
weeks since tho gotd,in stream ceased to How ocrom the 
I-Uimiis. We mnjr look for it to commene* again ere long. 
It appears from a statement matin In the Li-gwlature by 
Mr. Cokklix, a member from Kew York, that the debts of 
that city stand aa follows : 

Amount of City Permanent Debt SIo,(W0,S.'4 

Fund lhbt "<i0.000 

Total City Debt $14,010,866 


SUx-L. held by Comnilasloncr'a of Sinking Fund, J.037.14S 

Balanra acalnst tho city $10,273,708. 

Tho New York Central Railroa.1 Company havo finally 
declared their dividoud from Ibo earnings of Hie past nine 
months. It U 5 per cent, and payable on tho first of Feb- 
ruary. The following la a brief statement of the taurine** 
of Uiis gig&uUc corpoiation. Gross receipts for tho nine 

From passengers «J,410,43S M 

For freight. l.«2.«7 « 

Total receipts SO,"^**! n 

DisbuiKuieoLs including spoc'I eipcndlluroa, 2,0.1J,:..s 28 

Ii, -lirt nine months Interest, at 

8 li'reeiil., OO debtcerUllcatai 

($S,S8S,210) and on debU of 

tho old corapanlra assumed 

under the consolidation agree- 
ment (Sl.Sfll.o-Ja,) In all say 

Sltt,747.0J3 $483,010 49 

Proportion of sinking fund for 9 

montlta to pay debtccrUficalca 

attherateof l'i r< , 'ccnt.,per 

annum H- 98 M 

£1,SS9,M3 81 

600,915 St 

Railboad Dedt. — The shareholders of the 
Buffalo and New York City Railroad met at 
Warsaw a few days since. The cost and condi- 
tion "l the road are as follows :— Capital stock 
paid in $700,000; first mortgage bonds $701).- 
000; lirnt mortgage from Attica to Huffalo $500,- 
000; inconie bonds 4160,000; floating debt about 
41 ^00,01)0; total, 9 1 ! milos $3^60,000. A debt 
ol SJ^itiOeQOO on less than a hundred miles of 
road is running the credit system for building 
railroads into the ground. 

Total receipts for rdno roonUia, of Icr payment* 
as above $1,313,018 &- 

Tho dividend amount* In tho aggregate to $1,100,000, 
thus leaving a surplus undivided of about $200,000 besides 
the sum speclrled above as set apart for Uie sinking fund. 

Oreat attention ha* of lata been paid to Ibo subject of 
ooppar mining in tlw Lake Superior region. Some of the 
eompulea are reaping aipper-harvaU, which are speedily 
converted into gold; and on tho sueccaa of these, many 
speculative companies have sprung Into eilstenr*, some of 
which as an Investment aro, to aay the least of Ihem, prol- 
blcmatleaj. There la no doubl however, that the bake Su- 
perior region la one of tho richest in mineral treasures op- 
en IhecoiiUnent, not con escopUng California. 

p. S.— Since the abovs waa written and in type, the talc- 
graph announces tho arrival of the San Juan steamer 
Northern Light, baring on board $860,000 in gold, nnd al- 
so, that a steamer Is Istluau* bound from Ban Francisco, 
with $400,000 more. 

Ashes— Market firm for pots at 55,77; pearls $0,25. 
Flour— Market for Western Boar belter; batroi Blnta i- 
hardly so Arm, and Is olTered more feely than u'ber ,1. - 
•crlpHoruC Canadian oplel *<■ i '.->■■■■■•< 8 Tor ■ nntnou Ui 
straight S'Jte; $0,12(fiW,26 for niiicl to fancj Mi, his n ltd 
coiniimn to gno.l Ohio; Sbtlo lora-rlvo this mouth S8,87M- 

Kyo Flour— ijuiel, ill 80 '"1 lino. 

Corn Med— llcUer — nlcs at $4.2" for Jersey. 

Gi-.iiu— Prime while lii-n ■■ $2,50 is lid nnd i" declined. 

Wo hear of only rales of roil Long Island about $2,12. 

Oats— hi demand at olii}64c. 

Cnrn— «'''jc better and in demand for nporl. Srjpnly not 
large Sales, 05097c for now Southern white and ,. no ■. 

OSc for now nbilB JarsOj; 08099c for old Weatcni 1 

51 for obi round yellow— on extreme i - 

Pr.,vi«ion«— Fair dsinard for pork, and prices are firmer. 
Sale. S14,f(l (or nee. in " '"' do. prime; $1J.- 

75 for old in,--: 812 | 12,12 lor do. prime 

Ilrcf—I'limo quite slcmlv mid ill tiiir requmC sales at 

I (.„ countrj mew ; SliieU,W for rc-pnclcod Chi- 
cago ; $5a$6,oU f,>r prime. 
Ijnl— lluorant, nt 0K<Q10c- 
RoUer— Firm-sales 12gl4«c for Ohio; State, 10©20c; 

Oraago Co- 20ft28c. .-„«,,„ 

Chcetc-Slcady ami In fair demand, OKQU'-fc. 

FLOonoonUnues In modemlo sale al prices, varying from 

JStoSufnr common State to oxl aOcOi ■■. and Western 

from 88,12 to $H,7S. Buckwheat Flour Is selling in tho 

strict from wagons nt S2,-I7«i2,40 + cwt. 

in Grain there is nothing beyond street loU. Soles live 

it jl.r.'S'^l,13«. Corn is belter and Is selling nt 80.— 

Oats 4O04bc Barley SW(KSc 

Diewed hogsoio in f.iir supply, nnd prices are wilbniil 

material elunee. The dcmaail Is fair. Sales to a fair ev- 

|, ni i, :,ve been raids al 80,2500,60 for fair to good lots, 

and $0,50 for selecled. 


At Washington Drove j'ard— OHered this ilay 0.W Beef 
Cattle; during the week. 1,041. Prices 8 (gi 10c per 
lb, nccordlng to quality. 

Veal Calves 407c. per lb. Sheep $3 to $14. 

Hogs $4,00 Y cut. Ii rta fitiH-'iJie. 

M Browning's— (Lower Bull'. Head)— No Locf calUe, 40 
Co* I nnd Calves, and 8,388 Sheep and ljunbs. 

Cows nnd Calves from $24 In $44. 

8heep from S2,60, 4,fs), 7,40 sJ8; Lambs $2 In 3,40®4,M. 
l'n« Id 10S. 

At Cliiiml-crlnln's — (Hudson River Bulla nead.)— Al 
marliet. 230 Beef Cattle, 40 Cows and Calve*, nnd 0,600 
Sheep and lambs, no Veal Colve*. 

Prices— Beef Cattle ranged at from SiJlOc 

Cows and Calves from $2.), 60®60. 

Sin- pal from SJ,75, 4.(7. IjunK M'^O. 

At 1 1' linen's— (No OSlxOi ibreel)— On s.«le 100 Beef Cat- 
Ue, and 24 Cows and Calves. Beef sold at $7, 7,7wJ10 [*r 
cwt, and the Cows and Cidves nl from 524g40. 

At W. Woolford's Bull's Hasd, Wa-bingtnn street.— Beef 

C.ilile— .'.00 at marsot. Price— F.xlra 87,60 ; firrt quality 

87; 2d do, $O«l)0,6O; M, 85,40. 
Cows and Calves— 12 in market. Prices at from 824, 30 

Sheep nr.d Lambs— 1,115 In market. Prices At from $2,- 
40, 3,o6fM,SO. 

400 in markcL Prices — Store*, $a@3,60; fat 

hogs SdQfl.W. 


At market 743 Cattle— 700 Bl ... r, .-lor,-*- consistliig 
0| Worklog Oxen, Cows nnd Calvos, yearling*, two and 
Ulrce I taxi old. 

Prices— UarVet Beef. — Extra 8S,00rcwt; first quality 
$7,40: 2d, S7,I*W>7,24; 3d do, 80.50; onliuarj 80. 

ilides— 80,40 t cwt. Tallow, S*,Mk..>. 

Pells SI.U7»J1,50. Calf skins 12c T lb. 

Veal Calves— 80, 7®8. 

Barreling Cattle— 8ogfl,60. 

Stores-Working IHen-SW, 107, 114, 125, 130, 142, 167 

"r'o'ivs and Calve*— 830, 32, 85, 3S, 42, 47, 64(871. 
Yearlings — None. 

Two year* old— 822. 20, 28, 30. 33<7.41. 
Three rears old— 438, 44, 47, 60«17«. 
Shwp and Lambs— 2,324 at market. All sold qolri and 


Fri.-en— Exlm 85, 7, 8«12. 

II, lot-83.60, 8,76, 4, 4,'.>0, $,S3X, 4.60«5. 

Swine— Still fat 4Hc, and com led 5c per lb. 


At market 900 Deer Cntlle, 30 Working Oxen, 24 Cows 
and Calves, 2,340 Sheep, nnd 300 Swine. 

Price — Bii'f Cattle; prices admn.-i-l on the l-»t quali- 
ties. Extra S7,76yR,V4; first quahty 57,24«j7,75;i;ddo,SH,- 
1 28; 3d do, S5.oO«*0 50. 

Working Oxen— V en- few. if sales were made. 

Cows and Calves— Sain* $24. 2S 31«.%s. 

Sheep— Sale* quick ; small Inl* $2,76. 3,76, 6,25, fl«8. 

Swino — Small sbont* to peddle, 4c for sows, oud 6o for 
horrors. At retail from 4M6V&. 


Beef Cattle— The number of Beef Cattle olfervsl this week 
amount to 1.000 hen/I, a slight Increase over the number of 
la«t xrt.'l;. Prices of common bt inferior qualities are low- 
er. Sales nt $7 per 100 Iba. About 400 head wero taken 
for New York. 

Cows range from $12 to $30 each. 

Hogs are selling nt «8«0,60 T 100 lh*. 

Sheep and Lamb*— Sales of 1,100 nt $2®3 each, as In 

Canal Election. — The Amendment to our 
Stale Constitution niitliori/.iun the Speedy Cotn- 

Silction of our Unfinished Canals has been per- 
ectcd so far as tho LeRtfilature can do it. nnd 
now only requires the I'eoi'le's Katitictttiou; for 
which purpoee a Special Election will be held 
throughout the State on the third Wednenlay 
( 15th) of next mouth. Let the people be ready 
and sanction tho amendment I 

PaocLAMATioN.— President Pierce has UJsTtcd 
his proclamation against the expedition now be- 
ing lilted out in California and elsewhere in tho 
United States, with a view to the invasion of 
Mexico, and calls upon all good citizens to dis- 
countenance, and by all lnwful means to pre- 
vent, such unlawful and criminal enterprise*. 

»y Cnmius M. Clay, recently th-ovo homo 
from tho Cincinnati cattle market a cow and a 
calf for which he paid $2,300, 

jry To Cakaiiiavs.— At w>- aro obliged to pre-pay the 
American postage on papers -cot to the Brjuali Prorinces, 
ourCanndi:ui agents and friends must add 24 cent* | el cojrj 
la the dob rates "f the,— making tho lowest price 
to I in idlan Bubscribers $1,60 per year. 

CiT" Aor.vT*.— An; person so disposed can act as agent 
for tho RtiRst. Ncw-Youkkr,— and all who remil accord- 
int; lo tonna will be eutllliii lo premiums, ic. 

(T^TiIoni! who are forming clubs, (20 lo 100 
ran send on the names and money of sueli persons as do 
Hot Irish lo wait, and complete Qloir li-ts afterwards. 

w"7jrTiir: nuKat hi published slrlclly upon tho cash 
HYBTF.M — tent no lunger than paid for — and all order) 
should be In nccordance wilh terms. 

[TV Our lotettl club price Is 81,24 for any number or 
roples over 20 — and 81,60 under that number, unless a 
full club of twenty Is obtained. 

fry Iv making up clubs for Iho Bcral, the <V"ool 
Orower and Slock Register can bo added at 35 els. a copy, 
which is Iho lowest elub price. 

fry Is romitUng for dubs, plena* send Bank BilLs or 
Oralis on New York (dsdnetlog Uio exchange,) instead of 
Checks or Certificates of Deposit ou local tanks. 

fry Is wriUng us, please It particular lo giro your P. 

O. addrea* correctly — tho name of your Post OIUco (not 

Town,) Connty, and State. Write all names plainly. 

JjyTnosE Wishing their p.--i*r" changed from one ml- 

loanolher, should give the names of l*»th l'ost Offices 

— tb.- fortntr address, as well as tho one desired. 

f£y >lr. C. Hoimr, Ls duly outhorbvd lo net ns Agent 
fur the IIuiul Nbw-Vorbkk in the couutlira of Chaulau- 
que and Cattaraugus, N. Y, nnd Warren, I'a. 

f^y rorwius who have forwarded 315 for a club of ten, 
cast ■ stand the number to tw>_\ty for 810, but all the 
subscribers must begin at ono dale. 

fry It is not necessary that all members of a club re- 
cclvQ their papoxl nl one post office. Wa send to as many 
.111. . i tut necessary to accoinmodalo the auhecriU rs. 

[y Tub poslivgo on the Ri-iial is but 3!{ eenta per 
quarter, payablo In ail trance, lo sny part of the State — nnd 
I.' . ,t. to any parlnfUiu United SUtes,— eiwpt Uonroe 
Coantyi wheie It goes frc*i 

f^y Psitsove enlilled to ca.ih pr.-ralum% wlU please 
rcttta the same In remitting for clubs — thus making sure 
of the premium, saving ur the trouble of re-mailing. 

{ry AnuiTioVH to dnhs may betnadoatany lime, at 
Uie price |>cr copy paid for the original club. 

Ey KjtrjI numls.TH of tin- Ui'iui, »IU l« forwarddi lo 
all disposed lo aid iu augmenting its circulation. 

fry Au. business letters, couiraunienUons, So, should 
be addressed to II. I). T. aloORE, Rochosler, N. Y. 



New VOLCMB no: 1 i — i i (1 . .i.,nriuiy Number com- 
ntsnci d Iho Twentieth Volume of Ibis old nnd established 
Xlagnrinc. It i* entirely devoted lo IhodilToj/an oriDfbr- 
mailan In overs deuartrxient of Qorlleullare. Itscoi 
embrace :— The v '-e nceol I ullivntlon; Descriptions of new 
Fruits; Pomolorieal Go 01 of New Trees, Shrubs, 

.'.'-: Sol i« ' v Ol N' I lowi i and ! loots; Notes on Gardens 
nil i'u i i i' • : ImprOTi d Mi ' "i Cultnre; Canstru Uon 

of Grsperitaj [Andseape Gard , Rorlei 

Gardening- Genersl Not ■ Porvign NoUces; !>' 
Notices; Itejil Id Qai lions; Iteporli of Uortle Itural 
gocii Ui i ; ifa lehu etli riorllcaltural Society. 

And Iu Dullluito cultivators In their labors, 6 .Von/A/y 
Calendar"/ llorliciill'iral Optratim, git en in del 
adapted to Iho wanls of amateur cultivators, p'miuding 
lb, -in of the routine of nitrations which are necessary to 
I. performed in Uie Prufl Garden, Flower Garden, Orna- 
mental Grounds, Gn <n -house*. Grapery and Kitchen Gar- 
den Ihiough tbe vats in* Mesons of the year. 

In the j "■! nineteen volumes, more than fzi hundred 
drilKinfi' "t the nev.i-,t and unes! Fruits hsveiipj UI *. 

i tin mi iii do other work, Dinl upwards of llftcin 
hundred oilier eiigrnt ings, illuftmting tbe great variety of 
lubjocts I'll' d u| on. 
Tbe Uagasino a puWbhed in montbjy nnmbers, of 48 
. e ich, besldei odverUsenienU, prioMl on Ore paper, 
nnd liandsomo lv|.e, ,nd illu-u-ated with numerous vag, a\- 
TcnxK, $2 a vear In ndranre. Address 
212-11 flOVBY ,v CO,, 7 Men-hanta" flow, llrWon. 

l on -m-v'.— David TnoMia, near Aurora, Cayuga Co., 
N. Y.. wltblug to retire oil aocounl of leehlo be.dtii fn-ou 
the care of his farm, olfersil with all its improvement* Ibr 
sale. It Is iib-a<anilv situated near CftyagaXoke, coiitains 
01 f.-ri 1 1.- land, liss a s|iaclous and comfortable 
dwelling, with a laborer's cottage, and \ inoM- oulbulld. 
i. [lb i lenain orcnard and fruit gardens, 

and a large oma nb&l and kitchen canlen— tbe *bole 

to, mini; a compll Iclj I '■ lied, e,,u,r,irbible, plr.t«ant and 

i residence; and if applied for s*k'0 will be sold 
,t ihe [o i price ol $7/200 ' Mi ' rUrlhei! i irtlcubirs, onplv 
■ IU lo DAVID Tuouak, on Uio prcmlics, or to J. J. 


| MOM >-, l(ai • -Ion. W l.llle 111, -N'. Y. 


I coktiscb to Filter! »« usual, much Imnroved 

In thl lii-id" ll-lii — , for wbbb 1 have obtained "I^-tlers 

p. i " i b< ' '■ oomi Ii te nd • in be sen I to any 

,..-!i,,ii i r coontrv In safthr— no fiuslly living In lime wtc- 
Uonj nfeoonu-j onghl to dJjpenw with their n aa s i what- 
overll taken uito ibe clrcnlatlon, has much lo do with 
health, a.. :« prevcnllvc ol disease. Thoy iiavo b..*!! fully 
by huiuircils of our first class cliirrns, within tho 
n years. I make four sin-, al $.\ Jo, $S and 810 
each. — ibry will hvl from two to tour tears witboutre- 
I j ■ in, . rhlcli can ea Hi be done by any one wlUl proper 
Olrcclions. Orders for Kllteis, or Klghts of Terrllorj will 
bo attended to at once. JOHN KEDZ1B. 

IIOCIli-tlT. I I " I '"' 2l'J-lf 

F0Lj\ND 0AX3-AGA1N. 

For aeed, a v I aopply of the eelohntted Toland oats, at 

Gl |*r bn-ln I, delivered it my r, stdenee, or 8L2* If sent 
bynulroad. Ka.-h Im-Hel to ..,-i .it b-.-ort 40 pounds. 
' Jt .1 I t'l.AIIK. Jh.noii, Wayne Co, N. Y. 

Rare Inducements to Agonts and Others. 

Ah heretofore announced, Uio Fifth Volume of tho 
RonU N'1-.w-Yorxer, for 18.M, will Ik> materially Improved, 
the Proprietor having determined that it sliall In nil re- 
apecUcxc. , l either of its prclecewors, nnd nil contemporary 
Journals. He also offers greater Indue.ments Uinn svor 
before to each and all disposed to act as agents or form 
clubs. The attention of all Interested is respectfully Invi- 
ted In the following list nf ten- liberal 


1. SKVKNTV.KIYR DOLLARS, IK Cssit, to the person 
sending us tbe greatest number of yearly rul*-criliers (..U 
month BUlscrinUona t" be counted pro) orflonalii i to the 
Ki'ku Nkw- Youkck — remitting |iaymont according to our 
clnb terms— previous lo tho 15lh of April, 1b64. 

2. FIFTY DOLLARS, is Casu, to the person sending ua 
Uie second largest number, as above. 

,".. THIRTY DOLLARS, is Cash, to Uie person sending 
us tbe noil (tliinl) qri;.it,-.t number. 

4. TWENTY DOLLARS, in CAtu, lo tho person sending 
ua tho next (fourth) greatest number. 

5. FIFTEEN DOLLARS, is Pi-wit or Books, to the 
person .ending the nest (llltli) greatest number. 

6. TWELVE DOLLARS, is Pun ok Books, to the 
person sending Uie next (sKth) greatest uumher. 

7. TEN DOLLARS) IK Platk ok llooax, to the person 
sending tho next (seventh) greatest nuuili r. 


L* nivler lo reach and rewnrd kvkky who may lend 
a portion of influence in support of the Kokal New- 
YoiiKEti, we offer to Uiose who do not compete for eiUier 
of Uie preceding piiies, the following liberal gratultlea: 

I. FIVE DOLLARS, is Cssu, or a copy of WansTcn'H 
I'-. tniiuiiiKii Diotiokahy, (or 8d in Ag.'l Books,) to fcscn 
I' sending p^iynvent fur /htv or more yearly coj ief 
(six monUi sulncriptionr. proportionally,] rvconUng to ear 
terms, previous lo the 16th, of Apnl, lbW. 

2d. FIVE DOLIwVltS, in Books, or four extra ooples of 
Uie Rukal, to every person remitting payment for muTT 
or tnoro su'.^cribem, as above. 

3d. THREE DOLLARS, In Roots or a hnml-omilv 
bound volume of the BOBAL tor 1S13, to overy person re- 
mitting for TUifcTY subscribers. 

tth. To every one rcmilting for tw-extt oopirs, (826,) 
rre imU give an extra copy of the Rural, nnd four (the 
present and three past) volumes of Tnx Wool Gkowcu 
axd Stock lUolirriia — or, If preferred, an extra copy of 
tho Rural and 81,60 In Books. 

6lh. To every one remitting for tci copies (316,) an ex- 
tra, copv of the RuHAL and three volumes (pas', or prv*ent) 
of the Wool Gkowkk— or, instead of vols. W. G,81 in 


iilb. To every one remitting for six copies (810.) an ex- 
tra eopv ol the Run 11, eiUier volume nl the Wool Orower, 
and a boutid Vol. of Genesee Farmer for IMS or "49. 

71h. To every one remitting for rnntus copies (85,) cither 
volume of tho" Wool Grower, and abound volume of Gen- 
esee Farmer for 1848 or '4'J. 

(lib. To every person remitting for oxk copy (S2.) we 
will give a copy of either volnmu Woo] Grower or Uie Far- 
mer for 184S or '49 ae preferred. 

All competitors for premiums aro expected to adbvre 
strictly to the following 


Tivo DouaBB A Yitan. Three Copies, one year 86 Six 
Copies fur 810— Ten Copies for $16— Twenty Copies for 826, 
and any addiUonal nunib.T al the same rate. Noroeaof 
siil~cribers written on the papers if desired, however large 
the club. Club papers sent lo dillereut oOloes if desired. 

£ jP" Specimen numbers, fcc, furnished free lo all dls- 
po-edlo compete for l'remliima, or who desire to extend 
the circulation of tho New-Yokkku. Subscription money 
properly enclosed, may be mailed al our risk, If addressed 
to D. D. T. MOORE. Rochester, N. Y. 

JOHN FHLN, Conoultirio; Engineer, Draughtsman. 
r (i ni Agent, te,— Rooms 1« lluualo si, Rochester, N. Y. 

RjT For details of Inudncs?, and information on rab'ots, 
s«i circnlar sent free on application. 212-21* 


KoTb I relit 'i"n, that Uie limited Co-parlm i. hip 
line betvocn Iho >ul^rril-.-rs, under the Mnn of 

dram, and Derby, Obtox 6 Uou.1- 

i.vv, Ituii il... -..ill Isi diawlvod and cease on and aflei Ihe 
i,r-i'.!.ii ni February, 1881. And after that dato NORMAX 
C, UiLMCR, "i Auburn, nnd EcotXE Uullioas. of flnflalo. 
caclt, and tto-t qIop, , are nuUionzeil to sign the Damn of 
the Fiiui iu Uio (inuidatiuu of Uio Co-iiajlnenhip iioai- 
ncw , JAIIES •'. DERBY, 


Special Vartnert. General I'arlAtn. 

Dated al Auburu and Ituflulo, Dec 1, 18o3. 

Businesa Announcement 
J. C, DKBDY will cJtshUJh him- If at No. S I'ark riace 
New York, as Fubllibei upon his una accouut, and will 
koepon mlotho Pnblicationa uf Messrs. Phillfris, Sampson 
A: Co, of lb •.■■ii, and Miller, Orlou k Mulllgau, of Allium 
and I'.iiiuio. 

The other minilvrs of Iho Ami, being purchasers of the 
entire lilt of PtUiratiuns, Plaits^ Capurtgkli, Stotk. Ire., 
mil fonn a l.iniited l.'o-partnershlp, ol which due legal llu- 
Uce will be giten, and luullnue the business as Pobll bl ri 
and I,'- ueml Dookscllers, with Increased fsrllltiis, under 
the Arm "I MILLER, 0RT0N k MUUJGAN, 

Dec. 31, 18.'i3. [212-lt] at Auburn and Buffalo. 

CoXTAixisn 3i> acres, 6 of which ore wood land, and 26 
under good cultivation. Good house, barn *nd ont-houl 
— plenty of good fruit and good water, — ooe ol Ibi i ii 
pleasant situations In Uie county. Situated in llarrv, Or- 
leans in.. V Y., rive inilca -mtli-wcst of Albion, and Iwo 
louth ol Uie il. ii ... d. Prie«,$M06— one-half or more ol 
which nn remain unpaid for a term of years. Possession 

, i, . -h.-u di rinst For other panlculara inquire of Uio 

subscril-er on the premises, or by mall, directed to Albion, 


January IS, 1R5L 312-lf 


"BITOATsTI '-', mil'- north of the tillage, on Rant slreel, 
oontalnldg 1-'-' acn -. — a good now dwi iliug lieu--. ■ corn. 
modlous barn nnd nllii r ie •■■•■ arj i Ml-buildings; twoorch- 
ards with grufbad f, alt, and aome 20 acr. s of wood band.— 
I . ■ q i-, under ., good state of cultivation, nalurally 
adapted to tho growth ol wheat. There are 40 acre* ol ai 
... i |o iking wheat as am lie found In Genesee Co, which 
may go with tb- farm. Also, 80 acres well seeded '■> elover, 
prejaratory for wheat) nest SOUOD, and 12 acres or moro, 
plon-eil, and In good condition forspriinr crops. 

One-lblrdor one-half paid down, and Ihe balance may 

ran lo suit the punb-i-er. For further parlicubim, ti'l-e 

encels made to lion. H. C. DlbWe, Batovla illla;^, llet-. 

ill, n -i. . |i . re :u- Ihe premises, and th" autaxaiber. 

on.ji D. C. HOrOP-TON, 

Jan. 14, 186*. Unu, Livingston Co, N. Y. 

For Silk.— I havo three One-Year old Bulls for sain, got 
by my imported Bull Vm Teapot— eolens lloau and Ked. 
Also, a few wir Suffolk Figs, bred from my Imt orted slock. 

'"t^l—* I II .OtllU',,,111 

Auburn, N. Y, Jan. 20, 1R.M. 



Ami JooB-val or Rural Art axo Rural TastbV— The 
Horticulturist Is n Montlily Joumsl, devoted lo Horticul- 
ture snd Us kindred art*, Rural Architecture and Land- 
leap, i, listening, it is edited by P. Barrt; lole Horticul- 
tural Editor of Uie Genesee Farmer, and nulhor of that nop- 
oLar work, " The Fruit Garden." To Uiose who cultivate 
Fruit ond Flowers, Ibis work la indispensable, a* II con- 
tains full directions Air cultivation, as well as evert thing 
new on the subject, either In tlds country or in Europe. 

The Horticulturist is beautifully printed ou the best pa- 
imt. wllb cosily Illustration* on wood and stone. II con- 
tains 4S pages, withool advertlsemcnta, and each number 
1 lis* a fullpage engraving, on stone, of some rare fruit or 
nower.drawn from nauire. h) Uio best living artist In the line. 

Ter'mh.— Two Dollars Per Annum, In Advance. A dis- 
count of Iwentv.ave per cent, allowed to agents. Post- 
masters and other* wo invited to act aa agouls, to whom 
stieelmen number* will be «ent, free of postage, on appljei- 
ration to JAS. VICE. Jr., ftibllsher, Roehesler. N. Y. 

p, s. A new volume oommenoes on Iho ant of January. 

January 1, 18ML 

Itocheslor, N. i , 1864. 


Tnia machine staniht without a succi-ssful rival, as lie 
muieimg machine „f ll.e agt. Ilir Supply will nol l» equal 
10 the •'■ in md. If any person deslrt-. ono for Uie coming 
season, they cannot ineaJl loosoon. Tbe uniform price at 
Ui hi .I. i. 8110,00. All Who will forward us an old 
eompunled with Uio cash or aolhuactory refirenea, maj di - 
pend u|>on Uing CUtlu'ully served wlUi a machine In good 
Boaaon. IL C. WIIIIF. k i o., 
BiiiTalu Ag. Warchoa** and S«*l Store, 11 it 1J Won Sen- 
sea street, llullalo, N. Y. - "tf- 


FOB SAi> Ihnldrn, Baal llaiidrrt, isowssr af<r.*«nl*, 
Farvurt and Mcckeinies. Being * lorrtct uieasur. m Qt ol 
Scantling, Boards, Flank, Cubical Contenta of Square and 
Round fimls'r, Saw lost, Wood, etc, comprised in o nuro- 
i r i v il I. ■ ; to whii-h ar„ added TaUea of W«g<» br tbe 
month, Board or Ib'nt, by Uie Week or Day, and Railroad 
Distance*- Alio Interest Tables, at seven per osuL 

By J. M Scrihner, 
Author or " EDKinisiFs and Mechanic's Companion," En- 
gineer's Pockol Tnblo Hook, etc, etc 

Scarcely is II possihlo to add to the recommeodationa of 
Ibe above book, more than to into Ma title page. Every 
one who is engaged In buying, seUing, mwurin,' or in- 
apecUng I.nmlwr of any kind, will at nnoe appreciate a 
work of tbll Und. Ko f»aios or enpense has been spared 
in revising and enlarging this diti.iu, to make it In everj 
rrsiiecl convenient and Kccurato. 

The l^.g Table was cinnpuli-d by drawing diagrams (or 
eodi md every log, from 12 to 44 lnche. In diamehn-, and 
the width of each board taken, after taking off Iba wane 
edge The sum total nf each board constitutes tbe amount 
cucli log will give, runt if there can be any dspendenca 
placed upon audi strictly mathematical a/*uracy, no ooe 
will hesitate for a moment to abide, the resulta here given, 
as th" method adopted bv the author ran result in nothing 
else than strict honesty and niaUicrnaliea] accuracy, to th* 
parties interested. 

Tho l-«t evidenea of the usefulness and popularity of 
this l«toh U tho rapid and axtsnalTe aale of nearly onl 
hnndrvsl thousand, sliiee Its publication. We do not hrd- 
lalotosaj thai no i—ik of iUsUe and price contains mors 
os-fiil or correct tables. 

In all new and lumber countries the book will !-■ found 
vera- convenient, a* It comprise* much that la useful for ths 
(arrai r, in-lunic, and bnslnnss man. 

Orders ' elicited, and a liberal discount made to wholesale 

PU frice M 26"cta. at retail. 5 copies for on. dollar, sent post- 
ore DrJd, on receipt of the amount _____ _..,,. 

Address GEO. W. FISHER PuhUsher. 


I rtA": for salu, by the pair, vonng Cochin China fowls, 
wxrrsnted genuine, nnd desirable for their symr.r try eroat 
»_e and beaot) of plumage. They are of tbe latewt, lanr.'-t 
.nd )-.t Importations in tho Oniled States. The »-r«»..e 
Cochin Clilnas liave no sup-rlors. tlrenUrs, with a targe 
Illustrative engraving, sent to applicants. Lyons belnK on 
Uie Now York Central Railroad, fowls ran bo f.-rrardcl by 
Fsnresa dailv to all parts of Uie country. Ador***, port 
Evpresa, uaUy, « R( PJ NEY ^ ^^ L - OOJ . N . y. 

[209-1 teow-2-n) 



$ d It 8 I . 

..»-%,• ww. ,•*.*•../-*.'»./**>-*.'>.#•».•».'•.« ' 



I1T II. vr. UI.VOKK1.LOW. 

Brsidk tho ungatliercd rico bo laj, 

lib sickle in 111* Land; 
IIU bnul m lire, liin matted lialr 

Was buried In; 
Aguln, In the mist in J -JiaJoit of sleep, 

Ho saw his natlro Land. 

VTido IbrouKh the landscape, of hb dreams 

Tliolonlli Wgor Bowed; 
Beneath the palm trees on the plain, 

Unco moru a king he strode ; 
And heard the. tinkling caravan*. 

Ocicond the mountain* road. 

Ho law oneo more his dark-eyed queon 

Among hot children "land; 
Tho? duped hl» neck, they klwed lib cheek*, 

They hold him by the hand — 
A tear hurst from the sleeper's lids, 

And fell ujwn the sand. 
And then at a furiou. speed he rode 

Along the Niger** bonk; 
IIU bridle-rein* were golden chains, 

And, with a martial clank. 
At each leap ho could feel hi. scabbard of itcel 

Smiling hb ■lalllon'e flank. 

Before liim, like a blood-red flag, 

Tho bright Bamlngoe* flow; 
From morn till night he followed tholr flight, 

<>'. r plain* where Iho tamarind grew, 
Till ho saw tho roof of Uio Caffro hula, 

And tho ocean row to view. 

At night he board tho lion roar, 

And tho hyena scrcani; 
And the river bono, o» ho crushed the reeds, 

Beside *omo hidden stream ; 
And it pawed, like a gloriou* roll of drams, 

Through the triumph of hi* dream. 

Tho forests with their myriad tongues, 

Shouted of Ubertj ; 
And tho blast of tlio desert cried aloud. 

With i voice no wild and free, 
Till ho started In hb sleep and smiled 

At their loiupcfltuous glee. 

Do did not foel the driver 1 * whip. 

Nor tho burning heat of day; 
Death hod illumined tho Laud of Sloep, 

An^l hi* lifeless body by, 
A worn-out fetter, that the soul 

Ilad brokeu and thrown away. 

" Oan't afford ill Too runny mouths to feed 
— too many bucks to cover. It's a luxury I 
■iin.iiii Like very much to indulge in — no man 
fonder of reading than I am — but I can't af- 
ford it, (dr." 

"It's only three dollars a year. Less than 
sixpence a week." 

" I know. But three dollars a year will buy 
a half barrel of Hour and give my family bread 
for a mouth. It's no use to talk, my friend. — 
1 know exactly my own ability, and know that 
I can't afford to take the magazine." 

And thus Mr. Rivers closed the matter with 
tho persevering canvasser, who was industrious- 
ly trying to add to tho circulation of a highly 
popular magazine. 

•' 1 think you might have taken it, papa," said 
Mary Rivers, greatly disappointed, " I never 
see a magazine or a newspaper, unless I borrow 
fromJaneTompkins,undI know that her father 
grumbles at her whenever he catches her lend- 
ing them." 

" I might do a great many things, child, if I 
was made of money, which I am very sorry to 
say is not tho case,'' returned Mr. Rivers. " If 
I could afford it, I would take all the news- 
papers and magazines in the country; but I 
can't, and so that ends the matter." 

And thus ending it, Mr. Rivers turned away 
from his disappointed daughter, and left the 

Mary Rivers was extremely foud of reading, 
and had time and again begged her father to 
take some of the magazines or papers, but his 
uniform answer was, "I can't afford it;" so she 
was forced to borrow from Jane Tompkins, 
whose father subscribed for half a dozen, and 
thought the money well laid out. To have to 
borrow she thought bad enough, but the worst 
of the matter was, that no sooner did she bring^ 
a newspaper into the house than it was seized 
by one hungry member after nnother, always 
including her father, and its contents devoured 
before she could get a chance to read half a 
dozen lines. The newspaper or magazine, as 
the case might be, never passed through the 
entire family without being considerably worse 
for wear. The papers were soiled, rumpled, 
tho folds torn through, and the magazine sent 
homo often sadly disfigured. All this to Mary 
was very mortifying, and often prevented her 
from asking to borrow ,thc new numbers of a 
magazine, though to use her own words she 
was " dying to see them." 

It was a warm day in July, nnd Mr. Rivers, 
who had about six months before joined the 
temperance society, felt very dry as he walked 
idling the street. Before joining the society he 
would have quenched a similar state of thirst 
with an iced punch, or a mint julep. Now he 
merely stepped into a druggist S and called for 
a glass of mineral water, and paid his up, think- 
ing, if he thought at nil about the expense, that 
it was the merest trifle in UlO world. 

An hour afterwards he indulged in a couple 
of oranges, at four cents apiece, which tempted 
him as he passed a fruit stall. 

" Rivers, said a neighbor, stepping into his 
store after dinner, " It's terrible hot, and as 
there is nothiug doing, I have made up my 
mind to take a little excursion on the river 
in the steamboat that leaves at four o'clock 
this afternoon. Come, go along, won't you? — 
We can get home by tea time. 

"I don't care if I do," replied Rivers; "I 
want a little recreation, badly. 

A thought of the expense, or whether he 
could afford it, never crossed his mind. 

At four he was on board the stcambont, af- 

ter he had spent a shilling for cigars, which 
were shared with his friend. 

" Ooinc, lei us have a glass of lemonade," he 
said, shortly after flicj were on board the 
boat; nnd the two men went to the bar and 
each drank a glass of cool lemonade, for which 
Rivera settled. Shortly after the fare was 
called for. It was only twenty-five cents. 
"Cheap enough," said Rivera 

" Yes, cheap as dirt No wonder the boat 
is crowded." 

Twelve ami a half cents more were spent by 
Rivers for an ice cream, before he returm 'I 
from the excursion, lie could afford all this 
very well. 

On arriving nt the city between seven and 
eight o'clock in the evening, as he hud been 
enjoying himself so well, he ought to take 
something home to his family that was nice- 
While wondering what it could be, he pa^etl 
a fruit shop, in the window of which there was 
a display of oranges. 

" fll lake a dozen oranges home, that will 
do," said he. 

And so he went in and took a dozen of the 
oranges, for which he paid lliirty-seven nnd n 
half cents; and bought besides, a lip's worth 
of tobacco. 

The extra spending of Mr. Rivera, who 
could not afford to take a magazine, was for 
that day just one dollar and twenty cents, or nt 
the rate of three hundred nnd sixty dollars u 
year! Yet Mr. Rivera thought himself an 
economical man, and took merit to himself for 
saving on newspapers nnd magazines. 

On the next day, Mr. Rivers felt Hint he 
needed a little exercise — he was so closely con- 
fined in his store — and as it was dull, he could 
as easily be spared as not. So he hired a horse 
and sulky for a dollar and a half, and took a 
pleasant ride to himself. Previously to his 
riding out he spent u shilling for mineral water; 
during tho ride he paid to gate-keepers, stable 
boys where he had stopped for lemonades, and 
for what he drank andsmoked.just thirty cents- 
Ten cents in cakes for the children, laid out to 
satisfy the rather unpleasant sensation he felt 
nl the idea of having indulged himself in n ride 
while his family remained at home, completed 
this day's extra expense of a man who could not 
afford to take a periodical; the whole amount 
was just two dollars. 

Ou the day succeeding tins, fifty cents were 
spent in little self indulgences, on the next 
twenty-five cents, and on the day after nearly a 
dollar. And so it went on day ufter day, and 
week nfler week, while Mary continued to bor- 
row from Jane Tompkins her magazines, papera 
and books. 

One day, shortly after the new ningnziiie." for 
the month had been announced, Mary called as 
usual upon her friend Jane. On her table lay 
" Godey's" and several other magazines. 

" How much I do cuvy you;" she said " what 
would I not give if my father would take the 
magazines for me as your father does for you ; 
but he always says he cannot afford it" 

Then Mary turned over magazine after mag- 
azine, examining and admiring the beautiful 
engravings. When she was going away she 
said, "Are you done with the Lady's Rook, 

Jane looked slightly confuted as she re- 
plied — 

'• I have read it, Mary, but papa isn't done 
with it" 

"No matter — either Graham or Putnam 
will do." 

" I am sorry, Mary, but I cannot let you have 
either of them," said Jane, while the color rose 
in her face; "the fact is, Mury, to tell you the 
plain truth, papa has objected for a good while 
to my lendiug my magazines and newspapers, 
and now positively forbids my doing so. Rut 
you can come and sec me and read them here. 
1 shall be glad to have you. Rul I need not 
say that — yon know 1 will. I wish papa was 
not so particular; but he is a little curious 
about such things." 

Mary felt hurt not with Jane, but with the 
fuct. She went home feeling very badly. 

" Your friend Miss Rivers, did not get her 
usual supply of reading," said Mr. Tompkins 
to his daughter, shortly nfler Mary had left the 

"No, and I was sorry for her," replied Jnnc. 
"She seemed mortified nnd hurt when I told her 
that I could not lend them; I am sure, papa it 
would not have hurt as at all, nnd it would 
have been such a gratification to her." 

" Let her father subscribe for them, as I do; 
he is just as able." 

" But he thiuks he can't afford it, mid now" — 

"Thinks he can't afford it, indeed!" said Mr. 
Tompkins. " A man who pays two or three 
huudred dollars a year for self indulgences of 
one kind or another, talking about not being 
able to afford newspapers and magazines for his 
family I Why, it costs him more for tobacco 
nnd cigars, than it does mo for periodicals." 

"Still, papa, it is hard for Mary to be de- 
prived of them. It isn't her fault She says 
she often begs him to take them for her, but 
his only reply is that ho can't afford it." 

" If she were the only one concerned, Jnnc, 
she might have them with pleasure, but she is 
not It is plain from the condition in which 
the magazines have come home, thnt they have 
gone through the hands of the whole family. 
That Mr. Rivers indulges in reading at my ex- 
pense, I am very well satisfied, for I have seen 
my periodicals at his store more than once." 

""Yes, that's the worst of it" 

" Besides, Jane, I am not perfectly clear in 
my own mind that it is honest towards the 
publishers to encourage anything of Ihis kind. 
They go to great expense and labor in getting 
tip their works, and certainly give the worth 
of their money to each subscriber. If every 
subscriber lends to his neighbors, who arc per- 
fectly able to subscribe themselves, and who 
would do so if they could not borrow, the pub- 
lishers cannot be sustained, or will receive at 
least, but an inadequate return. For my own 
part, there is scarcely anything thnt I had ^iot 
rather do than borrow a newspaper or periodi- 
cal. I have never beeu guilty ol that mean- 
ness yet, and if I keep my present mind, never 

mortified and really ashamed of herself for hav- 
ing trespassed npon Jane Tompkins for her pe- 
riodicals and newspapers to such an extent as 
to cause her father to interfere. For this fuct 
in the case she was not slow to infer. 

" Mun," .said Mr. Rivers, as he sat thnt cve- 
ning, listless for something to read or do, u ain't. 
some of the magazines ont for this month? — 
Hav'nt you got u Gazette, Post or a Courier, 
from your Dneud, Miss Tompkins?" 
" .%•>, papa," replied Mary. 
"Ilhoughl you wont there, to-day." 
"So I did, bid Jane says her rather lias for- 
bidden her to lend the papera and magazines 
any more." 

" He has!" ejaculated Mr. Rivera, with sur- 
prise and something of indignation. " Why 
was that /" 

" I don't know, but Jane said she couldn't 
let me have them any more." 

"It's very selfish," said Mr. Rivers, "very sel- 
fish ! What harm could your reading the mag- 
azine do him, I wonder! But that's just like 
some people! They cannot bear to see others 
enjoy themselves, and will prevent it if in their 

Mr. Rivera felt rather uncomfortable about 
this refusal on the part of Mr. Tompkins. It 
seemed to him to be nimed at his family. He 
also felt uncomfortable at the thought of los- 
ing his regular weekly and monthly enjoyment 
of rending the newspapers, "free gratis, for 
nothing." In fact, this standing of Mr. Tomp- 
kins upon his reserved rights had an unhappy 
effect upon the whole Rivera' family, from tlie 
father down to little Tommy, who read the 
anecdotes, nnd a story now and then, with as 
high a relish as any of the rest. 

Things remained in this position for two or 
three weeks, when Mr. Rivers became so hun- 
gry for the mental aliment withheld by Mr. 
Tompkins, that he strained a point, even tho' 
he felt that he couldn't afford it, nnd subscribed 
for a maguzine. He brought home a couple 
of numbers with him, and tossing them into 
Mary's lap said: — "There's reading for you, 
Mary, and no thanks to Mr. Tompkiusf 

Mary's eyes and face brightened as she 
caught up the Magazines. 

" 1 lave you subscribed for it, papa?" she 
asked eagerly. 

" Yes, dear, you can rend your own mogn- 
zincs uow." 

"Oh! 1 am so glad," exclaimed Mary, tears 
starting into her eyes. 

Even though he couldn't afford it, Mr. Riv- 
ers felt happy to think that he had made Mary 
so happy. On the next day he thought fre- 
(|iiently of the delightful face of his duughtcr 
when he told her that he had subscribed for 
the magazine. Reforc night he determined to 
give her another agreeable surprise ere the 
week was out. It was Thursday. On the 
next evening when he came home, Mary sprang 
towards him and holding up a newspaper, said, 
while her whole countenance beamed with 
pleasure — " a man left the Gazette here to-day. 
Did you subscribe for it, papa? Vcs, I know 
you did; your face tells me sol" 

" You seem highly delighted about it," M r. 
Rivera said, with an impressible smile. 

"And so I am, I wanted to see Iho Gazette 

Nor was Mary alone in her expression of 
pleasure. The younger sisters and brothers 
were in raptures at the idea of having a Ga- 
zette to read that was all their own; and even 
Mis. Rivers, who was not of a very literary 
turn, remarked, on the occasion, thnt a news- 
paper was " an excellent thing among children," 
and that on her part, she always liked to rend 
a little in them now nnd then, especially in that 
part containing receipts and other domestic 
matters. Not for a long time had Mr. Rivers 
done anything that gave such universal satisfac- 
tion nt home. Even though he couldn't ufford 
it, he was very far from repenting this net of 
extra liberality. 

Many weeks did not pass before nnother 
magazine and nnother newspaper cnrjie to the 
house, mid before six months Mr. Rivera was 
as liberal a patron of periodicals as Mr. Tomp- 
kins, and this although he couldn't afford it. 

A year or two have passed, but notwith- 
standing the heavy additional expense of $20 
per annum for mngnzines nnd newspapers, the 
mercantile community have uot yet been star- 
tled by the announcement of tho failure of Mr. 
Hi vers, nnd we hope never will — at least so 
long as he takes the magazines and newspapers 
and pays for them punctually. 

We would suggest to the readers of the 
Rurai, the propriety of calling the attention 
of their borrowing friends to the preceding 
capital story- It might bo advantageous to 
all parties. — Ens. 

dy rkv. a. l. stoxr. 


Mary Rivera, as has been seen, went home 
feeling very badly. Tho more she thought 
about what had occurred, tho more she folt 

A minister of the " Kirk,' in good old 
Scotland, once discovered his wife fallen asleep 
in the midst of his homily ou the Sabbath. — 
So, pausing in the steady, nnd, possibly, some- 
what monotonous Dow of Lis oratory, he broke 
forth with this personal address, sharp and 
clear, but very deliberate:— 

"Susan I" 

Susan opened her eyes and cars in a twink- 
ling, as did all other dreamers in the house, 
whether asleep or awake. 

" Susan, I dinna marry ye for your wealth, 
sin' ye hno'd none! And I dinna marry ye for 
your beauty, that tho hail congregation can 
see I And if ye hoe no grace, I have mnde but 
asuir bargain!" 

Susan's slumbers were effectually broken up 
for that day. 

One feels sometimes inclined to send sharp 
words or psalm books, or some other persua- 
sive missiles at the head of n church sleeper, 
but is deterred by various considerations. 

We used to think when we began to prench, 
that we wonld defy anybody to go to sleep 
quietly under our pulpit addresses, and made 
now nnd then some very doughty resolves " to 
keep folks awake, if we had to thunder nnd 
lighten for it" Rut we have long since given 
that up. People mny become accustomed to 
thunder and lightning, as the Israelites did, 

lapsing into idolatry at the base of Sinai, when 
il roi-kod under the foot of God. 

There ure diflbrcnt kinds or sleepers in " the 
great congregation.'' There is one man who 
settles himself deliberately to the business, 
"like a day's work," — putting himself, with 
malice aforethought, into posture, his head on 
its wonted support, Ids shoulders gently in- 
clined to the right or the left and "the 
promises" under bis elbow. This is ahnrdened 
case, given over, joined to bis idol, post cure. 

There is another man With whom WC always 
h.r.e a <le op sympathy. He leuds amid his 
secular hnsiiic-' a very active lifi — a life of in- 
cessaut locomotion. He can't -it down any- 
where without feeling the reaction. He comes 
into church with a desire to render wakeful 
worship — to give his most earnest attention to 
the preached truth. But when the sermon is 
fairly under way, and labors a little at the 
foundations of its argument, his drowsiness 
come3 upon him like a strong man armed, lie 
struggles against it with his best manhood. 
fie rubs his eyes. He " blows" his nose. 1 le 
straightens up desperately. But Ins enemy is 
too strong for him. We cannot but be inter- 
ested in his heroic, though fruitless efforts. 
We nro half moved to call out, "My dear 
fellow, it is of no use, you may as well give up 
to il for a little — you have our full and free 
permission to nap it for eight minutes" 

Well, that is nbout all he wants. He rouses 
again ut the expiration of that time, looking 
so refreshed that we arc really glad for him; 
and through the remaiuder of the discourse, 
nobody listens better. 

And here and there we recognize one over- 
come with the soft potency, whom it is rare to 
sec so subdued. And we charitably under- 
stand that he lay awnkc with the toothache 
the night before, or watched by the couch of a 
restless cliild, or sat by the pillow of a sick 
friend. He has our consent to be dull, for a 
spnee, in his comfortable pew. 

It is undeniubly true that whatever the type 
of sleeping, the preacher winces u little under 
its rebuke. Is he somewhat dull himself? Has 
he failed to set forth the truth, whose ideal so 
moved him when he began to write, to the 
clear discernment nnd the quickened sensi- 
bilities of his hearers ? By any personal de- 
fault, has he robbed his message of its interest 
and power ? Must that occasion go for nothing, 
or worse, to any for whom he has thought and 
toiled ? Are they getting tired of his voice 
and his methods ? Is he responsible for that 
lost opportunity ? 

These queries will make him a littlo heavy- 
spirited, perhaps ; perhaps, too, they ought to 
affect him so. 

A clergyman whom we know, once stopped 
in his discourse, as he found his audience 
sinking from his grasp into too silent a hash, 
and frankly said aloud, " My dear hearers, I am 
afraid I do not interest you to-day." And 
another resorted to another expedient. About 
midway of his manuscript he closed it suddenly, 
and gave out n couple of stanzas to be sung by 
the choir, nnd then resumed and concluded 
before n wide-awiike audience. 

It is difficult to know how to contend against 
this intruder in the sanctuary. Something mny 
be done by care as to the temperature of the 
house. Something by a skilful adjustment of 
the light mid shade of the audience chamber. 
Something by variety of tones in elocution. 
Something by a caution as to the length of the 
discourse, by directness of address, by n happy 
use of illustrations in what are likely to be the 
heaviest parts of the discourse, by a soul-felt 
earnest uess in every part, by the solemn presence 
of the Spirit, fervently invoked. 

Something, too, the people might do. By 
care as to the exhausting lubors of the day 
previous — the hour of retiring on Saturday 
night — the quidity nnd qtiuntity of the Sabbath 
dinner ; by cherishing a sense of common 
courtesy and good breeding ; by a diligently 
sought spiritual frame of mind; by an awe- 
breathing consciousness of that Presence into 
which they huvc adventured ; by a remem- 
brance of the dreud day of final account 

There is no infallible specific against dnlncss, 
for preacher or people, but a heurt earnest and 
intent upon the business thnt has gathered 
them in the sacred convocation, nnd so garri- 
soned by the presence and power of the Holy 
Ghost against whatever influence is hostile tc 
the highest spiritual improvement of the place 
and the hour. — 

*...--«"*. X 

fmttlTs Corner. 

" v it. -in pi the end, sitd norei Stand In duuul; 

N'.lliiii;; -t BO Inril, lnit SMTcll will hn'l il Ollt.' 

.*•./•>-*..* •»«-» ,— ,»- „- ■ 


Otsn Printer's Devil has rangM tho Rebus fe- 
ver, anil Offers his situation in our office, lii any 

one of the craft who will decipher the following : 

Answer in two v. ■ ■■:. 


I am composed of 12 letters. 
My 1, 2, G, 5, 2. aro found in tho ocean. 
My 2, 5, 11, 6, 18 a wild nnimal. 
M v 3, 1 1 . 7, 1 , 5, 3, is n weapon. 
My 4, 10, 1, 6, is tho name of tho shrub from 

which indigo is made. 
My 5, 3, 2, 9, signifies long ago. 
My G, 4, 1, 3, is a place of rest. 
My 7, f>, 11, 10 is a song of praise or triumph. 
My 0, 5, 8, 2, is n wild animal 
My f, 5, 12, 7. G. 5, is n building. 
My 10, 11, 1, G, is a very useful article 
My 11, 7, 5, Ls a mischievous animal. 
My 12, 11. 10, 1, 7, G, 5, is a band of poldiers. 

My whole is tho nnrao of a Revolutionary 

ggf Answer next week. 


».*•, ,-»."./-.. '...-./-..* v. 

At the breaking of the ground for the com- 
mencement of the Lynchburg nnd Tennessee 
Railroad at Lynchburg, a clergyman present 
commenced slowly nnd solemnly to read a 
manuscript prayer. At the conclusion, an old 
negro man, who had been resting with one foot 
on his spade, nnd his nrms on the hnndle, look- 
ing intently in the chaplain's face, straightening 
himself np, remarked very audibly, " Well, I 
reckon dnt's de fust time de I^ord has ever been 
written to on de subject of railroads!' 
» ■ ♦ . « 

A man in Wisconsin, who recently inserted 
a long advertisement in the papers, offering his 
farm for sale, closed it in the following sub- 
limely ridiculous style: — "The surrounding 
country is the most beautiful the God of na- 
ture ever made. The scenery is celestial — di- 
vine — also, two wagons to sell, nnd a yoke of 

A little fellow, weeping most pitcously, 
was suddenly interrupted ny some amusing oc- 
currence, lie hushed his cries for a moment: 
there was a struggle between smiles and tears; 
the train of thought was broken. 

"Ma" said he, resuming his snufiloand wish- 
ing to have his cry out, " Mu — ugh! ughl ugh! 
what was I crying about just now?" 

. ■ » . . 

Ariaonk. — " When we are told," says Mr. 
Dorm, in the current number of tho Gentle- 
man's Magazine, " thnt Ariadne, abandoned 
by ThcseiLs was consoled by Bacchus, nothing 
more, I think, is meant, than that the ludy dried 
her tears and took to drinking." 

Aksweii to Illustrated Rebus No. 5.— Sfoorr'i 
paper itUl alicad. Thirty thousand suhicribcrt for 
18 1. 

Tun first four correct answers to above were 
received from S. Sickles, P. P. Strong, K. S. 
Stanley, and E. McClnre — whose names nro en- 
tered on our books for the Rca.iL three months. 

Answer to Poetical Enigma in No. 3. — 3/ort'i 


An lllntlraltd Maga-.iml far Ike Y,—j/. MvHlUf; Pi/If 
Ctnl» d Year, i<.rnn.illv in aJtanrt. K. K. ilr.ii.i.L, 
l^btuhir, Ji*£ala, JV. f. 

Tub Tliinl Vi'lunii.' of tin. lVrviVs Costr/ tommrDen 
will, .(unuiiiv, ls-Vl. Tbr publication l> ' i".. Is w.u- \r< 11 
MtabUftltod in tin- puUIe vnnll'li-uo- mill i ftlimatlon, uml It 
I* our inti'Dlion to iipar* no prills In mak? it nnrOi > Dl In- 
iTtusc-l |>-itroruse anil support. Tin? Csskol Is dovoli-tl lo 
mu- ). .1 [oWrfisu of lh* vouiiir, combining Instruction and 

nt, in a style suited lo tin- rapacilkv- of llio*i- for 

irhnui it is ilmlglH'iL Uwlul know Ic-lgv 1. m-nli* uttmrllve 
liy t-cinK ptcsentcd In a pleasant garb, nnd inorsl K-^on^ 

ureenTorQi *, nol In hard, didactic MD'enec*. b il in Uiofbtm 
of tiles ond slorios, tnwiir.1 whkb th- jroaUifu] mind is li - 
fltlncllvclv ctmun. And the t'ictoiul lllio.niiiionn. which 
nro In prolusion in every number alTonl great i-M In Inter- 
esting nod lixlnir the nltentioD of Itxr young rvailtr, and in 
i 1 1 » I > r. niha Dual '<-• read, upon the uenion. 

Tlie Court is nrinlea on good paper, iinm clesr t i 
and is pnlilished fn monthly numlici* pff Iwnnlj -foul | I 
etch, lUTking ollo^elher. at the do*B of the ycnr, a hafld- 
BonH volume of nearly 300 largo magmlno pagan*. 

Tin* January Dumber, which COmniancCSI tlie volume for 
1*4*4, i. now reaily for m-iilm-.-; it aaotalut a splendid tinltd 
engraviu-f, entillnl, " Gm»g In irAec/," nhl.Ii . ill form a 
bcantffal Frontispiece t f » the volume. 

Ttntu to Cluhj — iDvanably iu odrnncr. — Pcren copies, 
one year, $o" ; l-'ifteeu copies, ono ytar, SO; Tweuty-foor 
copies, one year, $9. 

Auexts W.1-.TEH. — Respectable and rcsponsiblt persons 
wanted, lo can-rasj for niba^bcri for 'Im ' <. bet, In every 
town In the United States and Canada*. To whom n liber- 
al percentne-e -a ill l-o paid. Specimen numU-ra supplied 
gratis. Address, post-paid, 

210-31. K. F. DEADLR, lluffalo, N. V. 


No-.. 11 .<; 1.1 WB3T Sknkoa Struct, Dptfai.o.— Iliran 
C. ir/,\it 4- Co., sucooinsors lo Mason & Lov-ering, niiolo- 
Nite ana retail dealers in all kinds of Agricultural Imple- 
ments and .Machine*, Field, Harden nod Flower Sci-ds; 
Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Surahs and Flowers ; Oriental 
Poultry, fcc. Also. Age-nti for the Ilo^tnn Hotting I Otn- 
liaiiy's Vulc-anacd India rubber goods, Helling, Hose Pad;- 
inc, fcc, ho. 

Orders solicited, nil of which shall rectrice prompt''n- 
lion ftl loa-»Mt nutrkct ratea, and nil articles warranted *.» 
represented. H1KAM C. WIIITK-fcCO- 

lltr.AM C. WniTI. [lMlf.] Astasa tfaiM.1. 


it* l't'DLiftiui) rvuny hatuhdat, 


SCBMRirniyi — $2 a year — Si for t*U months. T» 
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Copies for 92«, and an/ additional nuinlior, directed to 
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Tho Wool Grower and Stock Register b *-» pn */ 

American journal .levnl.d lo tlie WOOL and STOCK OrOW- 
IXQ iMTRRKaTfl. It cutajos a Tost amount of ■«■-/«/ and 
r<liabli In/ormation not .jirrn In any other «ork, nnd 
uliould bo in the hands of Even/ Owner of Damtstu .l*i- 
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Published monthly in octavo form, Illustrated, at 0»t* 
KlKTT Oicrrfl a Yfj.k— 8 copie* for fj; 8 r..r ;;. Vol. 5 
commenced July, 1S&3. Subscriptions can b^rin with the 
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Addrosa D. P. T. ItfJORK. Roch. tor.N.V. 

Non-Sttbsohiiikks into wlm« bawls this number of tho 
Rckal may fall, are requested to give It an exnminatfnn, 
and, If approved, Ihclr aupport. See prtvpualu, Pmmiuai 
Lbt, Ac, on preceding page. 

VOLUME V. NO. 5 } 


{WHOLE NO. 213. 

floorc's $ur»l Itfto-gorkr: 


Agricultural, Literary, and Family Newspaper. 

.•:-M-TI.I< MY 

JOSEPH II ARRIS, in tin. Practical Departments: 
EDWARD WEBSTER, in Iho Literal? and Nowa Drp'to. 

Corrcflpondlnjr Editors : 
J. H. Bixnv,— H. C. Wuitk,— T. K. vVetuooe. 

TnR RonAL Nrw-Yokknk i« d?rJgnrd In bo unique and 
beautiful in appear., ner, and unsurpawi-d in Vaiur, I'uritv 
and Varietj of Content*, lb) conductors carni-Mlv labor 
to nuke ft a Reliabln Guldo on the important Practical 
SubjocU connected with Uio busiucAS of thusu whose In- 
terests it advocates. It embraces more Agricultural, Ilortl- 
eullur.d, Scientific, Mechanical, Literary and News Matter, 
Interspersed with manv appropriate and hanrUonio ongraT- 
Ings, than any othor piper published in till* Country,— 
rendering It a completo Aomcoltuual, Litlrauy and 
Family NBirai-Ai-gn. 

ty For Terus, *c, see last pagb. j£JI 

^■,/*V-'V.-.. • ,' 

Progress and Improvement 

'»./*. /-*_'»./• 


It has been said that " lime Is the basis of 
all good husbandry." Ten years ago, looking 
at the effect of lime and marl in the improve- 
ment of British agriculture, there was much 
force in the assertion. Modern agricultural 
praclicc, the introduction of guano and super- 
phosphate of lime, together with the teachings 
of inductive science, however, have thrown 
much doubt on its truth Certain it is, that in 
England, at leust, the use of lime as a manure 
is on the wane. It is found that the same ben- 
eficial effect can be produced at a much I - 
cost, and, like its Bister system, the summer 
fallowing, it has been, in most instances, super- 
ceded. AVe must not, however, rush to the 
other extreme uud discard the use of lime al- 
together. There arc many soils which arc very 
much and pormiAienlry benefited by uu appli- 
cation of lime, but we have no rule whereby 
wo can arbitrarily decide which they ure. An- 
alysis will not materially assist us. As a gen- 
end rule, peaty, mucky, or low swampy lands are 
most beuefited, but they require a very large 
amount to render the application decidedly 
and permanently beneficial. On such soils, 
three hundred bushels per acre is ultimately 
the most prolitablc quantity to use; and indeed, 
on all soils where liming 13 decidedly beueliciul, 
a large quantity should be applied at once — 
Oyster shell lime from the lineuess of its por- 
ticlc3 has a quicker effect than ordinary lime- 
stone lime, and need not be used in such large 
quantities. It is pluin that liming is an expen- 
sive means of curichiug the soil, and that it 
should only be resorted to where other means 
will not bring about the same result. 

Science did not teach the art of liming. It 
was the result of observation and experience; 
perhups originally, like the use of plaster, of 
accident And it is somewhat remarkable t hut 
science has not yet thrown much satisfactory 
light on the rationale of the process. There 
are many theories, ull of which have some ap- 
pearance of correctness, but which are unfor- 
tunately contradictory. We shall not stop to 
exumine them alL There is probably some 
truth in most of them. The three most prom- 
inent reasons assigned are, first, lime is a con- 
stituent of tdl agricultural plants, and therefore 
lime is beneficial Second, lime by a well 
known chemical process, renders the insoluble 
potash of the soil available to plants, and as 
plants contain a large quantity of potash, it is 
to be presumed that by liming, which is equiv- 
alent to applying potash, we greatly increase 
the crop. Third, lime greatly accelerates the 
decomposition of organic matter, chauging it 
into suitablo food for plants. 

To the first reason we say, that if lime was 
beneficial, merely from supplying an actual 
constituent of the plant, one hundredth part of 
the quantity which experience shows to be 
best, would be amply sufficient; and a. few hun- 
dred pounds of plaster, from its greater solu- 
bility, would bo much better than several tons 
of lime. Lime, however, is very beneficial in 
many cases where plaster has no good effect 
For these two reasons, we think tho benefit of 
liming is not because it supplies lime to the 
plant The second reason assigned is most in- 

genious, and to some extent undoubtedly true. 
Hut we have never seen nny good effect follow 
tho direct' application of potash to wheat bur- 
Icy, turnips, &c, while, if the theory is right, it 
should have given great crops'. We come to 
the conclusion, therefore, that the increase of 
crops derived from liming, is owing, in a great 
degree and in most cases, to the increased 
amount of organic matter, especially of ammo- 
nia, which, by acceleraling decomposition in 
the soil, lime renders, available to the plunls. — 
There are some objections to this view, but on 
the whole, it is the only one which we can, at 
present, reconcile with demonstrated facts res- 
pecting tho value of ummonia to wheat and 
other cereal crops. 

The old English practice of liming, then, is 
one of exhaustion. It increases the crops, not 
because it supplies, like barn-yard manure, Pe- 
ruvian guano, gulphato ammonia, &c, the ele- 
ments which the plants most need, but because 
it renders what already exists in the soil avail- 
able. If these elements were not in the soil, 
lime, in most cases, would do no good. And 
it is found that, when laud has beeu once limed, 
the second application is much less lieiielieial 
than the first Under such circumstances it is 
not to be wondered at, that guided by experi- 
ence and the teachings of true science, the 
quantity of lime used as manure in England, is 
les3 und less every year, while every effort is 
made to increase, by keeping more slock and 
purchasing American oil-cake and other cattle 
foods, the barn-yard manure; nud if more than 
this is required, by buying guano, sulphate of 
ammoma, &c., which of themselves supply 
those elements of which the soil is most defi- 
cient. We do not anticipate, therefore, that 
lime, except in rare cases and for special ob- 
jects, will ever be exteusively used as a manure 
in this country. 

■ • ■ ♦ ■ ■ 


We find in the Maine Farmer of the 15th 
ult, a valuable but lengthy article from "Dai- 
ryman" on the general subject of Butter-ma- 
king— especially of tolling milk nnd churning 
cream in freezing weather. We condense the 
most important suggestions thereof, for the 
beneGt of our readers. 

Helling the Milk. — Experience has taught 
"our dairymen," that milk must be set either 
in a warm place, or a cold one where it will 
freeze, to have tho cream rise quickly and 
freely. If the pans are set in a cool place in 
the winter, the milk will grow bitter before the 
cream rises. Put it when it freezes partially 
or even wholly, and the cream comes up as 
perfectly as in summer. 

To get the cream off of solid ice, let the pan 
stand n while in a warm room, mid it will come 
off cleaner and easier. 

Churning. — Temperature of the Cream. — 
It is said that the cream should be at a tem- 
perature of 55 ° when in the churn, aud this is 
doubtless correct How to get it there, and 
how to know when it is about right, without a 
thermometer, is explained; by the writer before 
us. The cream i3 "ice-cream" perhaps, and 
the manner of thawing it is of some impor- 
tance. Stand it in the comer by the fire over 
night, or the cream. pot may be set in a vessel 
of warm water, or the cream may be put in a 
tin pan, and then placed in a larger pan of 
warm water, until "the cream feels just the 
least bit warm to the end of the finger, or not 
quite milk warm" when it is ready for churning. 

It should be remembered it is one thing to 
thaie frozen cream, aud qnito another to melt 
it \Vlieu cream is heated too hot, there is a 
yellow 6cum on the top of the cream pot 
which is just thesame as melted butter. Melt- 
ed butter can never be butttr again, nor con 
melted cream bo either cream or butter — or 
anything but melted butter, by uny process of 
churning. "Dairyman" explains this as fol- 

"But tor exists in milk in very minute par- 
ticles, diffused throughout the whole moss, and 
by setting in a summer temperature, or in a 
frosty room, these particles rise to tho surface 
and form a coating called cream. The butter 
particles are really little bags or sacks of but- 
ter, or butter oiL The little minute bag is a 
thin film ofcurd, — just the same thing as cheese 
curd, — and this bBg is full of butter. Now, if 

you hent the crenm of these million of little 
butter bacrs (00 hot, they will parch open, just 
Mice parched corn, nnd the yellow oil will run 
011 1, imilving in one ca«e a .scum of inched but- 
ter. The only difference is that the cream is 
not salted, and the butter is So while thaw- 
ing the cream, you must not set it where it will 
melt, and when you put the pot into warm 
water, you must not have hoe water. Have the 
water so that you can hold your hand in it, 
und do not think of driving business, or you 
will have a mess of melted cream to float over 
the butter-milk pot." 

When the milk is "just barely milk warm," 
the churn should bo scalded and the cream put 
in, and then commence churning. The butter 
will come in ten minutes, or perhaps in five, 
but butter that comes in live minutes is not as 
good as that churned double the time- If the 
tiiilU is (00 warm, the butter will be white — if 
a little warmer, it will not come at all — if too 
cool, it will froth up and not come. 

This matter of frothing is not well under- 
stood by most butter-makers. We copy, there- 
fore, "Dairyman's" explanation: 

" If you put the cream into the churn as 
warm as dishwater, it will not come: in this 
case let the churn stand open till the cream 
cools down so as to be the least bit warm to 
your Gnger — then tnc Duller will certainly 
come shortly. But if the cream is cool nud 
not warm at nil, then it will not come. IVhcn 
may you know that it is certainly too cool? 
Namely, just when it f ruths up a great ways 
in the churn. You may churn a week and it 
will only not come, till the more. So stop at 
once, turn it out into the cream pot and warm 
it again, nnd be more careful; for, if it Is just 
a little warm, it certainly will come. Notice. 
It will almost always froth up three or four 
incites, but after churning live or ten minutes, 
the froth looks creamy, aud does not rise any 
higher, then no matter: it will come soon. But 
if a lit'ht, white froth fills the chum, and if, by 
thrusting your finger down through into the 
cream, you find the cream cool and even cold, 
then turn it out — it Is of no use to churn. But 
if there are several inches of froth, and still the 
crenm is really warm, then chum away. If the 
cream is too warm it will not froth at tdl — not 
a bubble; und if, on taking off the cover, it 
steams up well, you had better let the cover be 
off and cool down till ills just barely warm, 
then chum. But if it is so very warm as not 
to froth, and steams bo that you can hardly sec 
down to the cream, it never will come so — it 
must cool down some." 

The object of scalding the chum just before 
putting in the crenm, is to worm it — in summer, 
cold water should be used to cool it Another 
tiling — the churn must not be too full; there 
must be room for the dash to break the cream, 
or the butter cannot be mude. 

Churns and Churn-dashers.—" Dairyman" 
likes the common dasher churn better than any 
other, and a great many butter-makers agree 
with him. If the cream is right, the butter will 
como as soon with one chum as another, nnd 
the simplest is tho best 

It is a fault of most chnrn-dashers, that the 
prongs or wings are wider than necessary or 
usefuL With dash prongs an inch and a htdf 
wide, the work of churning is much lighter 
than with them three inches wide, and the but- 
ter will come quite as soon. 

Working the Butler. — If bolter comes white 
nntl soft it is not mnch matter; the churn should 
stand open until it cools off, and it should 
then be token out, or it may be taken out to 
cool in the tray for a few minutes, nnd then be 
worked and sidled. If cooled too long — so as 
to crumble — put a little milk-warm water to it 
In working over the butter a second time, set 
the butter first in a warm room for three or 

four hours until it softens. — n. 

> ♦ ■ « 

Piaster fob Peas — A correspondent of 
the Country Gentleman, has used plaster for 
15 years on all grain crops, potatoes, &e, and 
thinks ho derived no benefit from it except on 
peas and grass. He applied plaster to one 
ridge of peas and left one without The one 
with plaster exhibited a dark green, thrifty ap- 
pearance, and yielded one bnshel and eighteen 
quarts, while the one, the same size, not plas- 
tered, was pale and unthrifty, and yielded two 
I quarts less than a bushel. 


Oon engraving represents an improved Gang 
Plow, patented by & Vallkau, of 
Scoltsville, in this county. 

The pole has a horizontal motion, with which 
the wheels are ho connected that tho ma- 
machine may be easily turned, the wheel on the 
outride of the circle adjusting perpendicularly 
to the beam — the other at the same lime form- 
ing a pivot on which the plows may turn. The 
wheels can be raised so as to give the plows 
any required depth, or lowered so that they 
can be driven anywhere on the farm. It is 
said that lite wheels keep the plow steady, with- 
out holding, in the roughest ground. The 
draught comes wholly on the beam, consequent- 
ly there is little strain on the pole, so that it 
never galls tho necks of the team, and thus is 
obviated one of tho strongest objections lo the 
use of gang- plows or cultivators. Tho polo 
can be arranged for either two or three horses 
abreast as circumstances require. 

We have seen this implement, and believe 
it will prove far more efficient than the ordina- 
ry gang plows, nnd, in many cases, much pref- 
erable to the common cultivators. The prac- 
tice of preparing land for wheat by one good 
plowing, and then cultivating, harrowing, &c, 
till the soil Is in good tilth for sowing, is found 
to be much better and cheaper thtui the old 
fashioned summer fallow. This gang plow will 
not of course " break up," but it will enable the 
fiirmor, on any but the stiffest clays, to dispense 
with tdl except the one plowing — thns saving 
much labor in the busiest season of the year. 
Six acres is a common day's work, with three 
horses und this gang plow. 

.TosRpn Williams & Co., West Henrietta, 
Monroe Co., N. Y., nre making these plows, 
and they have already sold quite a number in 
Livingston, Monroe, and other of the best 
wheat growing Counties in the State, where 
they arc said to give entire satisfaction. 


A pew calculations relative to the compara- 
tive value of green and seasoned wood for foci, 
may serve to remind those interested of the im- 
portance of attention to tho subject Every 
body knows tlint green wood is poor stuff for 
kindling a fire, though some contend lhat it 
will keep it np as well us seasoned, if applied 
constantly, not suffering the heat to go down. 
That is, if you have n good fire to season it in, 
you can bum green wood as well as thy. But 
to the calculations: 

A green stick of wood weighing 100 lbs., 
when seasoned weighs but 66 tt>s., or such is 
ubont the average of wood commonly used for 
fuel. In the seasoned stick yon have all the 
wood — all that will support combustion — you 
have only got rid of 3-1 lbs. of water. Now, 
water will not burn, and if present in fuel, it 
has to be converted into steam, at thu expense 
of that fnel, and it will take five times as mnch 
heat to make steam of water, as it will simply 
to bring it to the boiling point Hero is seen 
at once, the poor economy of burning green 

We have shown that about one-third of the 
weight of green wood is water — now, how 
many barrels of water arc there in a cord? — 
There are 128 cubic feet in n cord, which allow- 
ing two-fiftlis for vacant space between the 
sticks, leaves 77 solid feet of wood,— one-third 
of which is water — equal to over six barrels of 
water in every cord of green wood. The heat, 
required to evaporate this water, would bring 
thirty barrels to the boiling point And this 
is not the only expense If the wood was cut, 
properly piled and seasoned in tho woods, the 

cost of drawing would be nearly one-third less 
Any way you can look at it — the economy of 
burning green wood i3 more than questionable. 
Every farmer should look at, and determine 
to keep a stock of wood on hand, sufficient to 
last one year, nt least And ho may take an- 
other look at the difference between wood sea- 
soned just enough, and under cover, and that 
which has lain out doors until all the sap-wood 
has become rotten, mid one-half its value beeu 
lost by exposure to.the weather. — a. 

1 ■ ♦ . 1 


Bus. Rural : — In the first number of the 
Rural, present volume, I noticed a statement 
under the heud of " a good crop," which I deem 
worthy of notice; it going so far to show tho 
reward of labor and well directed husbandry, 
us well as to prove the necessity of improve- 
ment in the great business of agriculture. 

Mr. Jnckman therein states lhat he raised on 
uine aud three-fourths acres, four hundred and 
eight bushels of wheat (about 42 bushels per 
acre.) and sold it for 81,50 per bushel; all with 
" a slight manuring, &c" Now I propose to 
show what I have done the last year, and lenvo 
others to decide as it regards " good land," &c 

I had a piece of land containing 13 acres, 
six acres of which had been planted to com 
three years in succession, previous to sowing it 
to wheat, without any manuring. I plowed it 
in the fore part of the summer, cultivated it 
two or three times to kill thistles, and thou 
plowed it once more preparatory to sowing it 
to wheat The remaining 7 acres, I sowed af- 
ter taking off a crop of broom corn; it being 
the fourth crop of the same kind in succession 
without even "a slight manuring" — harvested 
the broom com about the fifth of Sept (1852) 
—cut the stalks, placed them in tho furrow 
and covered them about seven inches deep. I 
then sowed about 26 bushels of white Soulo 
wheat on the whole piece, drugging in the seed 
both ways, and afterwords rolled it with a 
heavy roller. Threshed the crop about tho 
last of August, (1853,) drew it to the mill, aud 
had live hundred and eighty-three bushels aud 
a half good clean wheat besides three or four 
bushels of cleanings; averaging a trifle over 
forty-five bushels per acre; sold it for 81,50 
per bushel. If my friend Jackhan can bout 
this, then I will try again and manure it 

II. B. Surra. 

.Won, Jan. 21, 1854. 


Tuk subscriber has two quarts of seeds of 
tho sweet potato squash for distribution among 
the readers of the Bubal. I will send ten seeds 
in an envelopo to any one writing for them.— 
If they enclose a stamp, it will be used to pre- 
pay tho letter. My compensation will be 
ample in the pleasure of passing round " a good 
article. Last fall they were grown in a potato 
field without extra attention, and weighed from 
10 to 50 lbs We huvc kept them in a cellar 
with potatoes, and they are now as sound as 
when picked, and, if possible, of better quality; 
we have pumpkin pies from them in perfection. 
J. W. Bbigos. 

WmI Maeedon, Wayne Co., N. Y. 

Barns should always bo on the same sido of 
the road as the house, aud buck of it if possi- 
ble. When the bam Is near the highway, and 
on the opposite sido from tho house, tho road 
is frequently filled with implements, Ac, and it 
oiler.-, greater temptation to thioves to loaf 
around and steal than a well enclosed bam 
within sight of or contiguous to tho house. 






Tup. New York StaUi Poultry Society is 
soon lo assemble nt Albnnj foi Ike purpose ol 
n general exhibition of Gnepoultry, «', mpur- 
isons will then be made of the best samples of 
all the important breeds of fowls cultivated in 
the State, and premiums will then and there 
If awarded for the best spei iineus. The !n- 
flnciice for pood of this mooting, on the inter- 
( i i >r such portions of the farmers' stock us 
will come under their notice and examination, 
may be extensive and great While progress 
has been inscribed on every other iutci 
the farmer for years post, the poultry inl n -t. 
groat beyond any estimate thai had bceu form- 
ed of it, has beeu wholly overlooked and u g- 
lectcd, until within a very briof period. 'I'lie 
foreign fowls of recent introduction, have thus 
fur been a decided improvement ou our native 

slock. They have been belter layers, | - 

ing larger si/.c, and are more quia n i »• 1 domes- 
tie in their habits. Among the varieties thus, 
introduced, are probably to bo found all the 
excellences that con exist in the nature of the 
i i ■ Ike ,|, ign oi 'I i ITeel ol u :h exhibition 
therefore, is to disseminate the knowledge of 
this fact, and to excite a general ambition lo 
realize and participate in, the benefits of such 
improvement. 1 1 comes not within Ike prov- 
ince of the judges, to decide the comparative 
value of the different breeds or varieties; bu] 
to de ignatc tke bi st of each variety. To di - 
eide the comparative value of the different 
breeds, must still be left to the experience and 
judgment of individual breeders, and control 
their conduet in relation to them. 

The variety which will be the most promi- 
nent at the exhibition, and which will enlist the 
strongest feeling, ami induce the highest excite- 
iii. ni, will doubtless be the Brahma Pootra. 
They arc generally, if not uniformly, lnrger 
than any other variety. In beauty of form, 
nud productiveness as layers, they arc con - 
cred equal if not superior to any of the Orien- 
tal breeds, uud equal to any in desirable hab- 
its. On account of their extra size, and the 
paucity of their number}), those that are con- 
sidered geuuine and pure have ruled hieli as to 
price. There has been, however, BOffle disa- 
greement among knowing ones, as to what were 
the genuine Brahmas, What are claimed as 
such, arc described as an "Indin fowl, white, 
with black tails, and a slight shading of blnck 
in the neck feathers." (I find no such word as 
neck "hackles" in Webster, or any lexicogra- 
pher to whom I have access.) Their history 
is also cloudy and obscure. No such vague 
pedigree as is claimed for them by the celebra- 
ted breeders, Mr. Cornish and Mr. Hatch, of 
Conn., would be tolerated for a moment, or 
weigh a feather with the Arab, when applied 
lo his blood horse. And that Dr. Bennett, 
who gave them their name, and claims that 
they came from the valley of the Brahma Poo- 
tra, ever imported one from the Bay of Ben- 
gal, I have yet to learn. Their brief history is 
tins: "That three pairs (two dark and one 
light) were brought to New York by some 
unknown Eailor, in one of the India skips/' — 
Being noticed by a Hartford gentleman, "the 
light pair was purchased, taken to Connecticut, 
and the stock with white bodies, and blaek 
tails, and penciled neck feathers, proceeding 
from this pair, are the genuine Brahmas.'' 1 
do not, however, object to the pedigree, ol- 
t hough I think very lightly of it. I only in- 
sist, that the learned judges who are lo offici- 
ate attho exhibition, shall know what is, and 
• what is not a genuine Brahma. And I protest 
totally against the exclusiveness that would re- 
ject as not pure, all that have not proi 
from this Hartford pair. 

Now, I have hefore me a letter from a New- 
York merchant — at present, and for many 
years past, engaged in the India trade — whose 
agent resides in the consular cities of China, 
principally in Shanghai, ujiiI who has received 
fowls from theucc at different limes. It is in 
answer to inquiries in regard to his Oriental 
fowls, and bears date Feb., 1853. He says: — 
"I received, about four or five years since, by 
tho ship 'Montauk,' from Shanghai, five pairs 
'of fowls. They were of different colors; black, 
red, yellow, pheasant colored, ant] while with 
black tails. Some had feathered legs, nnd 
some clean limbs. I have cultivated them 
with great care. Their progeny lias been an 
improvement on the original flock. I have 
sold hundreds of them to the north and to the 
south. To my certain knowledge, some of the 
best fowls ever offered at the Boston exhibi- 
tions, were from my Jlock. Tho whites with 
black tails have always been my favorites. — 
They are known in this market as Chittegongs." 
In a subsequent verbal communication, he says 
lhat the captain of the ship "Montauk" se- 
lected them himself in tho cily of Shanghai, 
and brought them to him ut New York. 

Now it is by no means n far-fetched conjec- 
ture, that a Yankee sailor, seeing the purchase 
of his coptaiu for a friend in New York, should 
think it might bo a good '■ venture" for him- 
self also, to purcliase two or three pairs, and 

that he should succeed in obtaining three pairs 
of similar character; and that to this Bourcc, 
the Hartford stock should be indebted for its 

That the white Chittegong with black tail 
[bathers, i- tho real Brahma, is evident from 
t!i • fa. t, ihai when offered as Chittegongs ul 
Boston exhibition, they were pronounced 
by the judges to bo misnamed, and were de- 
cided by them to be genuine Brahmas, and 
were received as 6uch. 

'I bal the gray Shanghai is also the same, can 
admit of no qui -lion. They are alike in every 
feature, except that the gray Shanghai has, 
gene-rally, a larger admixture of black feathers 
over the body. But 1 have seen from the 
Hartford slock, acknowledged as pure Brah- 
ma , birds as handsomely shaded all over the 
bodj with black feathers, as the dorkt 

Shanghais. Non it uothing is to I i idcr- 

ed a! Brahmas at tho great exhibition of the. 
State Society, excopf the progeny of the Flurt- 
ford pair, bought of the unknown tailor, tho 
value and influence upon tho community, of 
any Buck decision, can be easily imagined. 

It i important to the character and useful- 
ness Of the Stale Society, in regard to their 
decisions, that entire confidence ehould he re- 
posed by the community in their inl 
knowledge und judgment. A superior breed 
of fowls, originating in the hill country, of the 
Chittegong district, or tho adjacent Brahma 
Pootra valley, would no more be confined to 
Ihofo localities thnu would the wind. They 
mast necessarily be scattered eastward through 
Ihe contiguous Chinese territory. And it is 
no more to transfer them from their native val- 
ley to Canton and Shanghai, than from the 
northern lo the southern portions of the Dni- 
ted States. And no more, than to bring the 
kais from the mountains of the north to 
tin' i ity of Shanghai The conclusion, I con- 
sider irresistible, that Dr. Bkrret, in his ho I 
and ardor, has attached the name and reputa- 
tion of tho Brahma fowl, to but a small por- 
tion of those that are equally and justly enti- 
tled to this honor. Hong Koso. 

Monroo County, N. Y„ Jsn, 1854. 


Mr. Editor: — In the Rural of tho 21st, is 
nn article over Ihe signature of " E. S. II.," on 
the cost of raising Indian Corn, in which the 
writer lakes some exceptions to a statement 
inudo by myself, n few weeks since, upon the 
same subject. This arliele calls for a notice 
from me. He says, "ho was surprised at read- 
ing a statement relating to a crop of Indian 
corn, raised by C. K. \V„ at the very low cost 
of yj cents per bushel of ears." In answer to 
bis question concerning the amount of manure 
applied, I would inform him, that it should 
have read 200 loads, instead of 20, as in the 
Rural: perhaps this was my mistake. He 
asks, "Did the manure cost anything, and 
if so, how much? And how much was the 
hauling u orth? What is the use of land worth 
in Lo Boy'/ What is it worth lo market the 
crop'.'"' lie then says : — " If you will answer 
the above and add the cost to the crop, it may 
increase the cost per busheL" 

Now, 1 would inform E. S. II., that the ma- 
nure was all made on the farm, with no expense 
out except a slight one for plater. Does ho 
wish me. to charge for the uiauure? If so, I 
must be informed as lo the value of it, for I 
must confess my ignorance of it. I know there 
is a very general opinion among fanners, that 
a load of manure is a load of manure, no mat- 
ter of what it is composed. But I do not so 
understand it- I believe it is very generally 
admitted, that the chief value of manure con- 
sists in the amount of ammonia it contains, 
and this will depend altogether upon the sub- 
stances of which it is composed. That made 
from stock fed on highly nitrogenous sub- 
stances, such as clover-hay, peas, or oil-cake, 
will be found to contain a far greater amount 
of ammonia than that made from stock fed on 
straw.* Manure from the pig-sty, made from 
hogs fatted on corn und other grain, will be 
much more valuable than that commonly made 
in the barn-yard. Besides, manure applied to 
a soil for the benefit of any crop, is valuable, 
so for as the crop is concerned, only, as it fur- 
nishes to the soil that which was before want- 
ing for the growth of that particular crop. — 
Now if I am right in my position, (and I have 
some very good authority,) I think it would 
trouble my friend somewhat to prize ray 200 
loads of manure, consisting as it did, of various 
qualities. If he would undertake to do tin's, 
he must give the amount of ammonia contained 
in the 200 loads, and tell us what it is worth; 
and also, the nmouut and value of the other 
fertilizers contained in it. There is still an- 
other difficulty, quite as formidable, in charg- 
ing a crop for the manure applied. If any 
charge is made, the amount only should be 
reckoned, which was actually consumed by the 
crop. Certainly not that which remains in 
the soil (br tho benefit of succeeding crops. — 
Now perhaps my friend can tell me just how 
much ray crop of corn consumed of the 200 
loads of manure applied; if so, I really ehould 

•Sw the Berk* of article^ on Run-Yud Manure, In U*t 
rolume of tho i:oui- 

bo interested lo know. "How much was the 
hauling worth?" This question has already 
l" in aufjfii iently answered. 

In preparing a Geld for any crop, the first 
thing to be eon idi n d, should lie,— Is the field 
in a suitable condition for such a crop as is 

proposed to grow nj it? Docs it need 

draining? — are there .tones (hat ought lobe 

re rod, or is manure needed? If so, make 

the necessary preparation, and the general con- 
dition of the field will be sufficiently improved 
to pay all expenses. At a suitable time, com- 
mence i" plow, and charge the crop for all after 
expenses. "What is the use of land worth in 
l. Roy?" la keeping accounts with ero 
myowu benefit, this certainly ought to beeon- 
i li red, ami so it is — but in a statement for 
the public, I see no necessity, or even propriety 
in doing so, inasmuch as the value of laud 
vui es so much in different localities. I can 
sec no danger of misleading any one, where 
each item of expense is separately and plainly 
stated. If any one is omitted, varying accord- 
ing to locality or circumstances, it can very 
supplied by any one. 

Lastly— "What is it worth to market the 
crop? 1 Nothing, at the price I credited. My 
corn and all other coarse grains, find a ready 
market on the farm; for the consumption of 

Stock, I consider it worth the money. 1 have 

posted myself tolerably well upon this point, 

for a few years post, and am satisfied that it 
belter to feed (he coarse grain out on the 
farm, than to sell it I seldom sell any, I con- 
sider it a ruinous business for a farmer to sell 
off all ho raises. A worn-out soil, empty pock- 
ets, and n lone face, will be the certain conse- 
quences of such a practice. By ray statement 
E. S. II. will see that the stalks and pumpkins 
marly pay all expense of the entire crop. He 
,is "surprised" that corn can be grown for the 
low cost of 9J cents per bushel of ears, and 
i . ■ he I. . i lised a first rate crop the past 
season, that cost him more than double thai 
smii." Now I am not personally acquainted 
with E. S. II., but from certain documentary 
accounts in my possession, 1 suppose him to be 
a ircrj niccessful farmer; and as such, I would 
pay all dne respecls, at least my ago demands 
that 1 sliould. But 1 would very respectfully 
suggest, that I think there must be something 
wrong in your management of com. I have 
raised n few crop', but never one that cost me 
whal you say yours did — I could not afford it. 
"Us a little too many oats for a shilling." — 
You mi.-iuiderr.taml me in supposing that I 
follow corn with wheat the same season. I 
would not recommend that practice ordinarily. 

I am very much obliged to Mr. 13. S. II. for 
replying to my article. Perhaps 1 will "toe 
the mark" better in future. Discussions upon 
subjects connected with our calling may be of 
great benefit, if conducted in u friendly manner. 

Loltoj-, .in. . li. C. K. W. 
■ » . . 


machine will yet be used with advantage in 
this country. It was too much to expeel 
that a new machine, against which much prej- 
udice existed, could nl once be brought to per- 
fection, and BO modified a3 to suit the condi- 
tions of our agriculture. 

1 perceive from the Rl rax thai the Ameri- 
can ladies I « how to make good upplc pud- 
dings; bul unfortunately, c^f, sell for one pen- 
ny each, (two cents,) and my wife thinks it is 
cheaper to sell them than to use them to make 
American apple dumplin 

SVqrirultnral BU.HcU.aiin. 


The following extracts from a private letter 
from John Powell, Sb.awb.ury, England, one 
of our English subscribers, will be read with 
interest: — " I have been in regular receipt of 
your papers, and have derived from their peru- 
sal much pleasure and instruction. Separated, 
as we are, by the vast Alluiilic, uud though 
boasting, perhaps, of our superior agriculture, 
I cannot but think that the Rural and Wool 
QrowBB may be read with profit und to the 
enlightenment of thousands of our fashionable, 
dashing gentlemen farmers. 1 believe the ag- 
ricultural community of this country would be 
immensely benefited, did it possess a cheap and 
plentiful rural literature — something after the 
style of your American papers, — instead of the 
expensive and scanty form which now exists in 
this land. Indeed, I expect there is not one 
tanner in fifty who has any knowledge of Ihe 
principles of agriculture, except what he finds 
in i lie political papers, unless he should chance 
lo have the Farmers' Jllmanuc, for which few 
will pay a shilling, when they can get old 
Moor's for two pence. Do not understand 
me as spcakiog disparagingly of English farm- 
ers ; but I must say there is little 'Progress 
and Improvement' amongst them. Scientific 
agriculture is at a great discount, and likely 80 
to be, unless other means than those hitherto 
employed be put into requisition. The wet 
autumn of 1852, and the indifferent harvest of 
1853, have taught our farmers a lesson they 
will not soon forget. They have displayed 
more energy this last fall than usual, and I 
should judge a larger extent of lnnd has been 
sown to wheat. 

A word about American Reapers. ITus- 
sev's machine, as manufactured by Crossbill, 
is most in use. Great were the expectations of 
its value previous to the harvest of 1852. The 
demand for them was tremendous; the makers 
could not supply half their orders. The whole 
agrieidtural population was astir. It is true 
there was much prejudice against, its introduc- 
tion; the laborers generally did not like it, and 
the machine was often, through neglect, broken 
or rendered inefficient. On the whole, the ma- 
cldne is a complete failure, and they may now 
be bought by the dozens for a trifle. Not- 
withstanding all this, I am of opinion thut the 

Tin: present and prospective high and flal- 
tering prices of wheat and other grain . should 
farmers to make proper preparation to 
sow and plant largely tho ensuing spring. — 
Those who do so can scarcely fail of a large 
remuneration — for breadstuffs must continue to 
rule high, at least until after another harvest — 
\ ide from the war or foreign demand, there 
are other reasons (which, though no prophet 
we assigned in the Rural of A»<;. G, 1853,} 
why breadstuffs must command highly remune- 
rative i rici for some Lime to come. Without 
stopping to discus y, our- advici 

to all farmer.-, throughout the country, is to 
prepare lo sow and plant as lorg ly as their 
means ami circumstances will allow. Those 
favorably situated, should sow spring wheat, 
for the crop will prove a profitable investment- 
Other spring crops — such as Indian com, oat.-, 
barley, bean , peas, potatoes, &C — will also pay 
. nnd farmer can iveU afford thi ex- 
pense of proper manuring and good cultivation. 

— I [ere is n semi-official hint « liich n c add to 
our brief suggestion. In a recent letter. Mr. 
S ai ■Mn:i;s, the American Consul at London, 
says: — " finally, our farmers should sow pl( nty 
of spring wheat, and plant any quantity of In- 
dian corn. The Baltic and Black teas will 
certainly bo dosed for at least a twelvemonth. 
Englnud and Western and Southern continen- 
tal lairopo will have to look to the Dnited 
States alone for a supply of breadstuffs, hither- 
to obtained from (hose sens." 


Tin: Second Annual Meeting of the United 
Slates Agricultural Society, will be In Id at 
Washington. I >. Q., on Wednesday, Feb. 22d, 
I It is hoped there will be a full atten- 

dance of delegates from all the agricultural 
Societies in the country, as busiui 3 of impor- 
tance will be transacted, and officers eleoti I 
for the ensuing year. 

« ■ • ■ ■ 
Vermont State Ao. Socikty. — The follow- 
ing is the list of oflicerselccted for the ensuing 
year, at the second annual meeting of this So- 

President — Frederick Holub c. Vice 

Presidents — E. Hahmon, E. B. Chase, J. W, 
CoLiiuRN, II. B. Stacy. Corresponding Set - 
rotary — J. A. Bkckwitii, M iildlebnry. He- 
cording Secretary — Wsi VVkstos, Burlington. 
Auditor — E. P. W alios, Montpeliur. 


Mocii of tho profit.- of rearing cattle depends 
upon the manner of keeping them through the 
winter. If they are siitlored to loSO flesh du 
ring the cold season, and turned out to pasture 
"spring-poor," il lakes a long lime to regain 

what they have lost With the best quality 

of early cut, and well made English hay, with 
regular and judicious feeding, ami comfortable 
quarters, li stock of cattle, from the oldest to 
jjie youngest, may be made to thrive all win- 
ter, to gain size and flesh; and with a small al- 
lowance of meal, potatoes, turnips, or other 
roots, they would do still better. 

Our horses, cattle and sheep, were originally 
constituted to subsist the year round on green 
and succulent food. 

By domestication, they have been gradually 
introduced from a warm, to the cold climate 
of the north, where, us with us, they generally 
have to be fed on dry ".forage for six months, or 
more, every year. This, in some -degree, is 
plucing them in on unnalural condition, and it 
teems to us, it is a strong argument in favor of 
u more extensive root culture among us, for 
feeding purposes. 

Most tanner.- have more or less coarse fod- 
der, such as poor hay, com fodder, straw, Are. 
And many commence feeding their cattle ex- 
clusively on these tho Ut>t part of thi winter, 
or till it is used up, nnd seem to think it is n 
" good riddance of bad rubbish." Cattle and 
sheep, dbubtless; like a change of food as well 
as man, and when kept in good condition, they 
seem to relish a foddering of meadow hay. 
corn-fodder, or straw occasionally; but if fed 
entirely ou such fodder the first half of the 
winter, they lose flesh, and will be apt to come 
out in the spring in poor coudition, in spite of 
English hay. 

Corn-fodder is as nutritious as common stack 
hay, when fed in connection with it, but (o 
compel cattle to live on such fare for weeks to- 
gether, is, as some one has said, "absolutely 
cruel, as it makes their teeth sore when fed for 
a length of time." A better way is, to ) 
cattle one foddering a day ol" corn butts mid 
that at tho last feeding ut night, and ii they 
have a pretty stout allowance given them, they 
will eat it nearly clean before morning — at 
least, what they reject, will hardly pay for 

Sossing through the straw-catter. Cattle, to 
o well, must have drink as well as food; and 
a free use of card and brush add to their good 
looks.— Granite Farmer. 

Inclines aiti. gjatoera. 


NoTicnra in the Rural New Yorker, your 
inquiry, on behalf of a corr poudent, for in- 
formation relative to the mode of growfrio 
sweet potatoes, nud having b en ei iged for 

several years h, their cultivation, 1 fiend y ho 

following directions which are al you,- rervii e. 

Prepare' a hot-bed early in the spring 
the I -I of April, ill which put your ed, bed- 
ded in rich earth of as warraanalureascanbo 
procured. The potatoes may bo laid 
each other, covering the whole snrfac I 

should be covered to the depth of one ortwo in? 
chca When the sprouts are from I to 6 in- 
ches long, and as soon us frosts are over, they 
should be transplanted. To do this, first pre- 
pare your ground, ( a dry sandy loam is \ << , 
by manuring it well with compost thori 
l| " ompo e i. after which make your hills, 
which sliould be about 5 feet apar , bj 
furrowing with n plow until yen hn ed 

them as high as possible; after which, .. 

them up with a hoe. When you ■ e o 

transplanting, which should be done when tho 
ground is very moist, (immediately arte,- oi du- 
ring a rain is the time,) break off the sproals 
close to the potatoes, so as lo get all the root, 
and plan! them down iu the bill, pn ing the 
earth firmly around them. Dress them ofien, 
keeping the soil mellow and free rrom weeds. 
Should the grub molest them (whii h thi ) ere 
likely lo do,) ploce small boxes or stone lubes 
over them until the plant is large enon htoi 
sisl its oltacka Cultivate < li og as] 
with the plow and hoe, without distorbin thi 

To preserve Hie seed during Hie winter is 
tic most difficult matter. The mode \& to 
1 ack them in dry .-and, cut straw, chaff or pin ■ 
leaves, nol allowing the potatoesto touch c , h 
other, place them iii a dry dtuatioq, and keep 
them at a uniform temperature, a mnir the 
free ing point as may he without freezing.— 
Examine them occasionally to see if they are 
■ ""in — fso, they should be taken out and re- 
packed, carefully rejecting those which 

''•• , ' S.T. W. 

CluUxim, Col. (\>., N. v.,, 1S5J. 

Grass seed, btuaw . oxxxb, ic.-I would like 

wer io tho following questions from you 

or your corn pond, al i :r-Wl>BtJs Uw best kind 

r s pasture, for an orchard, and foi a 

t-fiold— eoU . . ivith a hard ib- 

soil ? When i . : ■ ed lie bad, and at what 

Is it g I, ch an seed ? as I wish I 

no other than tlie bead What is the price, itc. 
iU\ V Where can tho heal Btraw cutter be got-, 

n hi • | nti nl, and whal price V— As IxQUlBKB. 

There arc few better straw cutters than the 
" raw-hide,'" if used with care. They can I o 
had at alnii I any seed store, al prices rs 
from $12 to $20, according to si.". AVill 
some of our correspondents give their views ou 
the seed qui rtion? 

Several Questions.— How many solid feet <>f 
hay in the mow will make a Ion? Ho many 
pounds of hay docs a cow require per day to 
keep her in a good condition through the winter 1 
The way for n fanner lo preserve eggs through 
tho summer? How many pounds of carrot fed 
to cattle will equal one- pound of hay t 

1'a.mi.i. Gutovrxo. 

Warsaw, N V. 

Will our readers give their views on tho 
above important questions. — Ens. 

CmjRNTNO BoTTER is.- Wintkk. — Col Wil- 
liam Swett, of South Paris, who carries ou the 
dairy business quite extensively, and who 

ter half has had great experience iu the | - 

fucture of both butter uud, heesc, writes ii thi I 
he finds the following an exi ellcnl mode of caus- 
ing butter to come in winter. 

"Placoabos of Liverpool salt where the 

coti con go and cat whenever they plearo.— 
Then, when the milk is brought into the bouse, 
-iraiu it into a tin pail, set it into a boiler of 
hot water on tho stove, until the milk i- .. Jd: 
ing hot. When we manage in this way, wo 
have no more trouble in retching the butter, or 
working out the butter-milk, than we do iuSep- 

leinbcr, '— .1/,/i'nc Fanmr. 

Acnimi.Ti i;w. Improvi mexts. — Since tho 
days of Sir John Sinclair — Ihe esteemed friend 
and correspondent of Washington, and one of 
the great men of ihe earth— no science has re- 
ceived mow gi neral attention than that of ag- 
riculture. Tiiisui least is particularly truewitn 
respect to Ihe past twenty years, agricultural 
experience of our own country. VVhenwi 
back over thut space of veins, and i onteiuplate 
the many improvements in farming which liavo 
been made, we have great reason to congratu- 
late our mruiers for the spirit, intelligi nee, and 
good sense which they have exhibited. 

Glovbbiko. — Never spare the seed when 
you sow clover. Four quarts are not enough 
to Ihe acre; put on not less than six, and bo 
not frightened if you scatter a neck ! The great 
superiority of thickly sown clover fields over 

' for feed und manure, is too manifest to 

need demonstration. 

Mr. Joim Jonxso.v, near Geneva, writes to 
the Geneva Courier that he has got a Shang- 
hai hen, which for the last three mouths has 
laid two eggs a day, from two to four days ia 
a week, and the rest of the days ono egg a day. 



(Dnhrir anb (ftx&tn* 



Saw pob Plum Tubes. — The application 
of soil around plum trees, Iia.« been found very 

beneticiaj by Dr. Suurtlrpp, a corres] Icnl 

of the .V. E. Farmer. He says: — " for many 
yeai I have salted my plnm frees and bud 
large crops of fruit, but last winter I omitted 
to salt the tn j, excepting three, and tie con- 
sequence was, 1 hud no plums excepting on the 
trees that I sailed." He thinks I lie only sure 
way bo get a crop of plums, is to put about 

four quarts of suit to each tree, in a circli 

foot from the trunk, any time in January or 
rVbnmry, Without regurd to snow being on 
the ground. 

"Quinces love Salt." — It should not be 
forgotten nt ibis season, that "Quinces lovo 
Ball." Two quarts is the proper quantity to 
apply to each tree, and all who wish l"i large, 
fair quinces, Bhould attend to it. It will nut 
do away with the noo Blj for Other manures, 
lint it «ill do what other manures will not 
without it — it will insure productiveness. — 
Such, at least, has heretofore been its uniform 

I'm' i ". Grape Vises. — A present of fine 
from a valued friend, reminds us that 
we oraitte I to Btate, that the curlier in winter 
viue-prunin Ito, th le 3 the liability 

of their bleeding in jpring from the cut sur- 
faces. We should also have remarked Hint 
yonug vines should I"' pruned but sparingly, 
until the rodts rirc well established. The 
: 1 of the root is in proportion to that uf 
ives, and to promote the one we should 
encourage the other. Give the vine a dry, 
rich, and low soil, when yon set it out, and lol 
it grow all the leaves it will for the first two 
years, ahd then yuu may begin to prune and 
train it. 

Names or Soioife — 13c careful to preserve 
the true names of scions when you cut them, 
and the same core should be exercised until 
Uioy come uito bearing. — d. 

■ ■ ♦ ■ « 


Isthk Fruit Market Overstocked? — Not 
by a long shot, we should say, after reading 
Mr. X. P. Morrison's statement in the J\\ E. 
Farmer. For one barrel aud twenty-eight 
apples!, of the Mnbbardston variety, he received 
S 10,08. These apple; were sold by the retailer 
at four to six cents each. -For twenty-six 
bushels of apples he received S60. For one 
hunched and thirty-six barrels, he received $408. 
His fruit 'crop from eight acres of land brought 
him. this barren year, eight hundred and fifty 
dollars, §750 of which was for apples. Good 
fruit tit ill brings good prices. 

I 11. and Cranberries. — Cranberry vines, 
producing fruit of the best quality, sometimes 
grow without culture on uplnnd in New En- 
gland. Pr. SncuTLEFF, of Carver, says that 
while cm in;.' a Held where corn and lye grew 
live years ago, he found cranberries growing 
quite thick; more than a quarter of an acre 
was covered with the vines, und they were 
quite full of fruit in mauy places, of the bust 
kinds. It was on high, sandy land — the fruit 
w.i perfectly sound aud uninjured by frost, and 
much better than on very low meadows. 

" The Didlf.y Apple." — This is a Wiscon- 
sin seedling il received the first prize at the 

Stute Fair of 1852. It is described iu the 
Prairie Farmer us follows: 

The fruit is one of great beauty, being a 
bright rod running in stripes, and sometimes 
scattered in flakes over the surface, with a 
h yellow intervening. The skin i3 of 
little more than average thickness. The size, 
large medium. The stem is shoit and thick — 
the calyx short in a shallow basin. Flesh 
creamy in color, orisp, Bpicy, and a brisk tart, 
showing decided relation.-hip to good English 
fruits, whose flavor is sharper than ours. The 
apple is worthy of further attention; for tho' 
not "I the highest flavor, it may prove an ex- 
eellenl de sialic fruit. 

It is a handsome apple, and we should be 
glad to know more of it — u. 

» ■ ♦ ■ ■ 

Genesee Yallf.v Horticultural Sociktv. 
— The Annual Meeting of ibis Society will be 
held at the Coiu-t House, in Rochester, on 
Saturday. Feb. 4, at 2 o'clock P. M. There 
will be an exhibition of Winter Fruit Ex- 
hibitors should leave their fruit nt the Court 
House, before 12 o'clock, in order that it may 
be properly entered and arrauged. 

. . ♦ — . 


OuowKas" Association.— This is a neat pamphlet, 
of 76 pages, lor which wo arc indebted I" M. '<• 
Dohlap.,.. nn admirable address de- 
livered before the association by J. A. Wioiit, 
and discussions <>u horticultural and pomologicol 
subjects. Wo will give extracts from the pro- 
ceedings as opportunity presents. 

. . ■ ♦ ■ 

Wu are indebted to some kind friend for sev- 
eral of the " ail interim Reports of the Philadel- 
ph ia Horlicullural Society." They contain much 
interesting information on fruit 


The above outline is taken from a very ex- 
cellent seedling Pear, raised by Wn, C. II amp- 
tun, of Hardin Co., Ohio, from seed scut by 
his father, ie.-iiliii'.' in Xcw Jersey. 

Form, quite variable, mostly obovate tur- 
binate. Stalk one inch long, sometime .lightly 
•nnk. Color, brownish red, with yellowish 
In own russet and greenish yellow. Flesh very 
tender, sweet, juicy und melting, of line flavor, 
equal, if not superior to the best variety grown. 
Season, noddle of August. Tree, hardy und 
profusely productive ; the fruit growing iu 
clusters of from three to six. 

The tree is now about 12 years old, and has 
fruited four years, bearing every year; growth 
of the tree rather slow, leaves on very long 

1 ■■ tlks, uf the size of those in the outline, 

the fruit the size of the outline without extra 


Tire following 'extracts from a letter, not 
long since received, in acknowledgment of 
seeds sent, contain such sound sense, with prac- 
tical hints, that it is hardly well they Bhould 
remain bid in a corner; and though they were 
penned without any idea of their being printed, 
I am sure the writer will have no objection, 
when they may do a great many so much good 
through the Rural. t. e. w. 

Speaking of the use of a cold frame he adds 
— " From observation, 1 am led to prefer the 
simple frame, placed upon good garden soil, to 
the hot-bed. Plants so raised, excel, for me, 
ill" matured in the more delicate climate of 
artificial heat. I am not a gardener. Re- 
duced to ill health in a professional employ- 
ment, 1 took refuge on a farm, in rather a se- 
cluded neighborhood, and seeking amusement 
to mix in with employment, 1 have habitually 
read the agricultural and horticultural period- 
icals for a number of years, and now, through 
the influence of Bif.l, Downing, and others, on 
the brink of fifty years, my horticultural egg is 
just cracking the shell, and whether a Shanghai 
or a Bantam is to appear remains to be sceD. 
He tlus as it may, I am delighted with the ef- 
forts making to discover the laws that govern 
vegetable growth. 

"The cold vinery is a beautiful idea. — u con- 
trivance by which man con seize upon n por- 
tion of the rough and freezing elements, rasp 
olf their asperities, and BO tame their disposi- 
tions as lo render them subservient to the 
wauls and pleasures of humanity, thus snatch- 
ing time from vcrual chills und autumuul 
frosts, to enable Black Humburghs, Muscats, 
&c., to compass their maturity. 1 have uo vi- 
nery yet, but everybody should have one. Since 
the birth of Crystul Pulaces, it is hinted that 
glass roofing would be cheaper than shingles, 
with glass at $1,75 per fifty feet. If so, could 
not this be made to answer the double purpose 
of roof for out-building and a vinery in the 
upper story? I am thinking I shall roof a 
wood house with glass and so turn the upper 
pari into a light, warm place for some purpose 
or other. 

Again, the well constructed under drain that, 
while it runs away with the superabundant 
flood, should by its condensing powers, furnish 
the parching plauts with moisture by wringing 
dews from the rarified air, as it steals through 
them, adds another gem to the diadem of mod- 
ern science. Then the feeding of both plants 
and animals the elements that compose them, 
a another discovery that sparkles in the con- 
stellation of modem developments. And the 
beauty of the theory sparkles in the practical 
application. A neighbor excels in raising tur- 
keys. Ho feeds them while young a little boil- 
ed egg daily, and scarcely loses ono. He feeds, 
you perceive, bones, fibrine and feuthers in ev- 
ery mos3. A young colt fed wheat bran, in- 
creases rapidly in frame, because the provender 
Contains a large proportion or bone material. 

The fascinations, however, of the million of 

scientific communications wont close watching. 
The most hideous blunders, colored with suc- 
cess, often assume the honor of a new discov- 
ery, and the horn of plenty is sometimes emp- 
tied in the fanner's barn in spite of his officious 
opposition. Intelligence must winnow the 
mass nnd blow out the chad' from the great 
amount of agricultural news. Experiments, 
deformed With failure, may be profitable as 
fight-houses, to point oul the porta of the coast 
we approach. But errors resulting favorably, 
arc deceptive lights that lead the thoughtless 
into quagmires. 

I have a fiiim of Northern exposure, partly 
level, partly side-hill. I design making it a 
fruit farm. The peach and pear do well thus 
far, therefore I run upon them. My peach 
buds hove not bet u killed in the last 'en years, 
and in that time, trees, within a half mile from 
me, four inches in diameter, have been frozen 
to death. Grape vines I never cover in winter 
and never have had them killed. So I pro- 
cured a pair of self-marking thcrmomctei - and 
have found the cold daring a still night to va- 
ry live de.'ivcs with a diti'.Teiico of elevation 
of about 25 feet. My trees told a like tale 
winter before last Hence I select the most 
elevated und exposed places for the more ten- 
der fruits, and find they are more certain, and 
that they mature later, which suits our market 
best Thee currents and counter-currents of 
air are very interesting, and I mean to look 
more fully into the subject, for I deem it an 
important one. 


To successfully graft the peach tree, has 
been universally considered next to an impos- 
sibility; but iu consequence of the ease andsuc- 
p e of building, this conci --ion has seemed of 
but little practical importance. Yet everyone, 
of the least experience in this matter, knows 
thai many trees, where budding had been nog- 
|i 1 ti 'I 'pi- no ip 1 ' fully performed, mighl be 
saved and rendered valuableif grafting could be 
performed with succc -. 

1 am aware that Dr. Page, of Washington, 
published and copyrighted about a year OgO.fl 
method of grafting the pencb, for which he 
claimed success, equal to that attending ordi- 
nary grafting. His plan consisted in checking 
Ihe'gi'iwth of the tree simultaneously with graf- 
ting, by transplanting or root pruning. 

I In plan given below is more simple, and 
from limited experience I should think more 
in 1 p-.-1'nl. 

It consists in grafting early, as for other 
stone fruits, in the tnanneroftnee Deleft 

The side treams air to be waxed in the usual 

manner, the dutlJUlat, and the end of the stub 
covered with inirm or melted composition. — 
The whole is then to be wound with composi- 
tion cloth, to prevent curling of the bark. 

That this plan will succeed, is a demonstrat- 
ed fact, bul iu how great a proportion of cases, 
experience is too limited to determine. Suf- 
Bce it to say, that eight scions set iu different 
branches of the same tree, all lived and grew 
with astonishing rapidity. Will others give 
this plan a trial and report the result. 0. C. 
Gibbs, M. D ., Perry, Ohio.— Country Gent. 
»■♦■» ' 

Cultivating" Orchards. — Mr. H. B. Childs, 
of Grand Rapids, informs us that he has a 
young thrifty orchard, a part of which is in 
clover; und il part he plowed and planted to 
corn, and plowed as close to the trees us he 
could without injuring them cm that part planu 
ed to com. On the clover part he spaded un- 
der the trees sls far around sis the brunches ex- 
tended. Now the result of this experiment is 
that the trees in that part ' of the orchard 
plowed and planted, ninde a much more rapid 
growth than the part in clover; the difference 
is plainly discernible to tic pa-er-bv. From 
this experiment he has concluded that a young 
Orchard .should not be seeded down, mid our 
opinion corroborates bis, judging fr,,m our 
own experience in such operations. — Mich. Fa r. 
. . • « 

Tm; Hox.Jamks, Coshocton, Ohio, 
slates in tl,.- Horticulturist, that among the 
pears he considers the best, and what he has 
fruited this year, wen- the Madeleine, Bcurre 
Giflard, Ott, Doyenne de Etc, Bartlelt, Urba- 
niste, Heathcote", Seckel, and Louise Bonne de 

Mechanic %xto, fa.